Research On The Effectiveness Of Broken Window Theory In Crime Reduction Essay Sample For College


According to the Broken Windows Theory (BWT) of policing, dealing with minor offences like public intoxication, loitering, and jaywalking can advance law and order and reduce severe crimes in the long run. Although social scientists have disagreed with the theory, the current literature study aims to determine whether or not the BWT actually lowers crime. The results show that the BWT can successfully reduce significant crimes within the community when appropriately used in conjunction with other policing techniques. Furthermore, factors like social norms, routine observation, and signal crime may impact the level of crime in the area. Overall, the literature review emphasizes the BWT’s possible efficacy in reducing crime.

Research Question

Does implementing the Broken Windows Theory of policing effectively reduce severe crimes within the community, and what are the possible implications for improving policing strategies?


The Broken Windows Theory, when implemented appropriately in conjunction with other policing strategies, is an effective approach to reducing serious crime in communities. Research on the topic of the Broken Windows Theory could provide insights into the effectiveness of this approach in reducing crime. It could help to determine if aggressive policing against minor and low-level offences helps prevent or mitigate more serious violations, as the theory suggests. Research could also examine the impact of broken windows policing on the community, including how it affects perceptions of police legitimacy and trust.


A number of independent and dependent variables were seen to impact the survey’s conduct. The first independent variable was the presence, intensity and duration of implementation of the Broken Window theory of policing. This refers to the degree to which the theory is applied in a certain area and it was key in determining if the approach would have an impact on crime. For example, one community was discovered to have partially applied the policy. As such, the theory was not seen to have reduced the region’s crime level, leading to inconclusive results. Similarly, another community applied the policy for a short period of time. The results of this were also deemed inconclusive as the outcomes of the application needed time to be visible.

Another independent variable was the level of community involvement in crime-prevention activities. Communities active in crime-prevention activities were likely to have reduced criminal activity upon implementing the Broken Window policy. This was likely due to increasing the perception of social control and reduced opportunity for crime. Ignorant communities have fewer chances of a decrease in crime upon implementation of the policy due to difficulty in identifying and addressing the minor signs of a disorder.

The final independent variable discovered during the conduct of the research was the demographic element of the regions studied. The demographic characteristics, including age, gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status significantly impacted the research. For example, the concept of age proved to be crucial as localities with more young people had high crime rates. Male dominated populations were also seen to have more crime. To ensure the research was reliable, a stratified random sampling technique was incorporated to affirm that the sample selected was representative of the entire population. Additionally, statistical methods were used to control for any variables that may have affected the relationship between the Broken Window Theory and crime reduction.

Several dependent variables were also present in the conduct of the research. They included:

  • Crime rate: This was a dependent variable in this research as it was the variable being measured to determine the effectiveness and efficiency of implementing the Broken Window policing concept. Specifically, there were observations about whether there was a significant decrease in the crime rate after the theory was implemented.
  • Fear of crime: Refers to the level of fear people experience in relation to crime. It can be influenced by factors such as personal experiences with crime, media coverage, and perceptions of the justice system. This was an essential factor to consider when researching, as some areas were perceived to be unsafe and were therefore avoided creating an environment conducive to crime. On the other hand, in places where people felt safe and were not afraid of crime, there was heavy foot traffic deterring crime.
  • Perception of safety: This is how safe people feel in a particular location and can be influenced by factors such as the physical environment, police presence and crime level in the area. During the research, it was seen to play a significant role. For example, if people perceived an area to be unsafe, they spent less time there and vice versa. Additionally, if people felt safe in an environment, they were more willing to report crimes or participate in surveys or interviews.
  • Quality of life measures: Refers to the various indicators used to assess the well-being and satisfaction of people and communities. In the research on the effectiveness of the Broken Window theory on crime reduction, this variable arose when trying to determine the quality of life in certain regions had an effect on crime rates in that area. It was found that when implementation of the policy increased surveillance and strict enforcement of minor offenses, it created a sense of insecurity and lack of trust within the community negatively impacting the quality of life of the residents.

To avoid potential bias in the research, the researchers took a number of steps. The first step was the incorporation of random sampling to ensure samples selected were representative of all people and groups in the population. Another step was the use of a control group which was similar to the experimental group in all aspects except for the implementation of the policy. Finally, double-blind procedures and statistical analysis were utilized. The procedures ensured the researcher did not know which control group they belonged to avoid potential bias. The analysis was used in analyzing data and determining whether the Broken Window theory had an effect in reducing crime rates.

