Moral dilemmas are contradictions between two behavior choices in a particular life situation. An ambiguous choice of behavioral strategy is common and places demand on the qualities of the individual. One of the most striking episodes that created a moral dilemma was a situation when I had to take care of a close friend of mine who had been undergoing unsuccessful treatment for a long time. Because I maintained close contact with the doctor, and the latter did not talk much to the hospital client, I often learned of the results of the examinations before the patient did. The choice between reporting the lack of positive results or keeping silent was a moral dilemma for me. It is known that this question is resolved unambiguously for medical personnel since doctors are obliged to notify patients about all examination data. However, in the case of interpersonal relationships, a serious contradiction arises. For a person who is not a doctor, the choice to remain silent is the right one.
The news that prolonged treatment has not yielded a positive result seriously impacts the patient’s psyche. Final recovery can depend a lot on the individual’s attitude, positive thinking, and self-regulation skills. Every piece of information about the negative treatment results is a factor putting strong pressure on the patient’s mood and motivation, sometimes provoking depression. For this reason, I decided not to report the results of all examinations until there was no indication of a positive dynamic. Belief, sometimes unreasonable, in the fact that recovery will come sometimes enhances the effect of medications. Knowing this, I decided to shield my friend from negative thoughts to try to divert his thoughts.
A particularly significant argument for me was that the tests often give inaccurate results. To be conclusively sure of the correctness of the examination results, it is necessary to undergo the procedure several times. By telling the patient at once, relatives risk causing unwarranted patient stress since there is no certainty that the results are one hundred percent accurate. My friend’s experience was that the blood test results could have been confused and attributed to another patient. The risk of inaccuracy or physician error encouraged me not to report all results. Besides, it is essential to keep the specifics of the patient’s diagnosis (Fremgen, 2019). In my situation, a friend encountered a diagnosis that did not raise severe life-threatening concerns. Nevertheless, cases that involve the risk of a fatal outcome involve a thorough understanding of the patient’s condition and perspective.
Moreover, an important factor in this dilemma is the individual’s temperament and perception of the world around them. The choice of reticence is appropriate when the person is quite receptive. However, suppose the person has a stable character and shows the ability to react ecologically to stressful situations. In that case, a frank conversation about the condition and prospects for treatment is acceptable. It is also important to understand the organizational specifics of therapy (Fremgen, 2019). In situations where patients work with several doctors from different hospitals or departments, the latter must be aware of all the information to make the right decisions. To do this, the hospital client needs to have accurate data on their diagnosis, examinations, and course of treatment at their disposal.
Thus, the dilemma associated with providing an individual with information about their condition is a multifaceted issue. Withholding test results may be a good solution if healing can be assured and there is no need to create a stressful environment for the patient. Cases involving serious risk to life require utmost honesty with the patient. The character type should also be considered an important argument for making a decision.
Fremgen, B. (2019). Medical law and ethics (6th ed.). Pearson.
PRINCE2 And Agile Project Management Methodologies
Current issues illustrate that project planning requires better cohesion, communication, and tools to execute an organization’s efficient operations. Because the manager cannot create a project strategy by filling templates, the organization requires more from their scheme than in prior circumstances, and the way to achieve a sharp end is to use lighter, faster, and newer methods. As such, this report aims to observe currently available literature and material regarding project planning methods and tools in order to ascertain whether they have desired or practical outcomes. This report emphasizes PRINCE2 and Agile project methodologies, including their principles, themes, processes, and project delivery. Project monitoring methodologies are crucial since they can strengthen a firm by allowing it to share information across departments in an essentially a space that allows for the efficient exchange of information and process details. The relationship between modern tools and devices that influence project planning and the desired organizational changes and outcomes will be analyzed.
