Research Design: In What Ways To Celebrities Have An Influence On Voter Turnout? Essay Example For College


In Political Science, elections and voter turnout are major topics of discussion that are heavily researched. Elections in the United States, help make up our democracy. Our democratic government depends on the involvement of qualified individuals to vote to grant representation to its citizens. Voting is very important in a democratic government because it gives people the chance to voice their opinions and select candidates whom they feel best represents their ideals and beliefs. Our beliefs and ideals are molded with maturity and can sometimes be influenced by other sources (media, celebrities, family, athletes, cartoons, and even past elections). This research design will investigate the question, “In what ways do celebrities have an influence on voter turnout”? The issue that will be studied is whether celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on voter turnout in elections in the United States.

This research is important for the public because it will help determine if there is a correlation between celebrity influence and endorsements and an increase or decrease in voter turnout. Presidential elections in the United States are the most publicized elections of any kind; it is very important to find for future campaigns in there is any significance between celebrity influence and voter turnout by comparing past elections, the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections, so that it may guide researchers for future elections.

Literature Review


Endorsements play a big part in elections. An endorsement involves the act of giving public approval to a political candidate. In presidential Elections, celebrity endorsements can be used as platforms to voice political issues and increase voter turnout for their party. A celebrity is defined as (Morin, Ivory, and Tubbs 2012) as a person who is well known, or a person who lives in the state of being famous. The effects of endorser credibility can lead to explanations on voter perceptions and help better understand voter behavior. This paper will further investigate the comparative analysis between celebrity influence and endorsements during the Democratic and Republican party 2008 and 2012 presidential campaigns. This paper will help support the thesis that a celebrity endorsement will increase voter turnout in presidential elections.


This paper will explore the question, “In what ways do celebrities have an influence on voter turnout?”. I chose the 2008 and 2012 because there were high amounts of celebrity endorsements and public support given during both election terms, and first-time voter turnout was at its highest. The journal/ articles titled” Star power? Advocacy, receptivity, and viewpoints on celebrity involvement in issue politics” and “The Role of Celebrity Endorsements in Politics: Oprah, Obama, and the 2008 Democratic Primary” grant evidence into how celebrities publicly addressing their political viewpoints can result in higher voter turnout. “Star Power…” conducted an empirical investigation involving how celebrities carefully choose which issues they plan to voice their opinion on. The investigation showed that the lesser the political issue was, the more the issue was voice. In connection to “The Role of Celebrity Endorsements…”, it involved internationally known celebrity Oprah Winfrey influenced Barack Obama’s campaign through her talk show, online magazine, and subscriptions.

Oprah Winfrey is a celebrity who uses her voice in the media to change public opinion. Winfrey was able to show her influence when she became involved in the 2008 presidential campaign. This was not her first campaign that she decided to endorse. The article (“Star Power…”) discusses how Winfrey led a campaign in the early 1990’s to establish a database of convicted child abusers. Winfrey used her platform to gain worldwide attention to the cause. In 1993, President Bill Clinton signed the Oprah Bill into law, this established Oprah Winfrey’s credibility as a celebrity. Credibility as a celebrity is very important. If majority public opinion about a celebrity is negative, in terms of campaigns, it may not be the best route to accept that celebrity endorsement. If majority public opinion is positive, then the candidate should be more willing to accept the endorsement from the celebrity.

Commercial endorsements play a huge role into how a candidate is viewed (Nownes 2012). Commercials allow celebrities to use their notoriety to “sell” the candidate to their audience. Because celebrities have such an influence on the public, celebrities might need to be careful what they choose to promote. Celebrities must be cautious, because who or whatever they choose to promote can generate lots of attention, and people will either stand with you, or against you. Depending on how sensitive the topic is, can determine how strongly people will react to it. Sensitive topics usually get more commercial time and address harder subjects. Commercials are a great way to gain support for an issue, or a candidate. In the article, “An experimental investigation of the effects of celebrity support for political parties in the United States.” a study was conducted involving 500 people, involving movie star Angelina Jolie advocating for first time voters to vote in the upcoming presidential campaign. It incorporated many of the values that the liberal party supports, (same-sex marriage, abortion rights, less police force, more gun control, etc.) voicing briefly how she felt about these issues.

