Research Validity In Scientific Research Articles Free Essay

The goal of scientific research articles varies greatly from popular press articles as they appeal to different audiences. Scientific research focuses on academic and research fields, while popular press articles focus on the general audience. The validity of scientific research, therefore, matters a lot. Often, popular press articles borrow information from scientific research articles, yet how they present information can vary from the original research making it less credible. Scientific research articles, therefore, are more credible and are written in a manner that appeals to an academic audience and utilizes research from other studies.

The popular article was found reliable from the first analysis because the participants were chosen randomly. A sample of study subjects is picked randomly from a broader population as part of the sampling technique known as random selection makes it valid. Giving everyone the same chance to participate increases the possibility that the smaller population will exhibit qualities similar to those of the larger group. As a result, the outcomes are much more likely representative of and pertinent to the larger group. Therefore, this method must be followed if it is mentioned in the research design.

However, the original article is more credible and reliable as it presents research from a focused and organized perspective. There are several differences that make the original article more reliable. The first difference is how the research is organized. In the popular press article, there is no information on how the research was done and what methods were used to produce the results. The academic research article, on the other hand, provides an introduction and a literature review of past studies as well as related studies. It offers the gaps in studies which will help a reader interpret what is missing in research or what the research is going to focus on. For example, it states that there are several studies and investigations that have measured how cannabis consumption impacts antisocial behavior (Vigil et al., 2022).

The other difference involves participants, how the samples were taken, and the study procedure. The popular press article does not include details on the participants and the method used to sample them. It only states that students with different levels of Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are in their urine samples (The University of New Mexico, 2022). However, in the academic research article, there is detailed information on how the sample size was chosen, who was eligible for the study, and the number of participants. The demographics of the participants are also stated in the article. The academic research article states that independent samples t-tests revealed that the participants’ gender distribution, average age, ethnicity, parental education levels, and childhood family income did not differ substantially between the cannabis user groups (Vigil, 2022). The research sample is crucial to the accuracy of the research. According to King (2015), a sample should reflect the general population, and a researcher must ensure there is no bias. It also shows how the urine samples were collected. Study procedures, including materials used, also make a huge difference between these articles. This concludes that the scientific research article is more convincing and reliable than the popular press article.

The details in the discussion also show the difference between these articles, proving that the scientific research article provides more information and is hence more reliable. The popular press article does not go into the details of explaining information such as the different reactions to cannabis between male and female participants. It only gives an account of what the authors think about cannabis and related research. The scientific research article, however, has dedicated a section that discusses the results deeply. It offers accounts of sex-specific details about cannabis use and prosocial tendencies as well as aggression (Vigil et al., 2022). It offers the biopsychosocial aspects of marijuana use and provides details on why cannabis shows an increase in prosocial behaviors among users. Scientific papers, therefore, have to include more details to be credible.

Credibility is an important aspect of any academic paper. When a scientific assertion can be replicated using new data, it could be considered credible. Replication is a study in which any result is taken into account as scientific proof of a claim made in earlier research. This concept puts a greater focus on the interpretation of potential results and places less significance on the study’s operating parameters. Replication’s goal is to advance theory by testing current theories against fresh data. When current understanding is the least profound, the usefulness of replication could be at its highest. Successful replication shows that the results can be applied to situations that necessarily differ from those in the original study. Replication is crucial in scientific advancement since it makes information clear by confronting the existing theoretical assumptions. This scientific research uses conceptual replication, where different methods are used to confront other studies. For example, by evaluating the relationships between cannabis use and typical social and psychosocial state in otherwise fit young adults, the current study adds to the psychology and clinical works of literature (Vigil et al., 2022).

Reproducibility is also a reason why scientific papers are written the way they are. A key element in determining a research study’s distinctiveness is reproducibility. It entails achieving consistent results while utilizing the same information and methodology as the initial study. For instance, researchers redo the experiments that yielded the initial results in order to confirm the reliability of a new finding. Additionally, other experts in the field are able to repeat the same tests and get outcomes that are comparable to the original findings. This is a key element in ensuring that the research is credible.