PRINCE2 is a project management approach widely used in Europe, Australia, and the United Kingdom. “PRINCE2” means “Projects IN Controlled Environments” (Shaw, Hughes, and Greenhalgh, 2019). It focuses on monitoring resources and dangers by dividing the process into manageable stages, creating responsibility and authority, and using seven processes to lead the project lifespan cycle. Before beginning a project, PRINCE2 requires a defined methodology with an ordered and regulated project timeline (Islam and Evans, 2020). Seven PRINCE2 procedures are implemented to maintain control (Marnada et al., 2022). All procedures that compose a venture, from the start to the finishing point, are included in these processes.
Agile emphasizes shorter production cycles, many iterations, quality improvement, and the ability to make changes as the project progresses (Gheorghe, Gheorghe and Iatan, 2020). End-users actively improve the final product’s efficacy by providing input, which the development team evaluates. Finally, the success of an Agile technique is primarily judged by customer collaboration with the end product, which necessitates listening to clients and continuously developing software to meet their needs.
As a result, it can be deduced that PRINCE2 can be efficiently administered in an organization that requires several sequential steps within its operations. It provides a number of advantages, such as presenting theoretical risks and solutions to a variety of situations. Hypothetically, it could also be applied within a scenario in which tasks or resources must be delegated among a number of departments within a firm. On the other hand, Agile prioritizes the use of shorter production cycles which could theoretically benefit smaller firms that require frequent sales in order to maintain operations and profits. Similarly, smaller firms benefit from customer feedback as they are more reliant on a small but loyal client pool than larger firms.
Critical Evaluation of The PRINCE2 Principles, Themes, and Processes
The first principle, continued business justification, refers to evidence that suggests that further investment in the project offers business advantages. Second, the project must provide a learning experience. Third, roles and responsibilities should be strictly defined within the planning of the project. Fourth, complex tasks are divided into reasonable stages. Fifth, management involvement is limited to situations in which issues occur. Sixth, the focal point of the approach is the development of the product. Seventh, the approach may be scaled and fitted for the context and environment of the project. A number of evaluations can be drawn from these principles, including the importance of sustainability, allegiance to company values, and the foundation of frameworks for future operations and projects. The most critical elements, especially for larger firms that may be difficult to navigate, are likely the formulation of archetypes of future projects and the prioritization of sustainable endeavors.
PRINCE2 is a methodology that follows several stages that are planned. The business operations, risks, and project strategies are revised between stages. Acceptances are established for each venture’s aim, creating limits and describing how authority is distributed. If the lenience is surpassed, the administration team must deliberate if the acceptance should be reinterpreted. Deliverables must meet certain quality norms. The project environment tailors the scheme from start to end, including size, complication, reputation, time, and danger. PRINCE2 covers several themes, including business case, change, organization, risk, preparation, progress, and quality (Marnewick and Einhorn, 2019). As such, the project planning method provides a number of critical elements to firm operations, including risk mitigation, task and resource allocation, and appropriate goal-setting. These are the essential components as they dictate relationships between departments as well as among employees and allow for seamless exchanges of information, tasks, and resources throughout the company.
PRINCE2 project supervision methodology comprises seven processes that are involved in managing projects. PRINCE2 defines the project executive, project panel, and client roles (Naik and Jenkins, 2019). Project boards’ major processes are divided into four essential sections, including stage boundaries, initiation, the direction of Ad hoc, and project closure. However, directing projects does not cover the daily processes of project managers.
Starting a project is the first PRINCE2 process designed to gather the requirements needed to execute the project. The processes established in starting projects should be short (Akhmetshin et al., 2019). They should ensure the availability of data needed by project teams, appoint and design the project control crew, and establish an initiation phase plan. Managing stage limitations offer project boards the key decision facts on if to continue working on the project. Its objectives include assuring project boards that each planned deliverable is accomplished as defined and providing data required for project boards to examine the project viability (Akhmetshin et al., 2019). Recording any lessons or measurements which can aid later project phases is part of its objectives.
The controlling stage oversees the day-to-day running of a project. In every stage of a project, there is a cycle comprising commanding work that should be done, collecting information about the progress of a task, monitoring the changes, reviewing the conditions, reporting, and correcting arising errors. The controlling phase tackles all these tasks together with ongoing change control and risk management work (PRINCE2, 2022). The main goal of the handling product conveyance stage is to guarantee all deliberate products are made and distributed by ensuring efforts on products owed to teams are efficiently authorized and settled to check and accept work correspondences.
