Researching Of Cross-Cultural Negotiations Free Essay

Ronald Reagan’s Quote

Peace is a term that can be described in different ways. Some people might think that peace is the absence of conflicts. However, there is a famous quote from President Ronald Reagan regarding peace, which is as follows: “Peace is not the absence of conflict, it is the ability to handle conflict by peaceful means” (McBrady, 2015). The quote means that it is impossible to avoid every conflict and maintain peace. The conflict is going to arise anyway; hence, a key to maintaining peace is finding ways to resolve the conflicts in a peaceful means. It clearly indicates that the peaceful state of the country stands for smart external politics of the country led by wise politicians. Hence, it is a way more complicated task to keep the peace than it seems at first.

Negotiation Skills in Cross-Cultural Conflicts

Sometimes, people from different cultures might end up in conflict due to totally different views on matters. For example, western cultures, such as the American, can find it challenging to live in an environment of eastern cultures, such as China. When such cross-cultural conflicts arise, a key to resolving the problem is high negotiation skills. For instance, the Chinese-established socio-cultural feature called “face work” goes against the western understanding of social behavior (Leung et al., 2003). However, a proper understanding of the cultural feature can give advantages to foreign negotiators when working with Chinese people. Moreover, Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory might be used for effective cross-cultural negotiation. The theory has six main indices that can be used for defining the culture. Those indices include power distance, which can be highly hierarchical or egalitarian, collectivism vs. individualism, such as China vs. Germany, and level of uncertainty avoidance. The other three indices are femininity and masculinity, short or long-term orientation, and restraint vs. indulgence. All those indices can be used to find a proper approach to any culture during cross-cultural negotiations.

Moreover, Blackman’s approach to negotiating with China can be implemented for effective communication. The approach consists of five main stages (Blackman, 1998). The first one is the opening stage, which is usually a pleasant side of relationship building and takes up most of the negotiating process. Technical discussion and term of contract discussion stages are focused on the support of the position of opposing sides and on the discussion aimed at reducing the price. The contract signing phase is immediately followed by the new discussion of possible concessions. Finally, the last stage is post-contract negotiations, which are the long-term process involving potential changes.

Power and Conflict

The role of power in any conflict is of significant role and should not be underestimated. According to Van der Dennen (2005, p. 2), Coser’s definition of conflict is “a struggle over values and claims to scarce status, power, and resources in which the aims of the opponents are to neutralize, injure or eliminate their rivals.” It shows that power is closely related to conflict. Conflicts are, in principle, inevitable in public life; they are omnipresent as an inevitable consequence of any hierarchically organized system (Tittenbrun, 2013). However, people have the ability to regulate conflicts, and forestall “social upheavals.” For this, at least three conditions are important: first, the presence of value attitudes, the recognition of differences and confrontation between the conflicting; secondly, the level of organization of the parties – the higher the degree of organization, the easier it is to reach agreement and fulfillment of agreements; thirdly, the mutuality of certain rules, the observance of which allows to maintain relations between the parties to the conflict.

Reference List

Blackman, C. (1998) ‘Negotiating China. Case studies and strategies, International Business Review, 7(3), pp.323-325.

Leung, T.K.P., Wong, Y.H. and Tam, C.T. (2003) ‘Facework in Chinese culture: Its role in Chinese business’, Web.

McBrady, J. (2015) ‘The challenge of peace: Ronald Reagan, John Paul II, and the American bishops’, Journal of Cold War Studies, 17(1), pp.129-152.

Tittenbrun, J. (2013) ‘Ralph Dahrendorf’s conflict theory of social differentiation and elite theory’, Innovative Issues and Approaches in Social Sciences, 6(3), pp.117-140.

Van der Dennen, J.M.G.. (2005) ‘Introduction: On Conflict’, The Sociobiology of Conflict. London: Chapman & Hall, pp. 1-19.

Noisy Neighbors In Los Angeles

Sound is one of the environmental influences for all living organisms, including humans. Machines, propagating systems, and transport systems are easily argued to be the grassroots sources of loud sounds (Morillas 214). In nature, loud sounds are rare, and the noise is relatively weak and short-lived. The combination of sound stimuli gives animals and humans the time necessary to assess their character and form a response. But high-power noises affect the hearing aid and nerve centers (Black). Noise surrounds us everywhere: at home, on the street, at school, but few people know how noise affects the human body. Compared to other various surroundings, noise pollution is mainly concentrated in urban areas. Noise that causes pollution in urban areas comes from different sources including, transport systems, construction activities, poor urban planning, industrialization, and various social events. This essay will cover the main types of noise pollution and possible solutions which might have both positive and negative effects. Moreover, it will present the solution implementation plan, which an individual can carry, and it will prove its effectiveness.