In summary, the scientific article proves to be more reliable than the popular press article due to the information written. It contains methods, procedures, other related research, and findings that make it more credible which is lacking in the popular press article. Scientific articles are academic articles that have to be credible. For this to happen, they use replicability and reproducibility to ensure that the findings are accurate without bias and to and against the existing theoretical assumptions.

References

King, L.A. (2022). Experience Psychology (5th ed.) New York: McGraw Hill.

The University of New Mexico. (2022). New Study Suggests Using Cannabis Can Make You a Nicer Person. https://news.unm.edu/news/new-study-suggests-using-cannabis-can-make- you-a-nicer-person

Vigil, J. M., Stith, S. S., & Chanel, T. (2022). Cannabis Consumption and Prosociality. Scientific reports, 12(1), 1–9.

Rhetorical Question About Digital Currency Essay Example

Digital currency, under the wider blockchain application, has been known to demystify certain misconceptions about its user and technical capabilities. The definition, history, and uses of blockchain technology are discretional and opaque. The digital currency debate has had various interpretations, and questions asked on its efficiencies and role in major economies. The rhetorical questions in digital currency emanate from a wider discussion on blockchain technology and its rhetorical position in establishing its use. Therefore, various criteria such as momentum, design, functional requirements, and trust are effectively conceptualized to understand digital currency.

Technology’s momentum is the comprehensive and considerable commitments of money, expertise, pride, political power, and other supporting technologies (Bellinger, 2018). However, a user case may depend on the blockchain’s momentum to explain Bitcoin and whether they understand the purpose of the blockchain’s momentum. The public is unaware of the creator of Bitcoin and thus does not understand the true purpose of the technology. Therefore, the public is putting itself at risk of digital currency risks and something that could have maliciously been created. Further, it could culminate into an initial technological variation of momentum, thus revealing more dependable origins and possibly isolating malicious cases.

Blockchain design is a further consideration for a rhetorical understanding of digital currency. The technological design process varies among various uses, and the rhetorical component is highly discussed. Language is a major consideration for the comprehension of blockchain design. Authors discuss a design to facilitate a particular outcome (Belllinger, 2018). Sometimes, concepts are not effectively explained on how necessary blockchain is. Additionally, the blockchain concept does not effectively deal with future eventualities.

Functional requirements are tied to the users and technical requirements. Users depend on the technicalities of the blockchain as they rely on experience, technical knowledge, and affinity. Blockchain use assumes the intended user. However, functional requirements are sometimes not within the technical grasp of the user (Baldwin, 2018). Consequently, issues of misuse and training arise for regulatory and societal changes. Further, if a user trusts the technology blindly for processes to be completed, it will be hard to note the real expectations of blockchain.

Trust also constitutes a fundamental concept of rhetorical analysis of digital currency. It is critical in the decentralization promise of blockchain. Technological advocates assert that trust is the primary concern with centralized systems. However, they note that blockchain forms the solution due to its intrinsic capability to achieve trust. It is argued that mistrust can be costly enough, thus leading to crises. When blockchain comes into the discourse, it is assumed that its technology will be key in replacing centralized and traditional business processes because it is built for that particular purpose. Furthermore, blockchain’s technological components, distributed record-keeping, and algorithmic consensus are trustworthy (Bellinger, 2018). However, the two have a distinctive form of trust they rely on. Consensus trust is based on a non-entity governing the process, while record-keeping trust is immutable. Also, if one component is not effectively working, it is impossible to validate a transaction. Therefore, trust cannot be used to understand blockchain since that is entirely up to the user and the application.