Most work in the closing stage entails preparing project committee inputs (PRINCE2, 2022). It further aims at preparing the project’s end report, confirming that the operation and maintenance of arrangements are in place and notifying the host organization of the plan to disband the project resources and organization. Within the circumstance of a more prominent firm implementing PRINCE2 methodologies, a number of process fragments stand out. Primarily, this includes the controlling stage, which emphasizes proper and efficient use of resources and the improved process of task completion to ensure desired production and distribution. This stage is essential as it is much more concise and developed than the initiating stage, which may vary from industry to industry and even from company to company.
Critical Evaluation of the Agile Principles, Themes, and Processes
The Agile methodology represents a working mindset and framework that aids in responding to changing client requirements. It emphasizes conveying value against the priorities of a project within the permitted time and budget, mainly when the urge to convey the project is higher than the involved risks. Agile has various principles, including customer collaboration and constant integration (Malik, Ahmad, and Hussain, 2019). One of the twelve Agile development principles is software delivery. Agile accepts modifications in requirements and regularly delivers by using software cycles and iterations as part of the project process. Agile maintains constant collaboration between stakeholders, supervisors, and team members throughout the project and motivates groups so that they are more likely to distribute their best effort than disgruntled teams.
Agile methodology guarantees improved communication through face-to-face communications, especially when squads are co-located. Occupied software is a crucial indicator of progress for the client as Agile maintains a steady advancement rate. Great design and attention to detail increase agility and ensure that teams improve the product and adapt to change (Hayat et al., 2019). By giving teams decision-making power, self-organization encourages people to take ownership, communicate consistently, and produce high-quality goods. Finally, Agile ensures project managers take time to reflect and make changes to increase the team’s performance and efficiency.
Businesses will not adjust to shifting situations if they rely heavily on machines and products. This value aims at providing developers with the tools they need to complete their tasks without being overburdened. Customers should be included in all process phases, whether internal or external, to ensure that the final product meets their needs. Adjusting to change following a plan is the final theme of the Agile methodology. Agile project management enables changes during the project’s life cycle (Filippetto, Lima, and Barbosa, 2021). Each sprint gives project managers the chance to ponder the previous one and make route adjustments.
Agile project management is a remarkable five-stage phenomenon: The first step is to visualize; the project’s vision is formed during the envisioning phase. It covers the What, Who, When, and How of the project’s completion. This phase focuses on the result and the scope of the project. Conjecture is the second phase. The next phase is speculation; this stage encourages brainstorming, collaboration, and creative thinking about the project’s future direction. Everyone involved in the project discusses what is feasible and what is not while leaving enough room for change if necessary. Process three, investigating, denotes the research phase’s only goal to supply project features (Hidalgo, 2019). This phase consists of three essential steps: managing workload, sticking to best professional practices, and risk management procedures to finish the task.
Adaptation is the fourth phase; during the adaptation phase of the project management lifecycle, changes, modifications, and adjustments are made. This stage compares the actual results to the projected results. More importantly, considering what needs to be improved and re-planning the approach for the next version is vital (Almadhoun and Hamdan, 2020, p. 1152). Completion is the final stage; everybody involved selects the project’s endpoint during this phase.
Critical Evaluation of Both Methodologies
Within specific industries, suppliers can use Agile approaches to produce working software where PRINCE2 is beneficial for a client to justify a project. PRINCE2 is a valuable management technique that focuses on the upper management levels (Islam and Evans, 2020, McGrath and Whitty, 2020). Overall, PRINCE2 is more likely to benefit larger firms and similar contexts that require efficient communication between departments to ensure a steady improvement in general operations. Agile is a better fit for firms that require stability and the completion of smaller work cycles or product creation and distribution due to its focus on short-term efficiency. Industries that consist of large firms, such as agriculture, technology, and vehicle production, may benefit from the methods of PRINCE2.