People lived surrounded by noise for their entire existence, but natural sounds can hardly be called an irritating factor. One of the root causes of noise pollution is the noise from transport (Brown). It has a negative impact on a person around the clock, and especially it is felt at night when the body requires rest. My friend said about this, “the noise from cars and equipment is a big problem, but there is no getting away from it.” People are constantly trying to make their lives better, but it becomes difficult to overcome negative consequences. A person who constantly falls under the influence of sounds may have a mental health disorder and insomnia. My aunt explained, “I started having trouble sleeping as soon as I moved to the city.” Therefore, sound pollution is a problem that people should take seriously.

Another reason for the noise is loud parties at night. Even though it is illegal, it does not stop teenagers. The noise interferes with the residents of neighboring houses; moreover, small children wake up because of the noise (Howard). My sister notes, “when I put my child to bed, I’m afraid that he will wake up because someone has started a party.” Moreover, loud noises at night and insomnia reduce concentration and cause headaches. Children may also become affect by loud sounds which affect immature body. My uncle believes that “if I could somehow isolate myself from the noise, then my work would proceed much better, and I would not suffer from headaches.” Therefore, noise significantly affects our physical condition.

Industrialization is also among the main causes of sound pollution in an urban setup and, more specifically, Los Angeles. Industries produce a lot of noise that is even considered a pollution of noise due to the relentless use of big machines in the industries (Bilaşco 214). The sound is too much that even the workers in those industries are forced to find means of preventing the loud noises from harming them. These sounds emanating from these industries affect the people in Los Angeles in various ways. My friend notes, “the area around industries is out of bound to him because of his hearing problems.” Industries produce the loudest noise compared to other sources of noise pollution (Smith). However, most of the industries are located away from the human population. Most people I have interacted with believe that “industries in Los Angeles should be even moved further.” These industries hinder the growth of the city to some extent, even due to their location. Indeed, noises from the industries should be avoided at all costs.

The poor urban planning of the city contributes significantly to noise pollution. This occurs in different ways including, big families forced to share a small space, not enough parking lots, congested houses, and proximity between residential and industrial buildings (Anees 10). This factor does not produce a lot of noise considered to others, but then it is almost impossible for someone to avoid the noise pollution caused by poor urban planning. My parent believes that “if we had grown in a rural urban setup, we would be better health-wise”. This is because they have tried as much as they could, but nothing has worked. Therefore, we are forced to live with this noise pollution. My brother says, “my hearing process is compromised due to the noise pollution.” The noises pollution due to this factor lead to hearing problems. Clearly, living with this kind of noise pollution seems normal, but it causes a lot of harm.

Construction activities in urban areas are constant, and they lead to noise pollution. People are daily putting up new infrastructures, and these activities contribute to the noise pollution in cities (Bilaşco 219). Compared to other causes of noise pollution, construction activities are less disturbing since the construction of a certain infrastructure takes a certain period of time. There is no other construction there, and therefore no noise pollution caused. However, when there is a construction activity, a lot of noise is produced by this activity. My friend said, “constructions happening in city always have many negative impacts.” Constructions often lead to a traffic of cars leading to more noise in the surrounding. However, we have to adapt to survive with construction activities taking place. My colleague narrates to me, “constructions in the city has affected me a lot and in a negative way.” Construction has made him get late to his business late and feel uncomfortable. When there is no control of traffic, construction can lead to a lot of delays.

Noise from air traffic in a city setup is also enough to cause noise pollution. Transport through the air is most common in the cities, and therefore a lot of noise is produced (Di 120). The noise pollution may not be as much as the pollution due to other factors, but it is significant. My friend who lives near the airport notes,” it is not easy to live in such an area.” The noise from the air traffic is very disturbing. In the city, airplanes are constantly landing and taking off; hence there is no time the place has silence. My brother once noted,” living beside an airport must be very uncomfortable.” The discomfort is due to the noise caused by the airplanes. Air traffic causes a lot of noise that cannot be neglected.