Conclusion

Generally, understanding digital currency needs facts and the demystification of known myths over the years. Its definition has been utilized to assert that anyone can access it based on the technical capabilities of the design. However, the end user does not pose any issue in this case. Rhetorically, the public could be highly technical in comprehending blockchain and its components. Therefore, this would mean that individuals do not realize that blockchain is also a database. However, technology is yet to ensure redesign or trust with its developmental route.

References

Baldwin, J. (2018). In digital we trust: Bitcoin discourse, digital currencies, and decentralized network fetishism. Palgrave Communications, 4(1), 1–10.

Bellinger, M. C. (2018). The Rhetoric of Bitcoin: Money, Politics, and the Construction of Blockchain Communities (Doctoral dissertation).

Risk And Risk Management Essay Example For College

Executive Summary

Risk management knowledge has several Benefits, reducing uncertainty, losses, and expenses. Tesla has practiced risk management in its Roll stop Feature, Steering wheel pressure detector, Sentry Mode, and Intrusion sensors. Furthermore, the internal risks the automobile industry faces are software and equipment obsolescence and the safety of the workers. Tesla’s external risks include Strong competition, Chip Shortage, Shortage of Batteries, and Corporate social responsibility and sustainability. For Automotive Industry, External Risks are Electric vehicles-, Self-driving cars, Increases in fuel prices-and Environmental regulations. Corporate social responsibility and sustainability risk is the most urgent, with high impact and likelihood. Hence Tesla has to adopt a battery manufacturing technology that does not require heavy metals like nickel and Cobalt.

1.0 Introduction

This report will discuss the importance and role of risk and risk management Knowledge to a company. The report will be based on Tesla Inc, an automotive industry company. The report will be structured such that section second section will discuss core risk concepts; the third section will discuss risk identification, ranking, and prioritizations. The report will then provide recommendations in section four and conclusions in section five.

2. Core Risk Concepts

2.1 Definitions of Risk, Risk Event, and Risk Management

Risk: Risk can be described as the chance of having a negative result other than the anticipated one.

Risk event: A risk event is simply uncertainty in a business or company setting but is essential as it will result in losses if it happens.

Risk management: Risk management recognizes, evaluates, and regulates all possible risks that can hurt the company’s earnings and capital.

2.1.1 Features of risk and risk management

Risks are situational: If any changes in the situation, such as a company undergoing reorganization, new risks will arise.

Risks are valued based: Risk can be influenced by cultural, corporate, or personal values. For instance, if a company is doing a global project location with diverse culture, the project will have a higher risk.

Risk management prioritizes risk: To succeed, one should prioritize risk; prioritizing risk entails increasing risk management visibility at all levels in the company.

Risk management makes it easy to spot struggling projects. Risk management can be used to inform the company on where it should pay more attention.

2.1.2. Importance and role of risk management

Help in removing uncertainty:

Only after understanding external and internal aspects of business operations will one be able to know what and how to protect their business (Kaushik, 2020). Therefore, having relevant knowledge about the factors that can impact the business or an organization will lessen the uncertainty the business is exposed to.

It helps reduce losses and expenses.

For any company, intense competition will likely increase marketing expenditure. More so, some new legislation can lead to an increase in taxes (Kaushik, 2020). Hence risk management knowledge will help one to anticipate the risks and devise a strategy like keeping aside some percentage of the budget to help deal with such expenses.

2.2 Where and How

Tesla is usually faced with several risks that require one to apply the knowledge of risk and risk management to solve them. Some common examples where Tesla applied risk management are; a roll stop feature, pressure detector, sentry mode, and an intrusion sensor.

2.2.1. Real word examples

Roll stop feature:

Some Tesla vehicles passed through stop signs without halting. The company applied the knowledge of risk management, evaluated the risk, and decided to recall about 54000 of its electric vehicles (Theguardian.com, 2022). Tesla agreed to mitigate the problem by disabling the feature via software update (Theguardian.com, 2022). Having assessed the situation and the likely impact, Tesla decided to update the software and introduce a rolling stop feature.