The article in connection to the other journals wanted to investigate how star- power and the credibility of a celebrity, regardless of sex or gender (Morin, Ivory, and Tubbs 2012) (Nownes 2012) helped create the Presidential candidate’s “brand” for people to relate too. It showed that if you were in support or connected to those issues, you were more likely to vote for that candidate. Commercials help excite voters and inform voters on what candidate they are voting. The limitations found in the articles and journals were that in the counter arguments, there was barely any explanation on how candidates handled situations if the commercial had a negative impact.

Voter Turnout

Voter turnout is a very relevant topic to research in Political Science because there is so many different factors that can influence it during elections. This section is included to discuss some of the other determinants that the articles and journals consider during investigation. In the journal titled, “Political star power and political parties: Does celebrity endorsement win first-time votes?”, discussed if a celebrity endorsement brought out first-time voters, while also assessing if the influence was greater for Republican or Democratic parties (Wood 2007). Each source took into consideration the number of eligible citizens able to vote in the Presidential Elections. As a result, the sources all showed that there was a positive correlation in their studies between celebrities voicing their support, and voter turnout. In presidential campaign studies, some journals confuse eligibility with total adult population. In the United States, Age (18) and citizenship status are the criteria that determine a person’s voting rights. Barriers that can block a person from voting in elections are felons, people without ID, residents of U.S. territories, resident non-citizens (Wood 2017).

The sources also discuss some of the determinants and demographics that also influence voter turnout in their investigations. “Celebrity and politics…” discussed how habit is a determinant of voter turnout. A strong predictor that candidates and researchers take into consideration is whether a person voted in the previous election (Morin, Ivory, and Tubbs 2012). This article also discussed how childhood influences could also influence how a person views a candidate, which in terms could their willingness to vote. “Political star and political parties…” brought into consideration how some individuals’ socioeconomic status can influence their perception of a candidate and their knowledge of voting in general.

Other socioeconomic factors can have also had a major impact on voter turnout, along with celebrity endorsements. The socioeconomic factor that many researchers focus on is education. Articles such as these support the hypothesis that the more “educated” a person a is, the more likely they are to vote in an election. Another way to look it is, the more access a person has to education, the more willing they will be to vote. Other socioeconomic factors that are also determinants are income and class status. Researchers may argue that sex and gender play a factor into whether will vote or not. In the sources, it was investigated whether sex and gender influenced voter perception, which also leads to an explanation that it is unlikely that sex and gender is a strong determinant. (Wood and Herbst 2007) (Morin Ivory and Tubbs 2012) It is important to talk about these other factors when conducting research so that we do not look at the results through a straight tunnel. There are many factors that determine or influence whether an individual will be more likely to vote, but for this investigation only one variable will be focused on: celebrity endorsements.


These studies give valuable information to support the thesis of this paper. After looking at previous investigations, it is apparent that celebrities are a factor, among others that influence voter turnout. The sources provided a connection between celebrity endorsements and voter turnout rates. This study will be different from the previous studies discussed because it will look deeper into how celebrity endorsements can influence voter turnout, rather than focusing on how specific celebrities affect voter turnout. This will help determine how strong or weak the correlation between the variables is. This study will contribute to the Political Science field, by adding to existing knowledge, through asking questionnaires and investigating, and by tackling this issue by using a different approach and method.


The 2008 and 2012 Presidential Elections were heavily broadcasted. Celebrities from both conservative and liberal parties spoke out and endorsed the candidate of his or her choice. Celebrity endorsements have a positive correlation with voter turnout. Elections in which candidates are given celebrity endorsements will have a higher turnout rate.

I hypothesize that the following will happen after conducting the research design:

(H1) Celebrities will have a strong influence on voter turnout.

(H2) Celebrities will increase voter turnout.

(H3) Celebrity endorsers will be more favorable by voters, non-celebrity endorsers, given their likeable status.

(H4) Voters who have high levels of political salience will report will have a positive attitude towards the celebrities presented, towards the endorser’s values and opinions, towards the party identified with, and voter intentions when a non-celebrity endorser is used.

(H5) Voters who have high levels of political salience will report will have a negative attitude towards the celebrities presented, towards the endorser’s values and opinions, towards the party identified with, and voter intentions when a non-celebrity endorser is used.