Even though intensive air traffic is one of the major types of noise pollution, people still cannot live without it. My friend who works in the IT sphere states that “the world’s population has to adjust to these changes and find solutions to decrease the negative effect of this issue”. One of the most common resolvers can be distant locations and the construction of airports from the centers of big cities (Tong). Small airports with less intensive traffic should also be relocated to places away from the town to ensure that even sounds from landing and departing airplanes do not disturb citizens. The technology progress is also developing at a high rate, making it possible to construct planes that do not produce loud sounds. My brother believes that “many surrounding people are becoming more interested in the work of technology and the way it helps out society.” This belief can be considered as a positive point which make people more conscious about their future. Also, it becomes more possible to construct a greater number of airports outside centers of huge cities to decrease the heavy traffic in other aircraft ports.

Specialists are still trying to find out how noise pollution cause health problems and what parts of the human body should be deeply analyzed to decrease the effect of this issue. Before starting to treat health problems raised by noise pollution, specialists should find solutions to the increased number of technologies that produce an enormous amount of noise. My granny says that “many years ago the number of health problems in the surrounding society was not high.” Some actions might not be helpful, and they can cause more harm than benefit. For instance, my cousin states, “the attempt to decrease the use of technology might not the best solution”. This fact might be correct as every year people are using more devices to make their lives comfortable (Stewart). This plan might not have a successful outcome as technology in such cities as Los Angeles is the main type of system which brings money to its citizens. Moreover, the use of technology usually helps people cope with global problems, and the decrease in technology improvement might cause more issues.

However, other steps to decrease a high level of noise pollution like planting trees and installing high-quality windows can save people from this global problem. The noise becomes lost between the branches or leaves by planting trees, and my friend thinks that “it makes the atmosphere in huge cities more relaxed.” People can take a rest and decrease the risk of health problems like depression and heart strokes. Also, those who live in skyscrapers and have many neighbors on the same floor can use special windows with a double-protection system to ensure that nobody disturbs the calmness (Ning 220). Moreover, individuals should feel cozy in their homes, and nothing should irritate people to make them pay less attention to the busy environment outside their houses. Soft sofas and rugs can help with the creation of a comfortable and relaxed atmosphere. My mom said that “small decorations at home create a positive mood for the day.” When people are surrounded with things that make them happy, the negative effect of noise pollution decreases.

The US government is currently creating plans to save cities from noise pollution and keep the health of the population at a high rate. “Government should play a crucial part in finding the solution to the noise pollution problem”, my dad states. Local authorities in every state take specific actions like expanding the cities and decreasing the pollution from constructing equipment to ensure that the noise problem does not continue to grow (EPA). The EPA’s main strategy is to carry investigations about the health problems caused by noise pollution and develop exact solutions that can fit specific locations of the United States. The government should pay attention to the changes in the environment as my friend says that “people become affected by them and the general performance of work produced by the US’s citizens.” With the support of local society governmental representatives will be able to protect the world. When governmental authorities create special plans to decrease the level of noise pollution, the trust of ordinary people increases.

Many people who live in an urban area can mention that noise coming from the streets and neighbors increases, and it often disturbs personal boundaries. My dad said, “it became complicated to concentrate on a specific task and it does not allow me to have a good sleep at night.” A huge percentage of individuals have insomnia, and they sleep less than several years ago (Wei et al. 2018). The real examples from my neighborhood make me more conscious of this problem. My classmate mentioned that “a busy and noisy urban environment destroys daily routine and such important aspects of the day like having breakfast might not be a priority anymore.” Individuals can create plans which will help implement diverse solutions to this problem. When people start cooperating, many global problems might be solved, and the development process might be slowed down. Citizens of urban areas might invest in developing technologies that may decrease loud sounds in inner cities.

With the development of innovations, people are able make their lifestyles more comfortable. However, not all individuals can exactly understand what plans should be created and how money should be invested to decrease such global problems as noise pollution. My granny says, “the new era of technology allows young people to keep every part of their lives under control, and the modern generation has more chances to make the environment better.” Technologies allowed people to cope with various problems and start following current trends that save the planet. One of the plans which may be easily implemented is the spread of the problem on the Internet. The cities are becoming larger, and the infrastructure allows those living in the suburbs to have all convenience in their distant locations. My friend who lives away from the inner city says, “even though it takes a lot of time to get to the center, people who live outside the city might be happier with their lives.” This plan can be integrated successfully as it does not require any financing, and every individual can take part in it.