Statement of the Problem

The Broken Windows Theory (BWT) of policing suggests that by aggressively targeting minor crime behaviors, law enforcement can promote law and order, thus reducing the chances of serious crimes in the long run (Worrall, 2002). However, the theory remains a subject of debate for social scientists, who have yet to establish whether or not this theory successfully attains its stated goal of crime reduction. The critical question on the approach remains: Does the Broken Windows Theory reduce crime? The present paper aims to address this question by reviewing literature on the topic. The findings of this research will be crucial in improving policing strategies, and it will help establish additional insights into the applicability and effectiveness of broken windows policing as a crime reduction strategy.

Criminal justice and law enforcement have always placed a high priority on reducing crime in society (Braga et al., 2015). Therefore, developing successful crime reduction tactics is essential. One such tactic that has drawn a lot of attention from both researchers and practitioners is the Broken Windows Theory. To determine whether or not the BWT is a successful strategy for reducing crime, empirical evidence is required as the efficacy of the approach is still up for discussion. By tackling this issue, the current study will offer insightful information about the applicability and efficacy of broken windows policing as a crime reduction strategy, and it will help shape the creation of policing tactics meant to lower crime in society.

Population of The Study and Data Collection Methods

Setting and Participants

The provisional information related to the review is the widespread presence of crime in various regions, the presence of law enforcement agencies, and the level of community engagement. The target of the study is the general population residing in crime-prone areas. Since crime affects all in the community, it is essential to understand the impact of the theory on the entire population. Articles were chosen for the review using a purposive sample technique based on their applicability to the research challenge and their capacity to offer theoretical insights. The inclusion criteria were designed to include publications published or evaluated in the English language between 1980 and 2015 in order to guarantee that the review was thorough and effective. This time frame was chosen to present a variety of evidence and to document key developments in the theory’s application over time.

Data Collection Procedures

Several techniques were employed in collecting data for the review, including interviewing, database search, inclusion/exclusion criteria, screening, data extraction, quality assessment, and data synthesis.

Interviewing: The most common method of data collection, interviewing, was carried out to collect foundational information upon which the study would be conducted in the selected regions. Questions were framed as open-ended and presented orally or in questionnaires depending on the interviewee’s location.

Database Search: In this case, the search was targeted at discovering papers about police tactics, urban deterioration, broken windows hypothesis, and crime theories. Google Scholar, Scopus, and JSTOR are well-known databases that were used. To make sure that all relevant material on the subject was found, the search was carried out using pertinent keywords. By using terms like “Broken Window,” “Police strategies,” “Urban decay,” and “Crime theories,” it was possible to limit the search results to show content that was pertinent to the study’s subject.

Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria: The utilization of the Broken Window Theory in crime reduction, publishing in peer-reviewed journals, and a focus on empirical investigations were all inclusion criteria for studies. Studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were not available in the full-text format, or were not written in English were excluded. Systematic review procedures were applied here to ensure a comprehensive and unbiased search of the literature used.

Screening: After the initial search, duplicates were removed, and titles and abstracts were screened to assess the relevance of the studies to the research question. Screening tools such as Covidence and Rayyan were then applied.

Data Extraction: Data were extracted from relevant studies using a data extraction form. The form included study design, sample size, data collection methods, data analysis procedures, and findings

Quality Assessment: One technique for assessing the quality of collected data is the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). It is intended to assist reviewers in evaluating a study’s quality and deciding whether or not to include it in a meta-analysis or systematic review. CASP offers a standardized framework for assessing a study’s methodology’s benefits and drawbacks.

Data Synthesis: Thematic synthesis approach enabled researchers to comprehensively understand the effectiveness of the Broken Window theory under review. It also allowed the researchers to identify key themes and concepts related to the effectiveness of the theory under review and to develop a comprehensive understanding of the research question.

Significance of the Research

The purpose of the research is to emphasize the value of the study and any possible implications for practice and policy. The critical issue of whether the Broken Windows Theory (BWT) of policing successfully reduces crime is addressed by the researchers in this literature review. The controversial BWT policing model actively targets minor offenses like public intoxication, loitering, and jaywalking in order to uphold law and order and, in the long run, decrease serious crimes.

The findings from the review indicate that, when appropriately applied with other methods of policing, the BWT can effectively reduce serious crimes within the community (Braga et al., 2015). The results of this study could significantly improve policing strategies and help establish additional insights into the applicability and effectiveness of the BWT as a crime reduction strategy. Thus, this study has significant implications for policymakers and law enforcement agencies, as it can shape policies and practices related to policing and crime reduction (Gau & Pratt, 2010).

