Research Essay On Teachers’ Implicit Personality Theories About The Gifted And The Five Personality Theory Essay Example

Baudson and Preckel (2013) set out to examine the preconceptions educators have about the personalities of gifted students to better serve their needs. Implicit personality theories refer to the beliefs that individuals hold about the characteristics, abilities, and behaviors of different types of people. These assumptions shape people’s behavior and interactions with others, often without them even realizing it (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). The purpose of the study was to determine if educators’ implicit personality theories about gifted students influenced their classroom attitudes and actions. They theorized that educators who held positive implicit attitudes toward gifted students would give those students more rigorous and relevant coursework. The researchers tested their hypothesis with 119 German educators from a range of educational settings (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). The educators were split into two groups, one with a positive expectancy and the other with a negative one. Teachers in the positive expectancy group were given a profile of a gifted student that focused on the student’s strengths, such as intelligence and creativity. Teachers in the “negative expectancy” condition read about a gifted student who had difficulties interacting with others and dealing with emotional issues.

A total of 119 teachers from a wide range of German schools took part in the study. The average age of the teachers in the sample was 43. There were 62% women and 38% men. There was a wide range of teaching experience among the staff, with 31% having fewer than 10 years of experience, 30% between 10 and 20 years, and 39% with more than 20 years (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). General education (68%), gifted education (10%), and vocational education (22%) schools were all represented among the participants. Eighty-five percent of the teachers had worked with gifted students before, and another 66 percent had completed training specifically related to working with this population. Teachers had to fit a certain profile to take part in the study (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). First, they needed to work in a school that provided services or programs for gifted students. Second, they had to have prior experience working with academically advanced students. Finally, they needed to be able to read and understand German, as this was the study’s official language.

An effective experimental methodology was used to probe educators’ unstated assumptions about gifted students’ personalities. Researchers were able to investigate what influences teachers’ assessments of students’ personalities by using a within-subjects design and varying the independent variables (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). Teachers’ explicit beliefs about giftedness were also measured thanks to the questionnaire. Three independent variables were tested in this study using a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design: giftedness (gifted vs. average), gender (male vs. female), and achievement (high vs. low). The teachers’ assessments of the student’s personalities served as the dependent variable. The researchers began by writing four vignettes, each of which detailed the experiences of a fictional student who was different from the others in terms of gender, academic ability, and giftedness (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). The student’s academic accomplishments, extracurricular activities, and interests were included in concise vignettes. Each participant provided ratings for all four vignettes, as the study used a within-subjects design. To avoid any potential order effects, the order of the vignettes was shuffled. Teachers were asked to evaluate their students along six dimensions of character: extroversion, agreeability, neuroticism, self-esteem, and openness to experience. The data was analyzed using a mixed-design ANOVA by the scientists (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). Ability was a within-subjects variable, while giftedness and gender were between-subjects variables. The researchers also ran supplementary analyses to determine the relative significance of the various independent variables. Researchers used both the vignettes and a questionnaire to gauge teachers’ explicit attitudes toward gifted students. Teachers’ conceptions of giftedness, the relative weight of various criteria for identifying gifted students, and their feelings about gifted education were all probed by the survey.

The teachers’ explicit beliefs about the characteristics of gifted students were also assessed by the researchers using a questionnaire. Teachers’ implicit theories of the personalities of gifted and average students were found to be distinct. The teachers consistently gave higher ratings to the gifted students, regardless of their actions, than they did to the average students (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). This finding indicates that educators have a preconceived notion that gifted students are superior to their less-talented peers. Teachers’ evaluations of students were also influenced by their explicit beliefs about the traits shared by gifted learners. Teachers who had more favorable attitudes toward gifted students gave those students higher ratings in areas such as intelligence, creativity, and social attractiveness.

