Researching Of Medical Care Fraud University Essay Example

In 2016, the largest health care fraud ever committed was revealed to the public. According to Mangan (2016, July 23), “three Florida residents have been charged in an alleged Medicare fraud and money laundering scheme that netted participants a whopping $1 billion since 2009” (pp. 1). Such a fallout had the potential of rallying the public into a massive discontentment with the security of the Medicare system specifically and the whole U.S health care system in general. Moreover, it would probably cause the public to question the work of the U.S. Justice Department heavily, seeing as it has overlooked such a massive fraud for more than seven years.

It is safe to say that among all of the American states, Florida has the largest history of medical care fraud. Mangan (2016, July 23) supplies that “south Florida is a hot spot for health-care billing fraud schemes that target the huge federal Medicare program, and the giant joint federal-state Medicaid program” (pp. 9). Although in the field of assisted living specifically, it is not a common occurrence, there are still many fraud schemes associated with the health care sector in general. Perez and Wing (2018) state that “Fraud Control Units conduct investigations that recover almost $1.8 billion in inappropriate Medicaid spending, returning $7 for every $1 spent” (p. 1). Thus, it can be concluded that health care remains one of the most vulnerable sectors in regards to scam cases.

As the number of older adults in need of assisted living grows, so grow the challenges associated with it. Ensuring that the patients receive quality care despite the high numbers of them, could help to attract more professional healthcare workers into the field. Additionally, the use of technology in the assisted living health care system could also improve the situation. Bozan and Berger (2019) state that “ambient AL technology currently has the ability to anticipate and respond to the heterogeneous nature of the needs of the elderly and their caretakers” (p. 4308).

When selecting long-term care services, I would recommend the families to ask the following questions. Is it a professional facility with a legal, active license? Does the staff have all of the required competencies? What are the reviews from other patients who already had been in their care? Such questions would help ensure the quality of the care the service provides.

References

Bozan, K., & Berger, A. (2019). Revisiting the technology challenges and proposing enhancements in ambient assisted living for the elderly. Proceedings of the 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences. Web.

Mangan, D. (2016). $1 billion alleged Medicare fraud, and money laundering scheme leads to Florida arrests. CNBC. Web.

Perez, V., & Wing, C. (2018). Should we do more to police Medicaid fraud? Evidence on intended and unintended consequences of expanded enforcement. SSRN Electronic Journal. Web.

Causes And Consequences Of Alcohol And Drug Addiction

Drug addiction is a psychological and physical disorder that affects the brain of an individual. It is caused by dependence on drugs, alcohol, and specific behaviors. Addiction alters the brain of the person from liking something to wanting it. After developing addiction, the victim continues with the compulsive behavior regardless of whether they risk their lives or not. Despite the awareness of addiction’s impacts on their lives, they find it challenging to stop independently (Islam and Hossain 145). This essay discusses alcohol and drug addiction, focusing on how people become drug addicts or alcoholics and the consequences of this public health problem for the individual, their family, and society. This paper argues that alcohol and drug addiction are caused by an individual, family, and environmental factors. It can lead to serious physical, social, and mental health problems and economic strain on individuals and society.

Several individual-specific factors may cause a person to become addicted to alcohol or drugs. Research shows that individual factors such as genetics, chronic pain, and medical conditions like bipolar, anxiety, and depression significantly influence the risk of addiction (Islam and Hossain 144). Therefore, in some people, biological factors and mental health problems may be the underlying reasons for using and getting addicted to illicit substances.

Furthermore, environmental factors such as peer pressure may play a significant role in building an addiction. The kind of friends a person interacts with may influence them to start experimenting with recreational drugs, which leads to craving. The risk of dependence becomes real when peers encourage such behaviors or are incentivized by being praised or respected. Social groups may shape how a person thinks, behaves, or perceives reality (Sattler et al. 418). In some scenarios, the public stigma associated with such groups may discourage those who try to change their addictive behaviors (Sattler et al. 412). To avoid this, addicts will have to change their social environment and interact with other sober people who will help them recover from the addictive behavior.

Another reason why people get addicted to drugs is living in a dysfunctional family. Islam and Hossain explain that people raised by parents who use drugs are at a higher risk of engaging in the same act (143). Family members may pass these behaviors to their children because they act as the primary socialization agents. Moreover, poverty, exposure to domestic violence, and lack of proper guidance from parents can significantly impact the occurrence of substance abuse and addiction. For example, children raised by parents who drink excessively are likely to start taking alcohol at a tender age.