Steering wheel pressure detector:

Tesla assessed the risks associated with autopilot and concluded that drivers might not be fully engaged in autopilot. Hence, they introduced a feature that detects any pressure on the steering wheel to ensure the drive is continuously engaged.

Sentry mode:

Tesla knew that suspicious activities usually happen when one has parked their vehicle. Therefore, the company did a risk assessment and introduced a feature that records any suspicious activity and activates the alarm system (Tesla.com, 2022). This mitigates the risk of carjacking.

Intrusion sensors

Intrusion sensors also work with sentry mode to alert the user of any potential intrusion, keeping the car safe at all times.

Source of internal risk

One of the significant sources of Tesla’s internal risk is its Controversial CEO Elon Musk. Musk is known for his controversial tweets, which have; landed him and Tesla in trouble. In 2018 he was charged with securities fraud and forced to step down as the company chairman (Sec.gov, 2018). However, to settle the issue, both musk and Tesla agreed to settle the allegations by SEC, but they did not deny or refute the claims.

2.2.2. Internal risks of the automobile industry

One of the internal risks in the automotive industry is software and equipment obsolescence, as it usually results in lost productivity and downtime. Another internal risk is the industrial safety of the workers. Most of the time, workers in the automotive usually get injured as they have to deal with attaching and detaching car parts.

2.3. Risk identification, Ranking, and Prioritization

Tesla is constantly facing various external risks. Among the common external risk are;

Intense competition from other electric vehicle manufacturers

Tesla is not the only company that produces electric vehicles anymore. Recently several car companies, such as Chevrolet and Ford, have ventured into the EV sector (Jin & He, 2019). This intense competition threatens Tesla, which could lessen the company’s dominance in the sector.

Chip shortage

Another risk the company faces is the shortage of microchips. Microchips are crucial for EV production, and their shortage is disrupting the production process.

Shortage of batteries

There is also a shortage of primary minerals, such as Cobalt, used in manufacturing EV batteries. Limited access to minerals such as copper and nickel would disrupt battery production (Zeng et al., 2022). Battery shortage is due to underinvestment in the mining industry,

Corporate social responsibility and sustainability risk

Tesla mainly uses Cobalt, a product of child labour, to produce batteries. It has been accused of benefiting indirectly from child labour as DRC uses children mining cobalt (Matsika, 2020). Furthermore, the company is receiving constant criticism concerning where and how they will dispose of the used batteries.

For the automotive Industry, External Risks are;

Risk of electric vehicles

The automotive sector faces a threat in the form of electric vehicles as the world is shifting from fossil fuels to clean energy, favoring the EV.

Self-driving vehicles

Another major threat the automotive industry face is the adoption of self-driving vehicles. Several companies, such as Tesla, have already launched self-driving vehicles.

Increase in fuel prices

Currently, a fuel shortage is experienced in almost every country, leading to price escalation. Much of the blame is due to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which impact oil and gas accessibility.

The environmental regulations

The world is undergoing significant climatic changes, and most blame is on the automotive industry. Hence nations are coming up with regulations that favour energy-efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles (Yang, 2022). Enforcing such regulations will have a massive impact on fuel-powered vehicles.

2.3.1 Risk ranking

To rank the risks Tesla is exposed to, the report will utilize the theoretical framework, which shows the impact and likelihood of risk as shown below.

Risk Management Framework 1: Identifying and prioritizing risks

Low impact

High likelihood

C

Low impact

Low likelihood

D

High impact

Low likelihood

B

High impact

High likelihood

A

  1. High impact, high likelihood-Corporate social responsibility and sustainability risk
  2. High impact/low likelihood-Battery shortage
  3. Low impact/high likelihood -Strong Competition
  4. Low impact/low likelihood-Chip shortage

2.3.2. Discussion of ranking

Corporate social responsibility and sustainability risk

Corporate social responsibility is the most urgent risk as it has a high impact and likelihood. Battery production requires minerals such as Cobalt (Matsika, 2020). However, there are cases of children being used in cobalt mining in DRC (Kelly, 2019). Hence it will have a high impact as most customers will want to disassociate with Tesla if it indirectly benefits from child labour.