Design & Methodology

The research question is: “In what ways do celebrities have an influence on voter turnout”? A more detailed version of the research question is: In what ways do celebrity endorsements have an influence on voter turnout? The dependent variable for this experiment is the celebrity endorsements that the celebrities received during the 2008 and 2012 Presidential Elections. This experiment was limited to only two presidential elections, to make it easier to gather data for this research experiment. The independent variable for this experiment is voter turnout during the two presidential elections.

Participants will be randomly gathered via email. Participants will be asked to read 3 articles, all the same length about voting and voter turnout. Participants will complete a series of surveys related to celebrity endorsers, ads, and candidates. This procedure will be done in a private online screening (once they click on the private link sent, the option to opt of the survey at any time will be given) and should take no longer than 30-45 minutes to complete.

This design is mixed methodology, it includes both qualitative and quantitative methods. The design/ methodology used for this experiment is a 2 (political salience; high; low) x 2 (endorser; celebrity; non-celebrity) between subject’s factorial design. In this case salience is defined as most noticeable or important (Fraenkel 1993). This concept is often used in political science to list important factors of political socialization which may influence one’s political ideology or values. They are typically listed as: family, peers, education, religion, faith, race, gender, age, and geography (Moeller 2014). A factorial design was chosen because it is a design that includes 2 independent variables, and one dependent variable. The result that I expect to gain from this design is an interaction. In factorial designs when an interaction occurs, the two factors have interacted with each other to affect the dependent variable (Fraenkel 1993). This can be studied in terms of high and low, which can be recorded on whether there is a high or low impact between the variables. A factorial design is the best route to gather information for this experiment. To continue, manipulated questionnaires will be given out randomly via email, and was restricted to U.S. citizens who were eligible to vote during the 2008 and 2012 Presidential Elections. Responses from hopefully at least 100,000 people should be collected from adults who are eligible. Good places to ask these questionnaires should be the public library, or other quiet places to control outside environment influence in this controlled experiment. To avoid discrepancies, each answer in the questionnaire should be carefully examined.

To choose correct endorsers for this experiment for participants to examine, I plan to ask University students and faculty to participate in a pre-test analysis. Participants will be asked to rate pictures from 30 different celebrities’ Instagram pages. Each participant will be asked to identify the name of the celebrity shown on screen (without any help from the internet of course). Celebrities that are not recognized will be removed and will not progress to the experiment. The purpose of this is to get a pre-analysis of ratings of what celebrities’ participants think would most like endorse political campaigns. Celebrities with the highest ratings will make it to the experiment. For the next part of the experiment, non- celebrity endorsers will also be chosen to match the photos of the celebrity endorsers. Fake campaign ads will also be created in a slideshow of celebrity ads with the slogan, “I voted, did you”? One ad will be presented in a liberal way, the other in a conservative to compare the differences between the two designs.

For this experiment, to determine which factor of political socialization was more salient than others, 3 articles will be created in equal length that discuss poor voter turnout in previous elections and will also discuss the importance of voting. A Likert scale (1= strongly disagree, 5= strongly agree) survey will be given before the article shows up on the computer screen, and afterwards to measure the participants feelings for politics and voting. These two tests are important to measure the significance of how participants feel about voting and politics in general. These results will be a major determinant in the factorial design, because those participants who show a high political salience have high knowledge of politics and the voting process, those with low political salience, will show that voting is not important to them as a citizen. A T-test will also be conducted in a regression analysis to determine which among the independent variables is related to the dependent variable, and to determine whether the relationship is strong or weak.

Another Likert scale survey will be given to participants to measure their attitudes towards the endorser. Questions such as: was the ad believable or non- believable? Did it persuade you to vote? Did it change your views on the candidate? Did it change your views on the party? This information will be important to gather information for the hypothesis.

The results will show that participants with low political salience will be significantly more likely to vote for the political party when a celebrity endorser is used, and the inverse effect for those with a high political salience. This is important to research, to find out whether other major factors, such as common knowledge about voter turnout and politics, have significance when it comes to voter turnout in major elections. Celebrity endorsements will have a significant impact on voter turnout depending on the participants’ initial political knowledge. The regression analysis results will determine if the hypothesis for this design is valid or invalid.