For instance, the study’s conclusion that the Broken Windows Theory can effectively reduce serious crimes within the community when applied appropriately with other methods of policing may influence law enforcement strategies (Braga et al., 2015). The review suggests that aggressive policing against minor crimes can be an effective tool in reducing crime rates. Therefore, police departments may want to incorporate the BWT into their policing strategies, particularly in areas with high crime rates.

Furthermore, the research may have implications for community members. The Broken Windows Theory suggests that community members play a critical role in preventing and reducing crime (Worral, 2002). . By taking ownership of their community and caring for their neighborhood, community members can discourage criminal behavior. This implies that community members can work with law enforcement to reduce crime in their neighborhoods (Jenkins, 2016).


Braga, A. A., Welsh, B. C., & Schnell, C. (2015). Can Policing Disorder Reduce Crime? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Crime And Delinquency52(4), 567–588.

Gau, J. M., & Pratt, T. C. (2010). Revisiting broken windows theory: Examining the sources of the discriminant validity of perceived disorder and crime. Journal of criminal justice38(4), 758-766.

Jenkins, M. J. (2016). Police support for community problem-solving and broken windows policing. American Journal of Criminal Justice41, 220-235.

Worrall, J. (2002). Does “Broken Windows” Law Enforcement Reduce Serious Crime? US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.

Rostow’s Development Phases Sample Essay

One of the most influential classic economic development theories is Rostow’s development phases. It came out in 1960, and its author was the American economist W.W. Rostow. Before Rostow, development strategies were founded on the idea that “modernization” was something only the Western world (the richer, more dominant nations at the time) could achieve (Rostow, 1959). As a result, the rest of the world has to catch up to the West and become “modernized,” or capitalist and liberal democratic. Based on these concepts, in 1960, Rostow published the highly influential “Stages of Economic Progress,” in which he outlined the five stages that all nations must go through on their way to becoming developed, i.e., traditional society, preconditions to take off, take-off, drive to maturity and age of high mass consumption. According to the paradigm, all nations may be found along this scale and go steadily higher as they complete successive waves of industrialization. This paper will show the extent to which Rostow’s economic development stages help understand the development process by using various relevant countries for better understanding.

Many individuals continue to refer to Rostow’s economic growth model, which emphasizes industrialization, urbanization, and commerce as the way forward for developing nations. Singapore is a prime example of a country that adopted this strategy for economic development and is now a major participant on the international stage (Menzel, 2006). Singapore, a nation in Southeast Asia with a population of over Five million, did not have extraordinary development potential when it gained independence in 1965. It industrialized quickly, creating successful factories and hi-tech sectors (Hunt, 1989). With a greater GDP per person than many European nations, Singapore has become one of the world’s most sought-after trading partners.1 Its entire population now lives in metropolitan areas.

Rostow’s idea of economic growth may be seen in action in Brazil and Mexico. After WWII, Brazil began its late industrialization, which ushered in the Take-Off phase (characterized by urbanization and the development of the secondary sector) and the Drive to the Mature stage. Rostow’s paradigm is bolstered by the fact that Mexican modernization has been propelled by Mexican enterprises’ integration into American industrial companies’ Global Value Chains (GVC) (Piętak, 2014). With Brazil’s relatively low disposable income level, neither country has fully entered the Age of Mass Consumption. Like Mexico, the United States has significant economic inequality inside the nation. Brazil and Mexico simultaneously illustrate developing nations with attributes in more than one stage, despite the model presenting five stages with limits between them (Ortolano, 2015).

Chile and Uruguay are intriguing examples because they embody features of the Period of Mass Consumption, the fifth era. However, they need a more diversified industrial capacity that characterizes the fourth phase (Costa et al., 2016). Furthermore, both nations have a small Gross domestic product and population, which may help to account for the skip over the stage of “Drive for Maturity.”

Argentina is a unique example of a country that went backward in the stages of development. The “Argentine Paradox” occurred. A state that had reached significant growth at the start of the modern era faced a catastrophic economic fall, despite being a highly prosperous country in the first thirty years of the previous century (Khan & Slavador, 2017). For example, in 1914 Argentina ranked as highly as Australia does now in terms of per capita wealth. However, the state has since seen a lengthy, sluggish, and severe economic recession owing to political instability. Argentina is unusual in that it fell into poverty without experiencing a civil war at home. As a result, Argentina progressed beyond the Take-Off phase and into the Age of Mass Consumption stage with relative ease. This formerly prosperous southern nation now illustrates that economic growth is not guaranteed. The economy will inevitably decline when things go wrong or poor choices are made (Dang et al., 2015). Consequently, another South American nation, Venezuela, offers an even more severe example of poverty, this time brought on by political prejudice and an ongoing ideological conflict.