In conclusion, people cannot notice that they are exposed to noise, which leads to negative consequences. The effects of noise pollution are still being studied, but the issue has been identified as a significant concern for public health and safety. Noise pollution comes from different sources including, transport systems, construction activities, poor urban planning, industrialization, and various social events. Noise pollution causes many physical, mental, and physiological disorders. In a fast-changing world some solutions might be helpful, but other may even make the situation worse. When governments pay attention to this problem, it is possible to keep noise pollution under control. Individuals should pay attention to the environmental changes and introduce their plans which can solve this global issue. It is important to use modern innovations to cope with noise pollution and ensure that they do not harm.

Works Cited

Anees, Malik Muhammad, Muhammad Qasim, and Aroj Bashir. “Physiological and Physical Impact of Noise Pollution on Environment.” Earth Science Pakistan, vol. 1, no. 1, 2017, pp. 8-11.

Bilaşco, Ştefan, et al. “GIS Model for Identifying Urban Areas Vulnerable to Noise Pollution: Case Study.” Frontiers of Earth Science, vol. 11, no. 2, 2017, pp. 214-228.

Black, John. Personal Interview. 2021.

Brown, Rosy. Personal Interview. 2021.

Buxton, Rachel T., et al. “Noise Pollution is Pervasive in US Protected Areas.” Science, vol. 356, no. 6337, 2017, pp. 531-533.

Di, Hui, et al. “Estimation of the Quality of an Urban Acoustic Environment Based on Traffic Noise Evaluation Models.” Applied Acoustics, vol. 141, 2018, pp. 115-124.

Environmental Protection Agency. “Clean Air Act Title IV – Noise Pollution”. United States Environmental Protection Agency, 2021.

Howard, Jessika. Personal Interview. 2021.

Morillas, Juan Miguel Barrigón, et al. “Noise Pollution and Urban Planning.” Current Pollution Reports, vol. 4, no. 3, 2018, pp. 208-219.

Ning, Xin, et al. “Reducing Noise Pollution by Planning Construction Site Layout via a Multi-objective Optimization Model.” Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 222, 2019, pp. 218-230.

Smith, Helen. Interview. 2021.

Stewart, John, et al. Why Noise Matters: A Worldwide Perspective on the Problem, Policies and Solutions. Routledge, 2016.

Tong, Ka Po. “Offline Flight Tracking System with Noise Pollution Measurement.” Run Run Shaw Library, 2016.

Wei, Yishul, et al. “Insomnia Really Hurts: Effect of a Bad Night’s Sleep on Pain Increases with Insomnia Severity”. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 2018, Web.

Mobile Advertising And Manipulation

The nature of mobile advertising has evolved enormously over the past few years. The advancement of phone technology has, in turn, changed the ways in which marketing is produced, presented, and maintained throughout the medium. Mobile advertising employs a number of characteristics that make it distinct from prior forms of marketing. These include mobility, adaptability, accessibility to users, the individuality of consumers, customer behavior and habit information, and interactivity. As a result of this, mobile advertising has also generated the ways in which manipulation has become a prominent element of product and service marketing within these mediums. Mobile advertising is able to manipulate the purchasing habits and behaviors of clients through pseudo-ownership psychology, the implantation of private user data, and the gamification of regular marketing processes. Due to the nature of mobile marketing’s interactivity and access to users despite time and location, the aforementioned strategies are more likely to influence those that are unaware of the manipulations.

Mobile advertising tactics have been even more effective in terms of manipulation than prior platforms such as television, billboards, or a number of other mediums. The ability to utilize imagery, motion, and sound on a single platform has given mobile advertising flexibility and reach that prior tools were unable to. The prevalence of mobile phones and the time given to using the internet via a phone by users also allows advertisements to access consumers at any time of the day or location. However, it is the advancements of already existing tactics that employ the adaptability of mobile advertising in order to extend consumer manipulation. Primarily, this is seen in the application of pseudo-ownership advertising, which uses language that implies ownership, such as the frequent use of ‘my’, ‘your’, or ‘our’. A study found that the introduction of pseudo-ownership incited purchase intentions, brand choice, and favorable attitudes towards a brand through the manipulation of a consumer’s relationship with said brand or product (Kou & Powpaka, 2021). As such, pseudo-ownership in mobile advertising does not simply exist as a stylistic choice of a marketing direction but as a component of general mobile marketing, with a particular focus on establishing psychological brand ownership and loyalty.

