Researching The Alzheimer’s Disease: Causes And Symptoms Essay Example For College


Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a disease that slowly and gradually damages the brain and it is distinguished by memory loss and ultimately conflict in interpretation, planning, speech, and awareness.

Many scientists consider that Alzheimer’s disease is caused by a certain chemical imbalance in the body. The chemical protein beta-amyloid protein starts the build-up inside the brain which in turn causes the death of nerve cells.

The probability of having Alzheimer’s disease amplifies considerably after the age of 70 and might affect around 50% of people over the age of 85. However, Alzheimer’s disease is not a standard part of growing old and is not something that inescapably takes place in old age. Many instances of people have been known where they have reached the age of 100 without developing this degenerative problem disease. This life-threatening disease was initially explained and named after a German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1906. ( Harvey, Ferrier pp. 110-118)

The major risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease is an increase in the age of the general population. As the population ages, the occurrence of Alzheimer’s disease increases along with it. It is noted that 10% of individuals over 65 years of age and 50% of individuals over 85 years of age have Alzheimer’s disease.


The beginning of Alzheimer’s disease is frequently slow, and it is slowly progressive. There are many symptoms that are ignored by families of people with Alzheimer’s one of them being memory loss. People start thinking that it is part of the normal aging process but later on find out that it was the initial stages of Alzheimer’s. (Taylor pp. 95-112) When memory and additional issues with thinking begin to constantly influence the standard level of performance; families start to believe that something other than “standard aging” is happening.

One of the most common symptoms of Alzheimer’s is short-term memory loss which occurs during the initial stages. Like in some cases a person might forget whether he has taken his morning medicine or whether or not he remembered to turn off the shower. Mild behavior changes, such as spontaneity, lack of concern, and an inclination to extract from social communications, might take place early in the sickness. ( O’Brien, Oscar pp. 65-78)

As this disease progresses, issues in theoretical thinking and additional rational functions increase. The individual might start to have difficulty with numbers when calculating bills, have difficulty understanding while reading, or with categorizing the day’s work. Additional conflicts in actions and appearance might also be somewhat evident at this point, such as anxiety, petulance, confrontational, and the loss of the ability to dress properly.

As the condition gets worse individuals may lose orientation and forget the date and time of the month, day or year. They may even forget their own residential address or the last place visited.

As time passes an Alzheimer’s patient may lose control over certain body functions, be unable to hold a conversation or thought, develop serious mood swings and become increasingly difficult to manage. This continues to such a point that they, unfortunately, lose total ability to take care of themselves.

In the final stages, the patient usually gets affected by another disease such as pneumonia or any other infection that causes serious damage to health. Due to the already deteriorated state of the body and total incapability to take care of itself, death is most likely. (Devlin pp. 146-155)


Although extensive research has been conducted into the subject by many research organizations, the causes of Alzheimer’s have unfortunately not been found. Amongst all the theories, the “amyloid cascade hypothesis” is probably the most likely and most discussed one.

As per the hypothesis, Alzheimer’s is associated with a genetic condition that results in excessive deposits of amyloid-beta (ABeta) in the brain. ABeta itself is a certain kind of protein and is caused by a mutation associated with early-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Most scientists think that in most of the random (that is non-genetic) cases of AD (which comprise most of the Alzheimer patients) there is significantly less reduction in the level of the ABeta protein instead of the buildup. (Blacker, Frank pp. 125-138) Therefore a major part of the research towards curing Alzheimer’s has been based on finding ways to reduce the level of amyloid-beta in the brain.


Currently, the US Food and Drug and administration authority has approved the use of four drugs to help Alzheimer patients. Neither of these drugs however is known to be capable of reversing or slowing down the progression of the disease.

With no proper and secured cure for Alzheimer patients, most of the solutions towards caring for AD patients deal with how to care for an Alzheimer patient. The first step in this process is family and home care.

Caring for these patients is both a mental and emotional challenge. It is therefore important to inculcate a sense of patience and endurance in the caregiver first. Dealing with an Alzheimer’s patient can be quite challenging and emotionally exhaustive therefore it is important that the people caring for these patients are prepared for the challenge up ahead. Any form of disability can have serious negative impacts on the entire family, therefore it is crucial to maintain emotional stability during this time.