Seventy years after launch (or forty years after launch ends), most people have reached a point that may be considered maturity. The economy has diversified from its initial focus on a small set of industries and technologies used for getting off the ground, such as coal, steel, and heavy engineering, to more sophisticated and highly advanced often more complicated systems, such as machine tools, chemical products, and electronic devices (Hunter, 2012). This, for instance, was the change that had occurred by the end of the nineteenth century or soon afterward in Germany, Britain, France, and the United States. Later in the book, however, we will examine other sectoral patterns followed in the development timeline. Technically, we may define economic maturity as the point at which a country is able to absorb and effectively use throughout a very broad range of its capabilities (if not the full range) the most sophisticated fruits of (then) contemporary technology, moving further than the initial sectors which drove its take-off. When an economy reaches this level, it has shown that it has the technical and commercial prowess to manufacture not everything, but whatever it so chooses (Willis, 2023). It may need to improve (like modern-day Sweden and Switzerland, for instance) the commodities or other supply constraints needed to manufacture a particular type of output commercially. However, its reliance on external sources results from economic preference or political priority instead of innovation or institutional constraints. In the past, around seventy years were needed for a civilization to go from its early stages of development to full maturity (Rostow, 2014). Some such duration may have an analytical elaboration in the potent mathematics of compound interest applicable to the capital stock, in addition to the more far-reaching effects of three generations of a society living underneath a ruling where development is the normal condition on its capacity to absorb advanced technology. Of course, it is not reasonable to be rigid about how long it takes from launch to full adulthood.

We are entering the age of rising mass consumption, in which the dominant economic sectors will eventually shift towards long-lasting consumer goods and services. This is a period from which the United States is now emerging, into which Western nations such as Japan and Europe are diving headfirst, and with which Soviet civilization is flirting unsteadily (Pupavac, 2010). Two significant changes occurred in the framework of the working force as communities developed in the 20th century: (1) total earnings per head rose to a moment where many individuals gained control over consumption that transcended basic food, shelter, and clothing; and (2) the number of individuals who worked in the office or skilled manufacturing jobs expanded, both as a percentage of the total population and as a percentage of the population working in urban areas. Henry Ford’s moving production line in 1913–14 may have been a turning point for the U. S., but it was the 1920s and the postwar decade (1946–56) that pushed this era of expansion to its limits (Kindleberger et al., 2016) It seems that Western Europe and Japan joined this stage in full force in the mid-1960s, which is mainly responsible for an unexpected economic boost in both countries in the years immediately after World War II. Technically, the Soviet Union is prepared for this stage, and all indications are that its populace is eager for it (Kesgi̇ngö & Dilek, 2016). However, if this phase is started, Communist leaders will confront tremendous political and social challenges of adjustment.

It was only reasonable for the conquerors of World War II to want to make sure that the peace they had just won would last forever, given the terrible cost of that war on human lives (Klinger, 2017). Facilitating international economic growth was a potential means to this end. American economic historian Walt W. Rostow, in his landmark 1960 book The Phases of Economic Evolution, made a significant contribution to systematizing these ideas (Hunter, 2012). These “enclaves of modern activity” that became economically incorporated into the country’s “regular condition ingrained, as it were, into its behaviors and organisational framework,” as Rostow viewed it, were crucial to encouraging this shift. Like other modernizing ideas, the Steps of Economic Development argued that less developed areas might benefit from the same logic and development experienced by more advanced areas. This makes it a diffusionist and technocratic concept (Muda et al., 2020). The theory underpinning this mode of growth postulated that a decentralized team of professionals might use the means of industrialization and urbanization to remake social relations.

Despite the model’s emphasis on similarities between capitalist and communist economies across sectors, it seems to accept, at least tacitly, that the two systems take distinct routes to modernization. The three conditions for a successful launch cannot be accomplished concurrently using any straightforward formula (Gilman, 2018). The country’s economy grew steadily when these three Bostonian conditions were met throughout Bangladesh’s Sixth Five-Year Plan (2011-2015). If the economy keeps expanding at its dizzying rate, it will become self-sufficient. Bangladesh has reached the fourth and final phase of Rostow’s development model, “The Drive to Maturation.” It is striving for even greater things due to its remarkable track record of economic success (Carree & Thurik, 2010). The country has shifted its focus from politics and economic administration to development and policymaking to achieve economic and political independence.