Further examination in future elections would make this experiment more reliable. Other limitations include the celebrities chosen. Is there effectiveness affected by other factors such as geography or age demographics as well? One major factor that should be investigated is voter apathy- the lack of caring of voting in general elections (Salamon 1973). A limitation or counterargument for this experiment could be that instead non-turnout being due to lack of political interest, it could be due to lack of interest in the parties or members running for election instead, which was not taken into consideration for this experiment


This study should be conducted because will be a beneficial addition to previous studies conducted on voter turnout and celebrity influence. Voting is the core of a democracy. The methods for this design were determined the best route for the results gained. This investigation tried to remove any personal biases from the research design. This study can help future candidates in their campaigns and make voters more aware of how celebrities and media can influence their decisions. This study fits within broader scholarship about dealing with the public problem of voter turnout and may possibly provide a resolution for future elections and campaigns. This is a relevant research proposal, because in past elections, we saw how celebrities, both conservative and liberal influenced voters to come about and voice their opinions.

Literature Review References

Becker, Amy B. “Star power? Advocacy, receptivity, and viewpoints on celebrity involvement in issue politics.” Atlantic journal of communication 21.1 (2013): 1-16.

Garthwaite, Craig, and Tim Moore. “The role of celebrity endorsements in politics: Oprah, Obama, and the 2008 democratic primary.” Department of Economics, University of Maryland (2008): 1-59.

Morin, David T., James D. Ivory, and Meghan Tubbs. “Celebrity and politics: Effects of endorser credibility and sex on voter attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors.” The social science journal 49.4 (2012): 413-420.

Nownes, Anthony J. “An experimental investigation of the effects of celebrity support for political parties in the United States.” American politics research 40.3 (2012): 476-500.

Wood, Natalie T., and Kenneth C. Herbst. “Political star power and political parties: Does celebrity endorsement win first-time votes?” Journal of Political Marketing 6.2-3 (2007): 141-158.

Works Cited

Fraenkel, Jack R., Norman E. Wallen, and Helen H. Hyun. How to design and evaluate research in education. Vol. 7. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.

Moeller, Judith, et al. “Pathway to political participation: The influence of online and offline news media on internal efficacy and turnout of first-time voters.” American Behavioral Scientist 58.5 (2014): 689-700.

Salamon, Lester M., and Stephen Van Evera. “Fear, apathy, and discrimination: A test of three explanations of political participation.” American Political Science Review 67.4 (1973): 1288-1306.

Domestic Violence Homicide Sample Essay


Domestic Violence Homicide is any murder that occurs between intimate partners. It is a gendered crime since it involves both men and women victims. Each person should receive support in handling domestic abuse (Kim and Merlo, 2021). Women are more vulnerable to experiencing violence emotional, physical, psychological, sexual, or violence, which: results in injury or death. Some areas should be considered in tackling domestic violence homicide. The areas include domestic violence homicide challenges, the prevalence and impact of the violence, the history of homicide data, the eight-stage homicide timelines, Femicide Census Analysis of men’s homicides and the risk assessment of domestic violence.

Domestic Violence Homicide Challenges

In some countries, the number of reported domestic violence homicides exceeds the number of stranger homicides. Many factors influence how frequently domestic violence homicide occurs. These include the social, economic and political state of that country, as well as the gender, age and race of the perpetrator and the victim. Most domestic violence homicides happen at night when victims are alone in their homes. In these cases, the victims were typically killed with lethal weapons or further injuries (Ertl et al., 2019).

In comparison to other forms of homicide, these incidents are often fatal due to both the weapon used and additional injuries. Weapons commonly used in domestic violence homicides include knives, guns, and clubs. In many cases, these are used to cause internal injuries or cause death from blood loss (Jones et al., 2022). Other common tactics include strangulation or burning the deceased body after death. Due to these tactics, it is difficult to determine whether a man or a woman committed a homicide. Some of these deaths are homicides, which are caused by intentional actions.