As awareness about the problem has grown many cities have developed ways of dealing with the problem on a public scale. Localize Alzheimer’s associations have been developed that take in AD patients and also help family members learn about the disease and ways of making life easier for themselves and their loved ones.


Blacker Jacob L., Frank Justine C., “Assessing and Managing Alzheimer’s”. American Family Physician 65 (11): 2263-2272. (2010).

Devlin. Thomas M., Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. Wiley-Liss; 7 edition. 2010. Web.

Harvey Richard A., Ferrier Denise R., Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews: Biochemistry. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; Fifth, North American Edition edition. 2010. Web.

O’Brien Thomas A., Oscar Charles M. “Alzheimer’s a silent killer“. Neuropsychol Rev 3 (2): 119-69. 2009.

Taylor, Richard, Alzheimer’s from the Inside Out. Health Professions Press; 2 edition. 2009. Web.

The Search For Order, 1877-1920 By Robert H. Wiebe

Several decades between the Reconstruction period and the end of World War I represent a significant time for America. It was characterized by a critical change in all aspects of the economic, political, and social life, as well as the reconsideration of the human worldview. Robert H. Wiebe’s contribution to the study of the issues of this period, presented in his book The Search for Order, is difficult to overestimate. Focusing on the different aspects of the social processes, he ultimately considers civilization in general as the subject of his research, which makes his study exceptionally broad in its scope.

In contrast to many scholars who observe diverse reasons for the social disorder and instability in American society during this time, Wiebe finds the central point of all transformational processes, a single core of it, rather than multiple ones. His central thesis, therefore, states that the heart of progressivism of this era was “the ambition of the new middle class to fulfill its destiny through bureaucratic means” (Wiebe 166). It caused, he argues, not only economic and political change but also the establishment of the philosophy of Americal civilization. Wiebe examines different aspects of social processes, showing how his idea is manifested in various fields.

The author stands on the position of the modernization theory, which is, though not explicitly argued, provides the methodological background of his research. This theory implies the view of the positive transformation towards the highest welfare, as the community passes several stages of the development, from the decentralized agrarian community into “nationalized, industrial capitalist, urban, bureaucratic society” (Molho and Wood 93). Therefore, describing the change which American society has undergone during this period, Wiebe implicitly considers it positive.

The first point, which is examined in the book, demonstrates the initial situation of the American state, the starting point of the transformation. Wiebe defines America as the “society of island communities,” consisting of small self-contained towns and neighborhoods, disconnected in terms of economic, political, and cultural relations. Americans, he pointed out, could not even imagine an emergence of a managerial government, and almost all affairs were solved informally (Wiebe). However, in the late nineteenth century, the course was taken for nationalization, mechanization, industrialization, and urbanization. This change, coming to the central idea of the book, was driven by the new-emerged middle class, who formulated an “organizational synthesis” of the new history by establishing the “large-scale bureaucratic organizations” (Molho and Wood 94). Therefore, the political and economic interests of the middle class were the factors that drove the modernization.

The second important issue of the book is the examination of the revolution in values during the transformational period. It leads as well to the central idea, describing the prevailing philosophy with the typical worldview of the middle class. Wiebe discusses the emerged pragmatic, rational attitude towards social problems, which accompany the establishment of the bureaucracies and essential for the modernization. He also notices the “nostalgia” of the individuals and social groups that cannot adjust to the newly emerged worldview of the highly practically oriented “ambitious middle class.” A lifestyle and the principles of the action of such emerged clans as Carnegies, Rockefellers, and Vanderbilts, with their quantitative rather than qualitative values, could not be accepted by all members of the society.

The third issue of the book, proving the presence of the central core of the social processes during the transformation, is an idea of the absence of a serious disorder within the society. Wiebe does not deny the existence of the conflict, but this conflict does not lead, in his view, to the fundamental discord. “The Search” means instability rather than chaos; he protects the position of implicit single-orientedness of the ongoing changes.