Teachers’ implicit theories of gifted students’ personalities were affected by students’ gender and academic achievement, but not giftedness, the study found. In particular, female students were rated higher by teachers for conscientiousness and agreeability. Teachers also reported higher levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, and self-esteem among high achievers, and higher levels of neuroticism among low achievers (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). The study’s findings suggest that teachers do not have any particular implicit personality theories about giftedness, as there were no differences in their ratings of gifted and average students. The survey data, however, demonstrated that educators have some definite ideas about what it means to be gifted, such as the significance of high levels of academic achievement and motivation (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013). The results of the study as a whole suggest that teachers’ implicit theories of students’ personalities are influenced by demographic variables like gender and academic performance, but not necessarily by giftedness. As the findings show, teachers’ expectations and interactions with students can be influenced by their own implicit biases, making it crucial to account for them when evaluating and assisting students. The research also highlights the importance of educators considering how their own implicit biases about gifted learners may influence their instruction.

Teachers’ implicit theories of gifted students’ personalities, as explored by Baudson and Preckel (2013), have connections to the Five-Factor Trait Theory developed by McRae and Costa. Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism are the five dimensions of personality proposed by the Five-Factor Trait Theory. The results shed light on how these dimensions may be linked to educators’ unstated assumptions about gifted students’ personalities.

The Five-Factor Trait Theory includes “experience openness” as one of its factors. One’s openness to new information and experiences is what this trait measures. Teachers who score highly in openness to experience may be predisposed to hold favorable implicit beliefs about gifted students, given that they are more likely to be receptive to the possibility of noticing and appreciating the distinctive qualities of these students (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013).

Teachers’ unspoken assumptions about gifted students’ personalities may also be informed by the conscientiousness dimension of the Five-Factor Trait Theory. This dimension relates to the extent to which a person is organized, responsible, and dependable. Teachers with high levels of conscientiousness may have more realistic implicit beliefs about the abilities of gifted students and be more likely to give these students challenging and meaningful learning opportunities (Baudson, & Preckel, 2013).

The other three dimensions of the Five-Factor Trait Theory are extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Teachers’ interactions with gifted students may be influenced by these factors, even if they have no direct bearing on the teachers’ implicit personality theories about these students. Teachers high in extroversion, for instance, maybe more open to interacting with gifted students and giving them chances to work in groups. Teachers with a high level of agreeableness may be more likely to encourage and praise their gifted students. Finally, teachers who score low on the neuroticism scale may be better able to provide a nurturing learning environment for gifted students.

The Five-Factor Trait Theory developed by McRae and Costa is a helpful framework for analyzing the possible associations between teachers’ personality traits and their implicit personality theories regarding gifted students. According to the results, traits like openness to experience and conscientiousness from the Five-Factor Trait Theory may be especially important here. These connections and their potential effects on pedagogy could be investigated further in future studies.


Baudson, T. G., & Preckel, F. (2013). Teachers’ implicit personality theories about the gifted: An experimental approach. School Psychology Quarterly, 28(1), 37–46.

Silicon Valley Bank Accounting Case Study Free Essay


The accounting function is so critical in a work environment. If properly done, the books of account could be accurate, meaning any decision made from these books of accounts could be right. Even though internal standards are meant to control the practice of accounting, companies, and firms continue to fall and topple with bad accounting approaches. One such case has to be the Silicon Valley Bank. This is one of the latest that was closed on March 2023. One of the recent case studies has shown how a slight deviation in accounting can bring a bank down to its knees.

The collapse of Silicon Valley Bank has awakened much to do with accounting. It has symbolized that bad accounting and other bad management approaches can be as dangerous as possible. No one thought Silicon Valley Bank could be declared under receivership like it today. To put this into context, a bad approach to accounting has a role to play in this. If banks and other businesses do not follow what happened to SVB, the same trend could be seen in the future. This is why the International Financial Reporting Standards need to learn from the case of Silicon Valley Bank.