Much of the adaptability and accuracy of mobile advertising is built on the availability of their consumer’s digital patterns and behaviors. They utilize this often private or at least not publicly available information in order to tailor their products or marketing towards particular client populations. Though some may argue that this eases the process of purchasing for clients and makes marketing more direct, a process essentially utilizes the private information of users to manipulate their buying habits. In fact, legal limitations such as the California Consumer Privacy Act exist in order to allow authorities to oversee the types of user data that is gathered, when it is collected, and the ways in which it will be implemented (University of Pennsylvania, 2019). A firm’s continuous access to user information through mobile devices allows them to directly advertise through those mediums, the severity of this manipulation is now becoming more and more monitored by policy as a result. This is due to the very likely chance of privacy breaches and misuse of user data to promote certain products over others. Currently, without the adoption of these guidelines by companies, the continuous harvesting of user data for mobile advertising is likely to remain a prevalent and direct risk to the consumer’s privacy.

Mobile advertising introduced a component to marketing that has rarely been seen prior and has the ability to create an enjoyable process while introducing products to clients. Gamification is a tactic that links elements of games, such as point-scoring or competition, to other unrelated processes. In this case, the implementation of gamification within marketing has been successfully affiliated with mobile advertising, which can be easily turned from purely presentational to interactive. One study that assesses the gamification of loyalty programs through the mobile environment found that even conventional gamified programs of loyalty resulted in increased loyalty and an intention to download the firm’s apps (Hwang & Choi, 2020). Self-oriented rewards presented higher results of consumer involvement. The manipulative aspects of the process become clear when they are directed at certain consumer groups, such as adolescents. The current generation of teenagers and young adults are usually knowledgeable about phones and utilize them frequently. As such, they become prominent targets for advergames, which essentially exist as covert advertisements that offer limited interactive features. However, a study that analyzed phone attachments and the influence of advergames in adolescents found that there were few results on brand response as a result of gamification (Van Berlo et al., 2020). This may suggest that while both groups of adults and adolescents depict traits of phone attachments, those that are better acquainted with modes of mobile advertising manipulations are likely to be less susceptible to it.

There exist arguments that state that the manipulation of choices and decision-making performed by mobile advertisements inherently supports consumer empowerment. This is supported by the notion that the user’s data generates the content, which is then advertised and promoted to them. As such, certain digital marketing specialists claim that data-related decision-making by advertisements is the root of customer empowerment, in opposition to the manipulation that others present it as (Darmody & Zwick, 2020). However, this concept assumes that the entire identity of a user as a consumer exists through their digital footprint, which is false. While a consumer’s data may be a large aspect of their purchasing behavior and habits, both are susceptible to change or incompleteness. As a result, the use of such decision-making tools based on outdated or incomplete data makes mobile advertisements limited and potentially unreliable. The promotion of inadequate products or services is then, by default, a form of manipulation. In fact, the purchasing of the advertised product by a consumer is irrelevant in the analysis of whether such marketing is a manipulation or not. The manipulative nature exists in the inherent process of mobile advertising, which simply generates product content for users despite their intent to purchase.

Through the use of pseudo-ownership, user data, or gamification, mobile advertising is able to establish a marketing process that is effective but inherently manipulative. Pseudo-ownership influences the psychological loyalty and enjoyability of a brand. The collection of user data has severe and possibly legal ramifications if misused by a firm. Gamification applies the interactivity of mobile advertising to increase the use and intent to buy a certain product or service. As such, while certain marketing specialists and consumers may find that these processes eliminate obstacles for customers, it cannot be denied that they are inherently manipulative because of the covert operation of mobile advertisements.

Works Cited

Darmody, Aron, & Detlev Zwick. “Manipulate to empower: Hyper-relevance and the contradictions of marketing in the age of surveillance capitalism.” Big Data and Society, vol. 7, no. 1, 2020, Web.

Hwang, Jiyoung, & Choi, Laee. “Having fun while receiving rewards?: Exploration of gamification in loyalty programs for consumer loyalty.” Journal of Business Research, vol. 106, no. 1, 2020, pp. 365-376, Web.

Kou, Yan, & Samart Powpaka. “Pseudo-ownership advertising appeal creates brand psychological ownership: the role of self-construal and customer type.” Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 30, no. 2, 2021, Web.

Van Berlo, Zeph et al. “Adolescents and handheld advertising: The roles of brand familiarity and smartphone attachment in the processing of mobile advergames.” Journal of Consumer Behavior, vol. 19, no. 5, 2020, Web.

“Your Data Is Shared and Sold, What’s being done about it?” University of Pennsylvania, 2019, Web.

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