Besides this, Wiebe expresses his thoughts about the general reasons and mechanisms for the social processes. The title “The Fate of the Nation” may illustrate his view about the inevitability of the future changes beyond human expectations. His theory “never reconciled human control with predetermined progress” (Wiebe 144), and this characteristic probably, corresponds to the higher, philosophical level, with his thesis about the fatality of the social processes. Though not explicitly, Wiebe nevertheless often refers to an autonomous and inevitable flow to the historical process. “The Order” in this context becomes an allusion to the search of the philosophers of the nineteenth century, such as Hegel, who tried to define the ultimate reason for all the transformations in human history.

To conclude, I must say that, after all, the book has the ending open for different views and conclusions. The author argues that, despite the search, it cannot be stated that the order was set even at the end of the considered period. Furthermore, despite his idea about single-orientedness of the direction of the change, he states that not all the society was influenced by the mainstream political, economic, and ideological innovations. It seems that this is the characteristic which makes this book more influential, one of the classical studies in its field.

Works Cited

Molho, Anthony, and Gordon S. Wood. Imagined Histories: American Historians Interpret the Past. Princeton University Press, 2018.

Wiebe, Robert H. The Search for Order, 1877-1920. Hill and Wang, 1967.

Why I Would Be A Good Nurse

My personal values and philosophy of the nursing profession will help me to become a passionate and dedicated nurse. Entering nursing school, I would be able to develop my personal skills and master professional knowledge. I suppose that the main qualities of a nurse are based on universal principles of ethics and morality. They include dignity at the mercy of patients and openness, sensitivity to individual needs and patience, personal aspiration and commitment to work, humanism, and tolerance. Openness involves impartiality and objectivity in assessing the validity of the beliefs of oneself and others, and a willingness to revise beliefs as new evidence comes to light. Also, it is important for a nurse to possess critical thinking and an awareness of the consequences of one’s actions in rational decision-making, and to the need for patients to develop a critical response to the attitudes and values.

I suppose that nursing should be based on a moral responsibility to facilitate mediation. The nursing philosophy is based on the idea that a nurse should be well informed about ethical issues in nursing, have moral knowledge, and have a complex range of learned skills and guided experience that will enhance their ability to act wisely and creatively as reflective moral agents when confronted with moral problems, to anticipate moral problems and take the necessary action to prevent them from occurring in the first place; to think critically and reflectively about emergent and emerging moral issues. I am a dedicated and passionate person, I developed a passion for the nursing profession after taking care of my sick grandmother who suffers from emphysema. This real-life situation helps me to choose my life path and profession. I recognize that nurses are both psychological and physical caregivers, and human values such as compassion and concern based on cultural knowledge should be the main priority in this profession. Every nurse should take into account the social environment in order to inspire and empower enthusiasm in others. Nursing values involve psychosocial, spiritual, and physical factors of care. I am a determined person who pays attention to detail, loves people, and is able to help others.

My nursing philosophy underlines that the main responsibilities of nurses are to acquire knowledge and skills important for effective cultural communication. A nurse should be responsible for the improving quality of services and think about the large nursing practices which involve the development of the unique personal approach to cultural competency. For a nurse, self-assessment and clients’ assessment should be the core of professional communication and development. Self-assessment includes analysis of personal beliefs and religious awareness, communication patterns, and analysis of the social environment. The main effect of cultural competency can be explained by the increasing importance of cultural diversity influences on the environment and perspectives of further development on the macro-and micro-level. In this situation, to be a professional nurse, it is necessary to exercise the role of leadership based on cultural knowledge and expertise. The way in which healthcare organization has to employ cultural approach and communication is a part of competitive advantage. Religious awareness and ethics are a part of the cultural diversity problems that affected the nursing profession. Clients’ assessment should include analysis and evaluation of their religious beliefs and cultural patterns of behavior which affected communication with medical staff and treatment. In this case, detailed career planning and management are important ingredients in a successful profession. This has speeded up health delivery processes, transformed working practices, and increased the efficiency of healthcare services. I suppose that medical institutions can be characterized as an environment that influences values and ethical principles of nurses, their cultural competency, and knowledge.

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