Other proponents disagree with Rostow’s Phases of development theory, yet it is undeniably one of the most influential development theories of the 20th century. Friedman (2010) argues that the inception of the paradigm was based on the experiences of highly industrialized, urbanized, capitalist Western countries. As a consequence, emerging western economies such as China need to be reflected in the model. Furthermore, Marx (2015) also argues that certain countries seem to be stuck in the same growth phases for an indefinite amount of time, which needs to be accounted for by Rostow’s model. Despite receiving massive sums of foreign help, most emerging countries in Southeast Asia, Africa, and Latin America have been hesitant to encourage economic advancement. Another important critique is that it does not include the possibility of a reversal of economic success in certain countries (Patnaik, 2011). This century has seen a general economic collapse in nations like Venezuela, Argentina, and Argentina. As a fourth criticism, the model was developed in the 1960s but does not take into account the economic factors of the mid-1990s (information technology, communications, internet), the 2000s (digitalization, creative industries), or the 2010s (the digitized economy) (Industry 4.0, Artificial Intelligence). Finally, the paradigm has no potential for creativity or leapfrogging since Rostow contends that economic advancement must follow a preset route. In Rostow’s view, all countries are equal regarding their growth potential, notwithstanding factors like population size, resources, and location. Finally, the economic structure does not consider the length of the stages or time frames that differs between nations and even from one region to another (Hirschman, 2021).

In conclusion despite criticisms against Rostow’s economic development model, it has continued to be used alongside other, more conventional theories. Since they mirror the process of economic growth observed by the globe’s most wealthy societies, Rostow’s stages of economic development are a very beneficial model for understanding state growth. Although this framework must account for critical present growth drivers, such as the diffusion of new technologies, several model aspects are still effective. One is that it introduces the idea that economic development may be categorized and ranked. The paradigm states that all countries may be found somewhere along a spectrum and that the degrees of development increase continuously throughout this spectrum. In addition, the model properly portrays the importance of industrialization, urbanization, and commercialization as stepping stones to development. Strategists and politicians are still interested in the paradigm because of its potential as a guide for national development. Despite widespread criticism of Rostow’s method, strategists often use it when developing public policies.


Rostow, W.W. (1959). “The Stages of Economic Growth,” The Economic History Review, 12(1): 1–16.

Menzel, U. (2006). “Walt Whitman Rostow,” pp.211–217, in Fifty Key Thinkers on Development, edited by D. Simon (London: Routledge)

Hunt, D. (1989). Economic Theories of Development, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, chapter 4

Piętak, Ł. (2014). Review of theories and models of economic growth. Comparative Economic Research. Central and Eastern Europe17(1), 45–60.

Ortolano, G. (2015). the typicalities of English? Walt Rostow, the stages of economic growth, and modern British history. Modern Intellectual History12(3), 657–684.

Costa, D., Kehoe, T. J., & Ravindranathan, G. (2016). The stages of economic growth revisited. Economic Policy.

Khan, Z., & Slavador, M. (2017). Summarizing the Miscellaneous Criticism on Rostow’s Model of Economic Growth: An Overview. International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research2(2), 2301-12.

Dang, G., Sui Pheng, L., Dang, G., & Sui Pheng, L. (2015). Theories of economic development. Infrastructure Investments in Developing Economies: The Case of Vietnam, 11-26.

Hunter, M. (2012). The stages of economic development from an opportunity perspective: Rostow extended. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations4(2), 52–80.

Willis, K. (2023). Development as modernization: Rostow’s The Stages of Economic Growth. Geography108(1), 33–37.

Willis, K. (2023). Development as modernization: Rostow’s The Stages of Economic Growth. Geography108(1), 33–37.

Rostow, W. W. (2014). How it all Began (Routledge Revivals): Origins of the Modern Economy. Routledge.

Pupavac, V. (2010). From materialism to non-materialism in international development: Revisiting Rostow’s stages of growth and Schumacher’s small is beautiful. Challenging the aid paradigm: Western currents and Asian alternatives, pp. 47–77.

Kindleberger, C. P., Di Tella, G., & Di Tella, G. (2016). Economics in the Long View: essays in honor of WW Rostow. Springer.

Kesgi̇ngö, H., & Dilek, S. (2016). Investigation of TR82 region according to the growth stages of Rostow. Asian Journal of Economic Modelling4(4), 180-189.

Hunter, M. (2012). The stages of economic development from an opportunity perspective: Rostow extended. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations4(2), 52–80.

Muda, I., Nurlina, E., & Nuradi, T. E. (2020). Stage of take-off based on Rostow’s theory for the role of manufacture of non-metals, except petroleum and coal manufacture to the economic increase, Res. World Econ11, 177-185.

Klinger, J. (2017). A sympathetic appraisal of cold war modernization theory. The International History Review39(4), 691–712.