Homicides due to domestic violence happen most often at night. It makes it difficult to investigate these incidents. Some of the victims are usually asleep when the incident occurs. In addition, people may not report incidents since they do not want to lose a relationship or be embarrassed by their abuser. It means few incidents get reported and investigated. As a result, few perpetrators are caught and punished for abusing people. One major challenge in addressing domestic homicide violence is that it often goes unreported. Many victims are afraid to speak out or seek help due to fear of retribution from their abuser or because they may feel ashamed or embarrassed. It makes it difficult for law enforcement and other organisations to intervene and support victims. Another challenge is the lack of resources and support for victims of domestic homicide violence. Many victims do not have access to legal, financial, or emotional support, making it difficult for them to leave abusive relationships or seek help. It can also make it more difficult for them to rebuild their lives after experiencing abuse.

Prevalence and Impact Context

Domestic homicide violence, also known as intimate partner violence or domestic violence, is a severe public health issue that affects individuals of all genders, ages, sexual orientations, and socioeconomic backgrounds (Velopulos, 2019, p 331-336). It is characterised by using physical, sexual, or emotional abuse by one partner in an intimate relationship to gain power and control over the other partner. Domestic homicide violence is a widespread problem that affects millions of people around the world. According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), one in three women and one in four men have experienced physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner at some point in their lives. The prevalence of domestic violence varies by country, with some countries reporting higher rates of domestic homicide violence than others.

Domestic homicide violence can have severe consequences for victims’ physical and mental health and overall well-being. It can lead to injuries, disability, and even death. It can also have long-term effects on mental health, including depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Domestic homicide violence can also negatively impact children who witness or experience it, as it can lead to developmental delays, behavioural problems, and other adverse outcomes (Chin and Cunningham, 2019). In addition to the impact on individuals, domestic homicide violence can also have societal consequences, such as increased healthcare costs, lost productivity, and negative economic impacts. Society needs to address domestic homicide violence and support victims to prevent and reduce its occurrence and adverse impacts on individuals and society.

History of Homicide Data

In the early 19th century, the murder rate in England and Wales was relatively high, with a peak of around four per 100,000 people in the 1810s (Rivero et al., 2022, pp.1-27). This was a time of significant social and economic upheaval, with many people living in poverty and facing difficult working conditions. High levels of drunkenness and the prevalence of knives as a weapon also contributed to the high murder rate. The murder rate began to decline in the mid-19th century, and by the turn of the 20th century it had dropped to around one per 100,000 people. This decline was likely due to a number of factors, including improvements in living conditions and a decrease in the number of people carrying knives. The murder rate remained relatively stable throughout the first half of the 20th century, but began to rise again in the 1960s and 1970s. This was a period of social and political turmoil in the UK, with high levels of crime and public disorder. The murder rate peaked at around 2.5 per 100,000 people in the early 1980s. Since then, the murder rate in the UK has decreased significantly, and currently sits around 1 per 100,000 people. This decline has been attributed to a number of factors, including improved policing, changes in sentencing, and improvements in the economy.

In the UK, a significant proportion of homicides are committed in the context of domestic violence. According to the Office for National Statistics (ONS), in the year ending March 2020, about 35 percent of female victims and nine percent of male victims of homicide were killed by a partner or ex-partner. Domestic violence is a serious issue in the UK and globally, and it is estimated that one in four women and one in six men will experience some form of domestic abuse in their lifetime. The National Domestic Abuse Helpline provides support to those who have experienced or are currently experiencing domestic abuse, and there are a number of other organisations that also offer help and support (Stripe, 2020). Gender-based crimes are also a concern in the UK. According to the ONS, in the year ending March 2020, a total of 77 percent of homicide victims were male, and 23 percent were female. The majority of male victims of homicide were killed by someone they knew either a friend, acquaintance, or family member, while female victims were more likely to be killed by a partner or ex-partner. The ONS is the main source for data and statistics on homicides in the UK. They release a yearly report on crime and criminal justice statistics which includes data on homicides. You can also find information on gender-based crimes, including domestic violence, through the Home Office and the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) which also releases data and statistics on these topics, and their policies towards them.