Meanwhile, markets that consist of smaller firms that provide unique products at high price points, such as health products, luxuries, or non-mass manufactured goods, will likely require Agile methodology. Similarly, projects that target larger scopes and may not be cyclical are likely to be better served by PRINCE2 methodologies. Ongoing and repetitive projects could implement the feedback and practical characteristics of the Agile methods. PRINCE2 methods can be found implemented in public sectors such as health organizations, police forces, or in industries concerned with widely sold and highly demanded products such as gas, oil, and construction (Raharjo and Purwandari, 2020). Agile project planning methods are not restricted by sectors but are usually components of large or middle-sized firms. They focus on innovative projects that require sustainable and emerging outcomes.
PRINCE2 demands a specified methodology and an organized and controlled project timeline before starting a project. Evidence of this can be seen in the sequence of stages that is provided by the methodology, which leans on values that consist of adhering to company morals and long-term operations. The project’s structure is maintained throughout its life cycle by breaking it down into logical parts. The Agile methodology handles software processes that emphasize continuous deployments and customer feedback at each iteration. Shorter production cycles, several iterations, quality enhancement, and the willingness to develop as the project goes are all hallmarks of Agile. As such, the findings implicate that smaller firms which require loyal client populations and frequent improvements are more likely to benefit from Agile methodologies that support these priorities. Despite their differences, both techniques ensure that a project is completed.
Akhmetshin, E.M., Romanov, P.Y., Zakieva, R.R., Zhminko, A.E., Aleshko, R.A., and Makarov, A.L. (2019) Modern approaches to innovative project management in entrepreneurship education: A review of methods and applications in education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education [online], v. 22, pp. 1-15. Web.
Almadhoun, W. and Hamdan, M. (2020) Optimizing the self-organizing team size using a genetic algorithm in agile practices. Journal of Intelligent Systems [online], v.29(1), pp. 1151-1165.
Filippetto, A.S., Lima, R. and Barbosa, J.L.V. (2021) A risk prediction model for software project management based on similarity analysis of context histories. Information and Software Technology [online], v. 131, pp. 106497.
Gheorghe, A.M., Gheorghe, I.D. and Iatan, I.L. (2020) Agile software development. Informatica Economica [online], v.24(2), pp. 90-100.
Hayat, F., Rehman, A.U., Arif, K.S., Wahab, K. and Abbas, M., 2019. The influence of agile methodology (Scrum) on software project management. In 2019 20th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on Software Engineering, Artificial Intelligence, Networking and Parallel/Distributed Computing (SNPD). IEEE [online]. doi: 10.1109/SNPD.2019.8935813
Hidalgo, E.S. (2019) Adapting the scrum framework for agile project management in science: case study of a distributed research initiative. Heliyon [online], v.5(3).
Islam, S. and Evans, N. (2020) Key success factors of PRINCE2 project management method in software development project: KSF of PRINCE2 in SDLC. International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture [online], v.5(3), pp. 76-84.
Malik, R.S., Ahmad, S.S. and Hussain, M.T.H. (2019). A review of agile methodology in IT projects. In Proceedings of 2nd International Conference on Advanced Computing and Software Engineering (ICACSE) [online].
Marnada, P., Raharjo, T., Hardian, B. and Prasetyo, A. (2022) Agile project management challenge in handling scope and change: A systematic literature review. Procedia Computer Science [online], v.197, pp. 290-300.
Marnewick, C. and Einhorn, F. (2019) The business case thrives on relevant information. South African Journal of Information Management [online], v.21(1), pp. 1-11.
McGrath, S. and Whitty, J. (2020) Practitioner views on project management methodology (PMM) effectiveness. Journal of Modern Project Management [online], v.8(1), pp. 188-215.
Naik, N. and Jenkins, P. (2019) A web-based method for managing PRINCE2® projects using trello®. In 2019 International Symposium on Systems Engineering (ISSE) (pp. 1-3). IEEE [online].