Gilman, N. (2018). Modernization theory never dies. History of Political Economy50(S1), pp. 133–151.

Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth (pp. 557-594). Springer, New York.

Kesgi̇ngö, H., & Dilek, S. (2016). Investigation of TR82 region according to the growth stages of Rostow. Asian Journal of Economic Modelling4(4), 180-189.

Hunter, M. (2012). The stages of economic development from an opportunity perspective: Rostow extended. Geopolitics, History, and International Relations4(2), 52–80.

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Shgardi Company Analysis Sample Essay


Due to the competitive nature of the Shgardi Company, it is looking into developing a comprehensive digital marketing strategy. This paper aims to analyze the various factors affecting the company’s digital presence and develop a plan to help it achieve its goals. The rise of social media and the internet has drastically changed how businesses interact with their customers. The new platforms have allowed them to reach their target market and promote their services and products. As a company, Shgardi is committed to developing a digital marketing strategy that will help it remain competitive in the market. This strategy can help boost the company’s online presence and reach its goals. The paper will examine the factors affecting Shgardi’s digital presence. We will then develop a strategy allowing the company to achieve its goals and stay competitive. The marketing mix will be determined based on the company’s objectives.

Micro-environment Analysis

Competitors Analysis:

Shgardi Company operates in a highly competitive industry, so it is essential to understand its competitors. The company’s main competitors are Company A and Company B. Company A is a well-established business with a loyal customer base. At the same time, Company B is a new entrant to the market but has an innovative product range. Shgardi Company needs to analyze its competitors’ strengths and weaknesses to develop a unique selling proposition (USP) that differentiates itself. Shgardi Company can use various tools to analyze its competitors thoroughly. A SWOT analysis can be performed to identify the different strengths and weaknesses of Shgardi’s competitors.

Additionally, the company can use market research to gather information about its competitors’ product range, pricing strategies, distribution channels, and promotional tactics. Furthermore, Shgardi Company can also analyze its competitors’ online presence by reviewing their websites, social media profiles, and online reviews. This analysis can help the company understand how its competitors engage with their customers online and identify any gaps or opportunities in the market.

Suppliers and Digital Marketing Intermediaries:

Shgardi Company needs to work with reliable and efficient suppliers to ensure it has access to quality raw materials to produce its products. Additionally, the company needs to identify digital marketing intermediaries such as social media platforms, search engines, and online advertising platforms that can help promote its products and services to a broader audience. Shgardi Company can use supplier evaluation criteria to identify reliable and efficient suppliers, such as product quality, delivery time, pricing, and customer service. The company can also negotiate long-term contracts with suppliers to ensure a stable supply of raw materials at a reasonable price. Shgardi can utilize various digital marketing tools to expand its reach. These include social media platforms, which can be used to promote its products. Social media platforms can boost the company’s brand awareness and attract more followers. It can also use engaging captions and high-quality images to generate buzz. Furthermore, search engine optimization can help boost the website’s ranking in search results.

Shgardi can advertise through platforms like Facebook and Google to promote its products and reach specific demographics. These platforms allow the company to create highly targeted ads that appear to potential customers based on their interests, location, and search history. Using digital marketing intermediaries, Shgardi Company can reach a broader audience and increase its online presence.

Customers’ Persona:

Shgardi Company’s target market is young professionals aged 25-35 who are health-conscious and environmentally aware. According to Kotler (2017), The company needs to understand its customer’s needs and preferences. For example, the company can use social media influencers who share the same interests and values as its target customers to promote its products. Additionally, the company can use eco-friendly packaging and highlight its sustainability efforts in its marketing messages to appeal to environmentally conscious consumers.

In conclusion, Shgardi Company must create a detailed customer persona to understand its target audience’s needs and preferences. The company can use the information collected from market research to develop targeted marketing strategies that resonate with its customers and increase brand loyalty. Avoid developing effective marketing strategies that resonate with them.

Macro-environment Analysis

Technological Forces:

Shgardi Company needs to monitor technological advancements such as the rise of mobile and wearable devices, e-commerce, and social media platforms. These technological forces present opportunities for the company to reach a wider audience and increase its online presence. In addition to the technological advancements mentioned, Shgardi Company needs to monitor emerging technologies Chaffey, (2019). These technologies can potentially revolutionize how companies market their products and services by providing personalized and immersive experiences for customers.

Shgardi Company can leverage AI to analyze customer data and develop targeted marketing campaigns based on customer behaviour and preferences. The company can also use VR and AR technologies to create interactive product demos and enhance the customer shopping experience. Another technological force that Shgardi Company needs to monitor is cybersecurity. As the company collects and stores customer data, it needs to ensure that it has robust cybersecurity measures to protect against cyber threats. By monitoring these technological forces, Shgardi Company can stay ahead of the competition and leverage new technologies to enhance its digital marketing campaigns.