Eight-Stage Homicide Timelines

There has been a rise in domestic abuse homicides globally, which has contributed to observed timelines that lead to homicide timelines abuse. On the safe planning and risk assessment approach, there is eight steps timeline that consistently introduces domestic violence homicide Smith (2022, pp.239-252). The timeline stages are included as follows: One is the pre-relationship perpetrator and stalking history. This occurs when partners leave their abusive partners. It results in emotional and psychological abuse and fear of future relationships even after the relationship. The second one is the growth of the romance into a serious relationship. The similar influences of interests, routines, and hobbies cause this. The third one is the relationship compelled by violence and bullying. This is where the perpetrator dominates the relationship through controlling behaviours, making it hard for their partner to leave, which can lead to physical abuse. The fourth one is that the perpetrator’s control becomes endangered. This happens when the relationship terminates due to financial difficulty. The fifth one is the rise in the partner’s dominance tactics—the partner’s intensity of control increases such that they will stalk or threaten suicide. The sixth stage is the change in thoughts by the perpetrator. The partner starts to revenge or assassinates as their strategy of moving on. The seventh stage is when the partner gets to a planning period. This is where the partner plans to purchase weapons or even find ways to get hold of their partner. They are ready to go the extra mile to get the victim alone. The last stage is homicide. The perpetrator kills their partner and can even go to the extent of harming the victims’ families and children.

Femicide Census Analysis to Men Homicides

Femicide, also known as gender-based violence against women, is a specific type directed against women because of their gender. In the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics (ONS) collects and publishes data on homicides, including information on the victims and perpetrators of these crimes (Chantler et al., 2020, pp. 485-493). However, it does not specifically track or report on femicides. There are some organisations that has conducted research on the issue of femicide in the UK, such as the Femicide Census, an initiative by the charity Women’s Aid, which aims to document and analyse all cases of femicide in England and Wales in order to better understand and prevent this type of gender-based violence. They have published several reports which you can find on their website. Their analysis of the data shows that in the years between 2009-2019, two thirds of all female homicides in England and Wales were committed by a current or former partner, and one in four femicides were committed by a man who also killed other people, usually children, family members or other women.

It’s worth noting that while the research by the Femicide Census is informative, it is not official and the data is not an exhaustive study of femicide in the UK, rather it aims to serve as a source of information and evidence on the scale and nature of femicide in the country (Weil, 2020, pp.110-112). In addition, men are also victims of homicide, and like female victims, majority of the cases are committed by someone they know, and can be related to issues such as violence, crime and disputes. Overall, it is important for both femicide and male homicide to be thoroughly investigated and understood, so that effective measures can be taken to prevent these crimes from happening in the future.

Risk Assessment

In the context of domestic homicide violence, risk assessment involves identifying and evaluating factors that may increase the likelihood of violence occurring within a particular relationship. Several risk factors have been identified as being associated with an increased risk of domestic homicide violence. A history of violence or abuse in the relationship, that is, past violence or abuse, is a strong predictor of future violence (López-Ossorio et al. 2021, p47-55). Substance abuse and hefty alcohol use can increase the risk of homicide and violence. Economic stress can also increase the risk of violence, mainly if one partner is dependent on the other for financial support. Lack of social support means people who lack a supportive network of family and friends may be at greater risk of experiencing violence. Stalking or obsessive behaviours such as stalking or obsessive behaviour can be red flags for potential violence. Additionally, access to weapons, particularly firearms, can increase the risk of lethal violence (Graham et al. 2021, p18-40). It is important to note that risk assessment is not a perfect science and cannot predict with certainty whether violence will occur. However, understanding the risk factors associated with domestic homicide violence can help individuals and organisations take steps to prevent violence and protect those at risk.


‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‌‌‌‌‍‌‌ Domestic Homicide refers to acts of violence, including murder, that occur within the home or domestic setting, often perpetrated by a current or former intimate partner. Domestic violence can take many forms, including physical, emotional, financial, and sexual abuse. It can have severe and long-lasting consequences for victims, their families, and their communities. Risk assessment in domestic homicide violence entails identifying and evaluating factors that may increase the likelihood of violence occurring within a particular relationship. There are timelines that may contribute to homicide timelines abuse. Social, economic and political state of that country can dictate the prevalence and challenges of domestic violence homicide. Domestic homicide violence is a widespread problem that affects millions of people around the world. The Office for National Statistics records significant proportion of homicides in the context of domestic violence.