Other banking institutions and businesses must be encouraged to work around the recommended IFRS without deviation. Deviating from IFRS is what breeds chances of failure and misunderstanding. It was proved that Silicon Valley Bank should have recognized some losses in the books of account. Failure to recognize these losses meant the company had some figures overstated in its accounts. Overstatement of these figures was adding more injuries to the bleeding company. These misinformed decisions have led Silicon Valley Bank to where it is today.

Goals to understand in relation to Silicon Valley Bank Collapse

One of the goals is to understand the value of accounting reporting. Silicon Valley has been publishing many types of reporting in compliance with the International Standards of Financial Reporting. These are meant for different stakeholders and shareholders. Accounting reporting is major intended for investors and other shareholders. It is also intended for stakeholders like supplies, creditors, and executive management. Accounting reporting involves preparing all books of accounts. In these books of accounts, there is proper capturing of a company’s financial transactions for a certain period. Financial reporting is done internally, but for some forms of businesses, financial reporting is also done externally.

Financial reporting is majorly applicable to private companies. These do not disclose their financial details to the public domain. However, investors and key shareholders need to know their financial position even for such companies. This is why they are forced to have some organized financial reporting that keeps everyone in the know. In the case of public companies, they are required by law to share their financial records with members of the public. It is in the interest of these public companies to know about the financial affairs of such companies. This is because investors and shareholders are from the public domain.

This is a goal I have been able to attain. I have learned about financial reporting and its value to a business. Financial reporting is not there just for the sake of financial numbers. Instead, it is there for a company to build a reputation with shareholders and other stakeholders. Silicon Valley Bank’s collapse has destroyed the reputation of the management. They should have taken an active part in regulation and ascertained there is proper accounting practice. This is why some losses ended up being ignored in preparing books of accounts. If management was concerned with the bank’s reputation, they would have ensured there was no deviation from IFRS in recognition of losses (Hanno & Stern, 2019).

My second goal was to understand the need for a system that standardizes financial reporting worldwide. Financial reporting can be interpreted differently in a system without standards. The approach to the preparation of books of accounts could be a difficult one to understand. Different accounts could be using their preference to prepare books of account as they think is the best for their business and profession. This is why it is quite important to have standards that regulate how books of accounts are prepared. These are standards helping to regulate how accounts approach books of accounts worldwide.

This is a goal I have been able to achieve. From research on the case of the collapse of Silicon Valley Bank, I have learned the internal body that regulates the preparation of books of accounts if they came up with International Financial Reporting Standards. These are standards that have refined my understanding of a company’s financial position across the world. However, IFRS compliance was a mission at Silicon Valley Bank. Accountants for the bank were not acting with utmost good faith toward the interest of shareholders. They ended up ignoring crucial details like losses resulting in the bank to where it is today (Schroeder, Clark & Cathey, 2022).

When a firm has adopted IFRS in its financial reporting, it gains more traction and stability in its business. It becomes easy to attract foreign investors and venture capitalists. They feel safe committing their funds to a company that observes internal standards for preparing books of account. This research taught me that adopting IFRS is not inevitable if a company wants to expand outside its local boundaries. If Silicon Valley Bank had taken time to be fully compliant with IFRS, it could still be in business today. The bank has lost its business and market share and will be subjected to new management to get it into its shoes. People who had loans and deposits with the bank might experiment with some inconsistencies with transactions under the receivership (DeGeorge, Li & Shivakumar, 2020).

My third learning goal was related to contingency theory in Silicon Valley Bank accounting. Like any other business function, the accounting function is also faced with changing factors. These could be emanating from the internal environment or the external environment. An internal environment could change due to employee-related factors, inventory and other supply factors, and management, among others. External factors could be forces emanating from a change in international regulators of the business environment. Regardless of the force, contingency planning is equally important for accountants.

My quest for knowledge on contingency planning in accounting got me to a secondary resource discussing this topic in depth. Contingency planning theory has been around for the last couple of decades. It has been tried and tested in different fields of work. Its utilization in business space has been attributed to many benefits. This is why accountants tend to be interested in using it to enrich their accounting work. An account who knows how to use contingency theory in work is poisoned for survival. This is why businesses look for well-informed accountants on contingency planning matters. These can be relied upon in case of changes in the market and international business environment (Otley, 2016).