Legal Forces:

Shgardi Company must comply with local laws and regulations governing digital marketing, such as data protection, privacy, and advertising standards. Failure to comply with these laws can lead to legal and reputational issues. In addition to local laws and regulations, Shgardi Company must monitor international laws and regulations. Shgardi Company must also ensure its digital marketing campaigns comply with intellectual property laws, such as copyright and trademark laws. Finally, Shgardi Company must ensure its digital marketing campaigns comply with consumer protection laws. The company needs to be transparent about its products and services, avoid false or misleading advertising, and provide accurate and complete information about its products and services. Shgardi Company can avoid legal and reputational issues and build customer trust by monitoring and complying with these legal forces.

Economic Forces:

Shgardi Company needs to monitor economic trends such as inflation, interest rates, and consumer spending. These economic forces can affect the company’s pricing strategy and product demand. In addition to inflation, interest rates, and consumer spending, the Shgardi Company must monitor other economic factors such as unemployment, economic growth, and exchange rates. These factors can affect the company’s revenue, cost of goods sold, and profitability. For example, during an economic downturn, consumers may reduce spending, and the demand for Shgardi Company’s products may decrease. In such a scenario, the company may need to adjust its pricing strategy or product mix to remain competitive.

Moreover, fluctuations in exchange rates can affect the company’s profitability, primarily if it imports or exports goods. If the company imports raw materials, a weak local currency can increase the cost of imports, reducing the company’s profitability. Conversely, if the company exports its products, a strong local currency can make it more expensive for foreign customers, reducing demand and revenue. Shgardi Company can make informed decisions about its pricing strategy, product mix, and expansion plans by monitoring these economic forces.

Political Forces:

Shgardi Company must monitor political developments, such as government policy and regulation changes. These political forces can affect the company’s operations and market environment. In addition to government policy and regulation changes, political parties can also include political instability, trade restrictions, and international relations Changes in tariffs and trade policies can affect Shgardi’s ability to export or import its products. If the government imposes high tariffs on imported goods, the cost of raw materials for Shgardi Company may increase, affecting its profitability. Similarly, if the government imposes restrictions on exporting goods to certain countries, the company may need to adjust its market strategy or product mix to remain competitive.

Moreover, political instability and international relations can affect the company’s operations in different regions. For example, suppose there is political unrest or civil war in an area where the Shgardi Company operates. In that case, it may affect the supply chain or disrupt production, leading to delays and increased costs. Therefore, by monitoring political forces, Shgardi Company can anticipate potential risks and take appropriate actions to mitigate them. The company can also adjust its marketing strategy and product mix based on the political environment in different regions.

Social Forces:

Shgardi Company needs to monitor social trends, such as changing consumer preferences and attitudes toward health and the environment. These social forces can affect the company’s marketing messaging and product offerings. In addition to changing consumer preferences and attitudes towards health and the environment, social pressures can include demographic shifts and cultural changes. For example, as the population becomes more diverse, Shgardi Company may need to adjust its marketing messaging and product offerings to cater to different cultural groups. Similarly, as the population ages, the company may need to focus more on products that cater to the elderly population.

Moreover, as social media and digital technology continue to shape how people interact and consume information, Shgardi Company needs to stay current with social media trends and adapt its marketing strategy accordingly. The company can leverage social media platforms to engage with its target audience and build a solid online presence. Therefore, by monitoring social forces, Shgardi Company can stay relevant and responsive to changing consumer needs and preferences. The company can also use social media platforms to build a strong brand reputation and connect with its target audience.

Digital Marketing Strategy

Where Are You Now? (Situation Analysis):

Shgardi Company is a local business operating in a highly competitive environment. The company has recognized the importance of digital marketing and has a limited online presence. However, the company has a loyal customer base and produces high-quality organic products.

Where Do You Want to Be? (Business Objectives):

Shgardi Company aims to increase its online presence and reach a wider audience. The company also aims to increase sales and revenue by 20% in the next 12 months.

How Are You Going to Get There? (Strategy):

According to Wind (2019), The company’s digital marketing strategy will include online advertising, social media marketing, and search engine optimization. It will also produce high-quality content to attract its target audience.

How Exactly Do You Get There? (Tactics):

Shgardi Company will create a social media calendar with regular Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter posts. The company will also optimize its website for search engines and develop targeted online advertising campaigns.