Battery shortage

Battery shortage will have a high impact and low likelihood. This is because for Tesla EV to be fully functional, it requires a power source supplied by the battery. Hence if there is no battery, the EV will not function. On the other hand, it has a low likelihood as Tesla is already building a Gigafactory to deal with the problem.

Strong competition

Strong competition lies in the low impact and high likelihood since Tesla has already established itself as a brand and more people prefer to use it due to its constant innovation. Hence, it will not be impacted much by competitors as it has already exerted dominance in the sector.

Chip shortage

Chip shortage has a low impact and low likelihood. According to Zimmerman (2022), Tesla found an alternative way by rewriting software which reduced the number of Chips required to manufacture cars. This makes it make it have a low impact and low likelihood.

2.4. Recommended Strategy

For Tesla to handle the problem of Corporate social responsibility, it has to adopt a battery manufacturing technology that does not require heavy metals like nickel and Cobalt. If they do not have the technology, the companies should consider outsourcing the materials from developed nations (Matsika, 2020). Still, if Tesla intends to rely on Cobalt from Congo, it should invest more in Cobalt mining in DRC and develop suitable policies that ensure child labor is not an issue in the mines.

2.5. Summary and Conclusion

The report has outlined the benefits of risk management to a company. It has also outlined some risk management examples at Tesla: The Roll stop Feature, Steering wheel pressure detector, Sentry Mode, and Intrusion sensors. It further analyzes the internal risk of the automobile industry. Moreover, it has also analyzed Tesla’s and the automotive industry’s external risks. It then ranks the risks and identifies the most urgent ones: corporate social responsibility and sustainability. Finally, the report recommends a strategy that Tesla should adopt to deal with the most urgent risk.

References

Jin, L., & He, H. (2019). Comparison of the electric car market in China and the United States. Int Council Clean Transp10, 1–13.

Kelly, A. (2019). Apple and Google named in US lawsuit over Congolese child cobalt mining deaths. The Guardian, p. 16.

Sec.gov. (2018). Press release. Retrieved October 25, 2022, from https://www.sec.gov/news/press-release/2018-226

Tesla.com. (2022). Car safety and security features. Retrieved October 25, 2022, from https://www.tesla.com/support/car-safety-security-features#:~:text=YoucanenabletheSecurity,inornearthevehicle.

Theguardian.com. (2022, February 01). Tesla recalls 54,000 vehicles with ‘full self-driving over ‘rolling stop’ feature. Retrieved October 25, 2022, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2022/feb/01/tesla-recall-full-self-driving-software-stop-signs#:~:text=Therollingstopfeaturelet,bicyclistscanbedetectednearby.

Yang, Z., Chen, H., Peng, C., & Liu, X. (2022). Exploring the role of environmental regulations in the production and diffusion of electric vehicles. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 108675.

Zeng, A., Chen, W., Rasmussen, K. D., Zhu, X., Lundhaug, M., Müller, D. B., … & Liu, G. (2022). Battery technology and recycling alone will not save the electric mobility transition from future cobalt shortages. Nature communications13(1), 1-11. Matsika, A. (2020). (PDF) Risk Management of Corporate Social Responsibility and … Retrieved October 24, 2022, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/348214842_Risk_Management_of_Corporate_Social_Responsibility_and_Sustainability_Issues_for_Tesla_Inc_in_2020_-A_Critical_Analysis

Zimmerman, S. (2022). Tesla rewrites software to get around chip shortages. Retrieved October 25, 2022, from https://www.supplychaindive.com/news/tesla-chip-semiconductor-shortage/628040/