Culture is one crucial thing that accountants have to mind in their exercise of contingency theory. There is a culture that each organization has. The culture that is exercised in an organization dictates how things are done. The culture can also control how accountants carry out their mandate concerning their work. Even as they embrace IFRS, contingency theory, and the need for financial reporting, culture comes in first. Accountants in a business must handle their job a certain way concerning the culture of the company they are working for. This is the only way to ensure shareholders’ interests are always protected.

My fourth goal was to learn about corporate social responsibility. Companies and businesses overlook corporate social responsibility from small to large. They often forget that everyone in business has corporate social responsibility; in such an environment where businesses assume that only big companies should exercise corporate social responsibility, many business challenges manifest. Challenges are suffered by the business and the immediate environment where external stakeholders operate (Zaman & Rezaee, 2021).

Corporate responsibility is for every business to exercise. The size of a business does not dictate whether it should exercise corporate responsibility. Provided a business is dealing with given customers and other external stakeholders, this gives enough reason to exercise CSR. There are many ways a business can exercise corporate social responsibility. It could implement by giving back to society, employing members of the immediate community, or even protecting the environment. A company or business can exercise all these at once. This is evident with more established businesses and companies. Start-ups and other businesses of small size often exercise one of just a few of these CSR activities.

As my goal of learning about corporate social responsibility, it came to my motive that it is done for more than just the benefit of the community and external stakeholders. There are so many benefits that a firm gets just by the exercise of corporate social responsibility. For instance, one way to improve a company’s reputation is through CSR (Kelley, Hemphill & Thams, 2019). Consumers support a company that always exercises some CSR in the market. This is because they feel a company needs to be in the business of making money alone. Rather, they feel that a company is concerned about their well-being and welfare.

My last goal was to learn about the influence of the external and internal environment in the exercise of CSR. When a business is mandated with CSR, internal and external forces are likely to affect how CSR is implemented. For instance, internal factors might be inhibiting the willingness of a company or business to engage in CSR. In such cases, the immediate community does not enjoy too much of CSR. A policy restricting an organization from sharing its profits will imply that such a company cannot exercise philanthropic CSR. This is where a company decides to give cash and other material possession to the community around it (Delbard, 2020).

The nature of work can also inhibit a company’s possibility of exercising CSR. A company manufacturing chemicals will likely end up with fumes and other effluents as by-products. In disposing of these fumes and effluents, they are released into air or water bodies. In the long run, the nature of work makes such companies destroy the environment they should protect. If there are no regulations on how companies should dispose of their by-products, this is how pollution starts. It starts when an organization has neglected its responsibility for waste management.

External factors must push companies into exercising CSR. One of these is the legal environment controlling a business. Policymakers need to be aware of likely compromises of CSR. They need to develop policies that demand CSR implementation from businesses and companies. This ensures there is optimal protection of the environment at all times as compliance. It also ensures that the community is not exploited but benefits from having a company or a business within their surroundings (Lu, Ren, Lin, He & Streimikis, 2019).


The accounting function is an interesting one to look at in depth. In relation to real-life case studies, one gets to understand the true and actual value of accounting. Many companies exercise accounting with regard to IFRS. If a company fails to comply with International Financial Reporting Standards, it risks collapse and other financial challenges. This was the case that happened to Silicon Valley Bank. A bank performing exceptionally well a few years ago has gone into receivership. This is something that people had not anticipated happening at such a time of the year.

Banks fail like any other business, but some failures are avoidable. A failure related to accounting can be avoided if accounting is done correctly. If accounting is not done correctly, the aftermath of all this is consequences like those faced by Silicon Valley Bank. Businesses need to take advantage of IFRS in accounting functions. This can help reduce instances where a company would fail because it does not have the proper accounting regulations in place.