Who Does What and When? (Actions):

Shgardi Company will assign a dedicated digital marketing team to oversee the digital marketing strategy implementation. The team will create and schedule social media posts, optimize the website for search engines, and manage online advertising campaigns.

How Do You Monitor Performance? (Control):

Shgardi will use performance indicators such as online sales and social media engagement to monitor its digital marketing efforts. The company will also conduct regular market research to gather customer feedback and identify improvement areas.

Marketing Mix

Product Variables:

Shgardi Company’s products include organic food products such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. The company can differentiate its products by focusing on high-quality, locally sourced ingredients and environmentally sustainable practices.

Price Variables:

According to Jobber (2016), Shgardi Company can use a premium pricing strategy to reflect the quality and value of its organic products. The company can offer discounts and promotions to attract new customers and increase sales. The Shgardi Corporation may also consider dynamic pricing strategies that modify prices in response to supply and demand variables. This can aid the business in improving its pricing strategy and boosting sales. Also, the company can combine comparable products into bundle price offers to entice clients to make larger purchases and raise the average order value. To be competitive in the market, the corporation must assess the pricing tactics of its rivals and make the necessary adjustments.

Place Variables:

Shgardi Company can sell its products through its physical and online stores. The company can also explore partnerships with local grocery stores and food delivery services to expand its distribution channels. In addition to traditional distribution channels, Shgardi Company can consider direct-to-consumer (DTC) sales through its online store or mobile app. This can help the company reach a wider audience and increase customer loyalty by offering personalized shopping experiences. The company can also consider using pop-up stores or participating in local farmers’ markets and food festivals to increase brand awareness and reach potential customers. The company needs to analyze the distribution strategies of its competitors and identify any untapped opportunities in the market.

Promotion Variables:

Shgardi Business can advertise its products online and reach a larger audience through social media marketing, search engine optimization, and other online strategies. The business can also leverage user-generated content and influencer marketing to raise brand awareness and engagement. Additionally, Shgardi Business can host events and support charitable causes consistent with its brand values to spread goodwill and improve client connections. The company can also provide loyalty programmes and referral bonuses to encourage repeat business and consumer advocacy. The business can communicate with its clients directly and offer them individualized product recommendations and special deals through email and SMS marketing, among other things.

Process Variables:

Shgardi Company can focus on providing excellent customer service and a seamless online shopping experience to differentiate itself from its competitors. The company can also offer convenient payment and delivery options to make buying easy and convenient for its customers. In addition, Shgardi Company can streamline its production process to ensure efficient and timely delivery of its products. The company can implement a just-in-time (JIT) inventory system to reduce waste and minimize inventory holding costs. Furthermore, the company can use data analytics and automation to optimize its production process and reduce production costs while maintaining product quality.

Relationship Marketing

Virtual Community:

Shgardi Company can create a virtual community through online platforms Armstrong, (2017); the company can use these platforms to engage with its customers, share product information, and gather customer feedback.

Digital Media for Advocacy:

Shgardi Company can use digital media to support customers’ advocacy by encouraging them to share their experiences with its products on social media. The company can also use customer reviews and testimonials to showcase the quality and value of its products to potential customers.


Organizations must create a thorough digital marketing strategy to thrive in today’s extremely competitive industry. The micro-environment and macro-environment analyses can be used by Shgardi Business to pinpoint its advantages, disadvantages, opportunities, and threats. After gathering this data, the company can create a digital marketing plan incorporating the organisation’sorganizations’ optimal marketing mix and relationship marketing. By implementing these strategies, Shgardi Company can increase its online presence, reach a wider audience, and achieve its business objectives. Furthermore, Shgardi Company should regularly monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of its digital marketing strategies to ensure they are producing the desired results. By periodically analyzing and adjusting its digital marketing strategies, the company can improve its online presence and stay ahead of its competitors. It is also essential for Shgardi Company to remain flexible and adaptable to changes in the market environment. This includes being open to incorporating new technologies and trends into its digital marketing strategies and being responsive to customer preferences and behaviour changes. By developing and implementing a well-planned digital marketing strategy, Shgardi Company can increase its brand awareness, reach a wider audience, and ultimately achieve its business goals and objectives.


Armstrong, G., & Kotler, P. (2017). Marketing: An introduction. Pearson.

Chaffey, D., & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2019). Digital marketing: Strategy, implementation, and practice. Pearson UK.

Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: Moving from traditional to digital. John Wiley & Sons.

Jobber, D., & Ellis-Chadwick, F. (2016). Principles and practice of marketing. McGraw-Hill Education.

Wind, Y., & Mahajan, V. (2019). Digital marketing: Global strategies from the world’s leading experts. John Wiley & Sons.