Chin, Y.M. and Cunningham, S., 2019. Revisiting the effect of warrantless domestic violence arrest laws on intimate partner homicides. Journal of Public Economics, 179, p.104072.

Ertl, A., Sheats, K.J., Petrosky, E., Betz, C.J., Yuan, K. and Fowler, K.A., 2019. Surveillance for violent deaths—national violent death reporting system, 32 states, 2016. MMWR surveillance Summaries, 68(9), p.1.

Graham, L.M., Sahay, K.M., Rizo, C.F., Messing, J.T. and Macy, R.J., 2021. The validity and reliability of available intimate partner homicide and reassault risk assessment tools: A systematic review. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 22(1), pp.18-40.

Jones, C., Bracewell, K., Clegg, A., Stanley, N. and Chantler, K., 2022. Domestic homicide review committees’ recommendations and impacts: a systematic review. Homicide Studies, p.10887679221081788.

Kim, B. and Merlo, A.V., 2021. Domestic homicide: a synthesis of systematic review evidence. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, p.15248380211043812.

López-Ossorio, J.J., González-Álvarez, J.L., Loinaz, I., Martínez-Martínez, A. and Pineda, D., 2021. Intimate partner homicide risk assessment by police in Spain: The Dual Protocol VPR5. 0-H. Psychosocial intervention, 30(1), pp.47-55.

Smith, J.M., 2022. A forensic approach to intimate partner homicide. Current Practice in Forensic Medicine, 3, pp.239-252.

Velopulos, C.G., Carmichael, H., Zakrison, T.L. and Crandall, M., 2019. Comparison of male and female victims of intimate partner homicide and bidirectionality—an analysis of the national violent death reporting system. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 87(2), pp.331-336

Chantler, K., Robbins, R., Baker, V. and Stanley, N., 2020. Learning from domestic homicide reviews in England and Wales. Health & Social Care in the Community28(2), pp.485-493.

Weil, S., 2020. Two global pandemics: femicide and COVID-19. Trauma and Memory8(2), pp.110-112.

Rivero-Cantillano, R., Llorca-Jana, M., Clarke, D., Rivas, J., Quezada, D. and Allende, M., 2022. Interpersonal Violence in Chile, c. 1880s–2010s: A Tale of Delayed but Successful Convergence. Social Science History, pp.1-27.

Stripe, N., 2020. Domestic abuse during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, England and Wales: November 2020. Office for National Statistics25.

Early Childhood Education Free Sample


Early childhood education (ECE) is an integral part of a child’s educational development and is an important factor in their future success in school. In Hong Kong and China, social changes have greatly impacted the development of ECE, leading to changes in the admission arrangements of kindergartens and ECE programs (Wong, & Rao, 2022). This report will discuss the social changes which have affected the development of ECE in Hong Kong and China and evaluate the impacts of these changes on the admission arrangements of kindergartens and ECE programs. I will also discuss the appropriateness of the arrangements stated in Education Bureau circulars No.119/2021, No.17/2022 and No.80/2022.

Social Changes Affecting the Development of ECE in Hong Kong/China

A video clip from YouTube, “經緯線-幼稚園寒冬 2022 年 8 月 15 日”, highlights the social changes which have had a significant impact on the development of ECE in Hong Kong and China. The following three social circumstances will be discussed in detail.

First, the high cost of living in Hong Kong has made it difficult for parents to afford the fees for ECE programs. The rising costs of rent, food, and other necessities have caused a decrease in disposable income for many families. As a result, more parents have been forced to seek cheaper alternatives to ECE programs, such as informal childcare from family members or low-cost neighbourhood daycare centres. This has led to a decrease in enrollment in formal ECE programs and an increase in the number of children being cared for informally.

The ageing population in Hong Kong and China is a major challenge for the childcare industry. With fewer young people entering the childcare industry, there is a shortage of qualified and experienced childcare workers. This has led to an increase in the cost of childcare, as well as a decrease in the quality of care. Many childcare centres and ECE programs have been forced to cut back on their staff, leading to overcrowding and a lack of adequate supervision. This can directly impact the quality of care and the safety of children, as well as the educational quality and effectiveness of the program. Additionally, a decrease in the number of childcare workers also increases the workload for those who remain, leading to increased stress and burnout. As the population continues to age, the need for qualified and experienced childcare workers will only increase.