Prince2.com. (2022) PRINCE2 Processes: 7 Processes of PRINCE2 Explained | EUR. [online]
Shaw, S., Hughes, G. and Greenhalgh, T. (2019) Standardisation and its consequences in health care: a case study of PRINCE2 project management training. In the Projectification of the Public Sector. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
Raharjo, T. and Purwandari, B. (2020) Agile Project Management Challenges and Mapping Solutions: A Systematic Literature Review [online]. ICSIM ’20: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Software Engineering and Information Management, pp. 123-129.
The Supernatural As A Human Conception
Why are tales, stories, folklore, and dreams based on supernatural elements popular, ranging from the media to personal conversations? The perception of the supernatural reflects one’s individual emotions, beliefs, and knowledge. It is seemingly mundane events that tend to be more complex or multifaceted to the point of assumption of something supernatural. These forces affect people’s general perception and attitude toward dreams, stories told between friends and even folkloric storytelling. It is important to note that the connection to the supernatural can be seen in history, boredom, inner reflections, and hardships of life.
Supernatural in Culture
Firstly, human understanding and perception of the supernatural relate to history due to the constant and continuous development of society and civilization. It is stated that “the postwar period saw rapid rebuilding and further industrialization, even thinkers and writers struggled to comprehend the enormity” (Puchner et al. 688). This can be seen in folklore, where stories were used to translate some form of wisdom to the next generation (Armstrong and Keddie 82). In other words, the conception of the supernatural relates to the folkloric by how the most prominent literary thinkers and storytellers were shaped by historical events.
Secondly, the relationship between the supernatural and one’s perspective on it can be seen in the boredom and interest manifested in one’s dreams. For instance, in The Daydreams of a Drunk Woman, the author writes: “boredom … such awful boredom. … How sickening! How very annoying! When all is said and done, heaven help me” (Lispector 805). Thus, the reality is often disappointing, boring, and uninteresting, which is why people tend to spend their time daydreaming and fantasizing, where supernatural concepts can easily be implemented to fill the gaps.
Thirdly, human understanding and perception of the supernatural relate to tales between friends through hardships of life. Ndiaye writes: “she was unhappy and started hating me. She said I had to leave the house and make my life elsewhere” (77). It is evident that life viewed objectively is full of challenges and struggles, which can cause suffering and dissatisfaction. A close inner circle of family and friends usually struggles together, which is why it becomes easier to attribute the cause from oneself to the supernatural.
Fourthly, the conception of the supernatural relates to the stories through inner reflections. When discussing the emergence of the fantastic, Jordan writes: “we are at once curious about and fearful of the spaces we inhabit, and every space, however domesticated, is nonetheless redolent” (97). People have inner fears of the unknown, and they seek to project what they know about the world onto everything else. For example, it is more comforting to think about pure angels’ existence and protection than to face challenges alone. Similarly, it is easier to attribute one’s misfortunes to some demons than to admit one’s fault or ignorance about the causes.
In conclusion, the human conception of the supernatural relates to the folkloric, dreams, tales told between friends, and the stories not often lauded through history, boredom, hardships of life, and inner reflections. The very concept of the supernatural refers to some occurrences or forces out of the natural order, which implies that they are unexplainable and mysterious. In other words, they are projections of people’s desires, challenges, boredom, and the perception of societal changes by using a framework that does not require elaborate explanation.
Armstrong, Kate, and Hannah Keddie. “Telling Tales: Inspiring Creativity through the Myths, Legends, and Folklore of England.” Preternature: Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural, vol. 11 no. 1, 2022, pp. 82-108.
Jordan, Shirley. “Fantastic Spaces in Marie NDiaye.” Women and Space, vol. 93, 2010, pp. 97-108.
Lispector, Clarice. The Daydreams of a Drunk Woman. 1960.
Ndiaye, Marie. Three Strong Women. Vintage Books, 2009.
Puchner, Martin, et al. “Post-War and Post-Colonial Literature, 1945-1968.” The Norton Anthology of Western Literature, Vol. 2, edited by Martin Puchner et al., W. W. Norton & Company, 2014, pp. 687-691.