Alcohol and drug addiction can cause severe consequences for the victims, their families, and society at large. This problem destroys family relationships affecting the strong bond between parents and their children (Bachi et al. 37). The mutual satisfaction between couples is affected by heavy drinking. Children raised in such families may struggle to get basic needs such as education, food, and shelter as their parents have less time to look after them. Family members of the victims suffer from anxiety and depression. In addition to this, domestic violence and abuse are widespread in families with a history of alcoholism and substance abuse. Some spouses and children are exposed to physical and mental abuse (Sattler et al. 424). Moreover, addiction can lead to financial strain because some addicts spend the money meant for paying food, bills, and other essential services on liquor and drugs.

Moreover, addiction may cause health problems such as cardiovascular, kidney, and liver diseases leading to loss of life. Drug and alcohol abuse enhances the risk of getting infected with HIV/AIDs because of a higher tendency to engage in unsafe sexual behaviors (Deren et al. 94). For pregnant women, drug abuse during pregnancy can affect the fetus and the child’s development. Addiction and alcoholism contribute to violence and criminal activities such as theft and robbery to buy drugs. Furthermore, addiction may lead to absenteeism, accidents in jobs, job dissatisfaction, and even dismissal. Substance abuse deteriorates mental and physical health and well-being.

Lastly, addicts have a significant impact on society. First and foremost, one of the consequences of addiction to society is the loss of family. Individuals with addictive habits lose their loved ones because of their behavior. In most cases, they are subjected to domestic violence, abuse, and financial struggles. During this period, children may be separated from their homes and placed under state custody, which is very expensive for the community (Islam and Hossain 149). Addicted parents prioritize looking for illicit drugs for themselves before looking for the child’s welfare.

In conclusion, the actual cause of substance abuse remains unknown as researchers and practitioners have documented numerous potential risk factors. It is still unclear why some people can abuse substances and quit easily while others become slaves to drugs despite unbearable consequences. Nevertheless, research shows that individual, family, and community factors have a role in addiction development. If left unaddressed, addiction problems can have devastating consequences on the addicts, their families, and society.

Works Cited

Deren, Sherry, et al. “Substance use among older people living with HIV: Challenges for health care providers.” Frontiers in public health, vol. 7, 2019, pp. 94. Frontiers in Public Health, Web.

Islam, Azizul, and Md Faruque Hossain. “Drug abuse and its impact on Bangladesh.” International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, vol. 9, no. 11, 2017, pp. 143-156. ResearchGate, Web.

Sattler, Sebastian, et al. “Public stigma toward people with drug addiction: A factorial survey.” Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs, vol. 78, no. 3, 2017, pp. 415-425. Rutgers, Web.

View On Governmental Guidance And Economy: Keynes V. Chicago School

In economic theory, there are two significant points of view on governmental guidance and economy. One of the points was presented by Keynes and later became known as the Keynesian Economic Theory. The other one, founded by Friedman and von Hayek, is known as the Chicago School Economic Theory. This paper will summarize the theories, define core differences and evaluate which one is more compelling in the current state of the economy.

The core difference between Keynes and Friedman’s economic philosophies is their perception of the role of government in the economy. Friedman’s Macroeconomic Policy of Monetarism was founded solely on a belief in the natural equilibrium of the market (Desai 2019). Friedman’s theory states that interference from the government in the market area is unnecessary and could negatively affect the market balance. According to Friedman, instead of controlling the market, the government should focus on controlling the amounts of money. On the other hand, Keynes stated that employment level is the primary factor of the economy, as demand determines the level of economic activity in the country. He analyzed different cycles of businesses and determined that the business sphere needs additional support from the government (Desai 2019). According to Keynes, the government needs to control the economy through low interest rates to provide opportunities for job creation.

The policy of Quantitative Easing that took place in the US after the financial crisis of 2008 was mainly influenced by the Keynesian theory. From Freidman’s view, the short-term change of the money supply could cause a dramatic effect on the economy, so Freidman would possibly focus on expanding the money supply. From the two schools of thought, I find Keynes’ theory more compelling as it implies that government should help the economy and focus on full employment. In the current situation, full employment would solve many social and financial issues and increase the quality of the population’s living.

Reference

Desai, Chiragh. 2019. “Economics, Monetary Theory and Fiscal Policy.” In Management for Scientists, edited by Robert Mellor, 1-15. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited.

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