DeGeorge, F., Li, J., & Shivakumar, L. (2020). A review of the IFRS adoption literature. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 69(2), 101285.

Delbard, O. (2020). Corporate social responsibility beyond philanthropy? Sustainable and responsible business in times of Covid-19. Managing a Post-Covid-19 Era, 258-265.

Hanno, D. M., & Stern, M. J. (2019). The effectiveness of integrated reporting on the quality of accounting information. Advances in Accounting, 44, 25-36.

Kelley, K. J., Hemphill, T. A., & Thams, Y. (2019). Corporate social responsibility, country reputation, and corporate reputation: A perspective on creating shared value in emerging markets. Multinational Business Review27(2), 178-197.

Lu, J., Ren, L., Lin, W., He, Y., & Streimikis, J. (2019). Policies to promote corporate social responsibility (CSR) and assessment of CSR impacts.

Otley, D. (2016). The contingency theory of management accounting and control: 1980-2014. Management Accounting Research, 31, 45-62.

Schroeder, R. G., Clark, M. W., & Cathey, J. M. (2022). Financial accounting theory and analysis: text and cases. John Wiley & Sons.

Zaman, M., & Rezaee, Z. (2021). Corporate social responsibility reporting and assurance: A review of the literature. Journal of Business Research, 128, 240-252.

Slavery’s Obituary Paper Free Writing Sample

The United States Constitution adopted the 13th Amendment on 18th December 1865. Slavery was officially abolished through the Amendment, immediately freeing over 100,000 enslaved individuals from Kentucky to Delaware (Ellis, 2022). The Thirteenth Amendment used the language adopted from the 1787 Northwest Ordinance. Slavery was an advantage to the Whites and a disadvantage to the African Americans. African Americans felt pain, frustrations, constrictions, and disruptions while enslaved. Furthermore, slavery inhabited family formation and made it difficult, if not impossible, to have a secure family life. On the other hand, colonial officials enslaved Africans while restricting their rights of movement, making it hard for slaves to be emancipated. The essay elucidates the origin of slavery, the place and time of slavery’s death, surviving aspects of slavery, and the surviving supporters of the institution.

The “birth” and history of slavery go four hundred years back. In August 1619, the Sao Joao Bautista, a Portuguese slave ship, traveled across the Atlantic Ocean with a hull full of human cargo (Jarvis, 2022). The first African captives were from Angola, southwestern Africa. The cargo had men, women, and children from the Kongo and Ndongo kingdoms, bound for a life of enslavement in Mexico (Jarvis, 2022). By the time the ship was seized by two English pirate ships, about half the captives had died. The remaining captives were transported to the Virginia Company of London, built twelve years before the ship’s arrival. John Rolfe, the colonist, informed Sir Edwin Sandys about the arrival of the “Dutch man of war.” Ultimately, Africans were assigned to work in the tobacco fields established for the company.

The trans-Atlantic slave trade introduced a slavery system that was racialized, commercialized, and inherited. As early as the 15th century, Africans were present in North America, but selling the “20 and odd,” Africans initiated what came to be slavery in the United States (McDowell, 2023). Forced labor was common in the 1500s, as African slaves were treated as commodities, not humans. Consequently, the colonial countries limited freedom to ensure power and maintain slavery enterprise.

Despite the pain, turmoil, and suffering brought by slavery, it came to an end. The Black Independence occurred on 19th June 1865 (Al-Hashimi, 2021). Although Abraham Lincoln enacted the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, enslaved Blacks in Galveston, Texas, were informed of their freedom in 1865. United States General Gordon Granger read General Order No. 3, stating that all slaves were free according to the proclamation from the U.S. Executive. The Emancipation Proclamation freed about three million slaves in the rebel states, depriving the Confederacy of the bulk of its labor forces and strongly putting international public opinion on the Union side.

Nonetheless, the Emancipation Proclamation did not officially end American slavery. After the end of the civil war in 1865, the passage of the 13th Amendment officially ended slavery (Al-Hashimi, 2021). Unfortunately, about 38,000 Black soldiers out of the 186,000 who joined the Union army lost their lives. Therefore, Juneteenth became an official federal holiday marking the end of slavery.