The rise in unemployment in both Hong Kong and China has significantly impacted parents’ ability to finance their children’s education. With fewer parents able to work and provide financial support, there has been a dramatic decrease in the number of parents able to afford Early Childhood Education (ECE) programs. This is especially true for single-parent households, as they may need an additional source of income to help cover the cost of their children’s education. Additionally, the current economic climate has made it difficult for parents to find new employment or receive financial assistance from government programs.

Impacts on Admission Arrangement of ECE in Hong Kong

The social changes discussed above have significantly impacted the admission arrangements of ECE in Hong Kong. Firstly, the high cost of living has decreased enrollment in formal ECE programs as more parents seek cheaper alternatives to ECE programs (Hughes, & Briant, 2022). This has caused a decrease in the number of children enrolled in ECE programs, leading to an increase in competition for places. Secondly, the shortage of qualified and experienced childcare workers has caused a decrease in the quality of care available in ECE programs. This has caused a decrease in the number of parents willing to send their children to ECE programs, as they are concerned about the quality of care available. Thirdly, the rise in unemployment has caused a decrease in the number of parents who can afford to send their children to ECE programs, leading to an increase in the number of children who cannot access ECE programs.

Justification of Education Bureau Measurements

The Education Bureau has taken several measures in response to the changing social landscape to make Early Childhood Education (ECE) programs more accessible and affordable to parents. Circular No.119/2021 has outlined a range of initiatives to reduce the cost of ECE programs, including increasing the number of subsidies available, increasing the number of places available within ECE programs, and providing additional financial assistance to low-income families. These measures will make ECE programs more financially viable for parents and ensure that all children have access to quality early education.

Circular No.17/2022 has also taken steps to improve the quality of care available in ECE programs. This includes increasing the number of qualified staff, providing additional training, and introducing a quality assurance system to ensure that the programs meet the necessary standards of care. These measures will ensure that all children receive the highest quality of care in ECE programs and that their safety and well-being are always prioritized.

Finally, circular No.80/2022 has introduced measures to increase the number of parents who are able to access ECE programs. This includes increasing the number of subsidies available and providing additional financial assistance to low-income families. This will help to reduce the financial burden of ECE programs and ensure that all children have access to quality early education, regardless of their family’s financial situation.

The Education Bureau’s measures are a positive step towards ensuring that all children have access to quality early education and that the care available in ECE programs is of a high standard. These measures will ensure that all children have access to the best possible start in life and will help to reduce the financial burden of ECE programs for parents. It is important that these measures are implemented effectively and that all children are able to benefit from them. The Education Bureau should also continue to monitor the effectiveness of these measures and make any necessary changes to ensure that all children can access quality early education.

These measures are appropriate for responding to the social changes discussed above, as they address the issues of cost, quality, and accessibility. By reducing the cost of ECE programs and increasing the number of subsidized places available, the Education Bureau is making ECE programs more accessible to parents. By improving the quality of care available in ECE programs and providing additional financial assistance to low-income families, the Education Bureau is making ECE programs more attractive to parents. Finally, by increasing the number of subsidies available and providing additional financial assistance to low-income families, the Education Bureau is making ECE programs more accessible to parents who are unable to afford to send their children to ECE programs.


This report has discussed the social changes which have affected the development of ECE in Hong Kong and China and evaluated the impacts of these changes on the admission arrangements of kindergartens and ECE programs. It has also discussed the appropriateness of the arrangements stated in Education Bureau circulars No.119/2021, No.17/2022 and No.80/2022 in responding to the social changes. The report concludes that the measures taken by the Education Bureau are appropriate for responding to the social changes, as they address the issues of cost, quality, and accessibility.


Wong, J. M. S., & Rao, N. (2022). Pursuing quality in early childhood education with a government-regulated voucher: Views of parents and service providers in Hong Kong. Journal of Education Policy37(1), 39-68.

Hughes, B., & Briant, E. (2022). Mount Isa Early Childhood Education Final Report.

【經緯線】幼稚園寒冬. (n.d.). Retrieved December 7, 2022, from