Despite the slavery abolishment in 1865, some aspects remained to be dealt with to erase all traces of slavery from the U.S. Thousands of African Americans faced new difficulties in forging an economically independent life in the face of hostile whites. The freedom of the Black slaves made the Whites grow hostile, fearing revenge from the freed Blacks. The freed men and women had little or no education or money. Unfortunately, the White’s attitude did not allow easy assimilation into the community. Freedman Houston Hartsfield said, “We people of color did not know how to be free and the Whites did not know how to associate with the colored men among them” (Wilson, 2020). Nonetheless, African Americans prepared for freedom by demanding civil rights, education, voting, family reunion, and economic opportunities.

After abolishing slavery, the federal government established a temporary agency, the Freedmen’s Bureau, as part of the reconstruction. The agency’s purpose was to provide clothing, food, and medical care for freed slaves. Additionally, the government established special boards to set up schools for the freed slaves in the south. Consequently, Black and White teachers were employed to help freed slaves to become literate. The U.S. government encouraged some African Americans to move to northern cities where job opportunities were available. Ultimately, the African American’s right to vote was hotly debated but later added to the constitution.

There are some friends and supporters of slavery that lasted even after the Emancipation Proclamation. For instance, Brazil gradually abolished the slave trade instead of drastic abolition. The Brazilian Parliament, in 1871, passed the “Free Womb Law,” which declared children born to women slaves free (‌Nyarko, 2023). Unfortunately, children were obliged to work for their parents’ owners until adulthood to compensate. A new law was enforced in 1884, freeing enslaved persons aged 60 (‌Nyarko, 2023).

Consequently, slave owners only abandoned slaves once they had become more susceptible to diseases and less productive. The legal abolition of slavery did not benefit the Afro-Brazilians since no policies were made to promote integration and help freed persons get full citizenship. Arguably, Brazilians were unwilling to accept slavery abolition.

Conclusively, the essay explains the origin of slavery, the place and time of slavery’s death, surviving aspects of slavery, and the surviving supporters of the institution. Slavery began in 1619 when a Portuguese slave ship transported “20 and odd” African Americans for labor in Mexico. Juneteenth is the Black Independence Day commemorating the day Emancipation Proclamation. Despite the abolition of the slave trade in the United States, the Whites’ attitude towards the Blacks made it challenging for the slaves to integrate freely, access education, and find jobs. Brazil is an example of a country that did not support abolition drastically to control its economic production.

Reference List

‌Al-Hashimi, M. (2021). The brazen daylight police murder of George Floyd and the racist origin of American policing. Fourth World Journal20(2), 34-46. From:

ELLIS, R. J. (2022). A Case of Command: The Emancipation Proclamation as a Last Resort. Presidential Studies Quarterly.

Jarvis, M. J. (2022). Isle of Devils, Isle of Saints: An Atlantic History of Bermuda, 1609–1684. In Google Books. JHU Press.

McDowell, E. A. (2023). The Children of Slavery. The Black Reparations Project: A Handbook for Racial Justice, p. 174. From:,+Africans+were+present+in+North+America+but+the+sale+of+the+20+and+odd+Africans+initiated+what+came+to+be+the+slavery+in+the+United+States&ots=4Xcp61nts2&sig=GDT1uwoyaXumFStVrEWWpWbilEA

‌Nyarko, J. A. (2023). Anti-Slavery Laws of Brazil. Available at SSRN 4391095. From:

Wilson, C. R. (2020). The American South: A Very Short Introduction (Vol. 666). Oxford University Press. From:,+We+people+of+color+did+not+know+how+to+be+free+and+the+Whites+did+not+know+how+to+associate+with+the+colored+men+among+them&ots=QV2TB2TLGf&sig=SmZkXW0yEd9hIFqXl_pT5WOxzZM