Resource-Based View And Competitive Positioning University Essay Example

The main contrast between the resource-based view and competitive positioning approaches is the ideologies behind the two. In a resource-based view, the usefulness of the available resources at the business’s disposal is critical in gaining its competitive advantage (Shibin et al., 2017). Therefore, when formulating a business strategy, the effectiveness of the resource-based view lies in its ability to help the business utilize the available assets. Moreover, the availability and the quantity of the assets are significant in how they approach helps the business explain its rent-earning resource capabilities (Shibin et al., 2017). When referring to the resource-based view approach, what the business controls and how it uses in formulating business strategy become the underlying concept towards achieving competitive gains.

In contrast, the effectiveness of competitive positioning is attributed to the value an organization gains from consumers. Therefore, competitive positioning presents a mental relationship between consumers and an organization’s brand (Hooley et al., 2020). Moreover, when considering business strategy formulation, one begins to relate to the consumer loyalty domain, independent of brand control or the business itself. As such, consumer loyalty assumes a significant position in how business strategies are influenced (Hooley et al., 2020). The consumer’s perception can therefore become a decisive factor in how an organization approaches business and how it gains a competitive advantage in the market.

However, the main similarity between the competitive positioning approach and the resource-based view is both approaches’ perspectives in formulating business strategy, especially when goals or objectives must be met. Both approaches are central in identifying market opportunities or challenges and the developed solutions significant in supporting data or research (Mckeown, 2019). In simple terms, both competitive positioning and resource-based view approaches are responsible for formulating business strategies that facilitate firms’ ability to conduct competitive analysis when gaining or finding competitive advantage.


Hooley, G. J., Nicoulaud, B., Rudd, J. M., & Lee, N. (2020). Marketing strategy and competitive positioning. Pearson.

Mckeown, M. (2019). The Strategy Book. Harlow, United Kingdom: Pearson Education Limited. Pearson Education Limited.

Shibin, K. T., Dubey, R., Gunasekaran, A., Hazen, B., Roubaud, D., Gupta, S., & Foropon, C. (2017). Examining sustainable supply chain management of SMEs using resource-based view and institutional theory. Annals of operations research, pp. 1-26.

Hypothesis On The Dangers Of Wearing Masks


People have been wearing masks as a precautionary measure against COVID-19 in all public places around the world since 2020. It also applies to schools, colleges, and universities, which impacts students’ perceptions of their peers. One’s hypothesis is that masks negatively affect students’ communication perception of each other. The reason for this is formulated by a closed face, thus, it is difficult for one to identify the emotions of another. To some extent, it affects the subconscious perception of both external information and social connections. This is the importance of visual facial emotions as a signal of a person’s feelings and reactions to certain situations.


The variables involved in the work are divided into dependent and independent, and the latter always affects the former. The study of the current issue is based on a survey of students about the chosen topic and data related to the current issue. Thus, the variables will include the number of students surveyed and the number of students who gave positive or negative answers. Furthermore, the variables will include the percentage of positive and negative responses and replying of an uncertain nature. Thus, the independent variables will include the number of students surveyed and their responses. Among the dependent variables will be the percentage of positive and negative answers and the percentage of uncertain answers.

Operational definitions

The process of operationalization of variables formulates the theoretical relevance of the study. This process involves conceptualization based on the theoretical foundation. Thereby, in the study of the current issue, one should conduct a theoretical examination and draw conclusions based on the variables. The theoretical basis of the chosen question is formulated by the importance of the emotional perception of peers, which is impossible because of masks that cover almost the entire face. Thus, it can be concluded that masks negatively impact students’ perceptions of their peers.


The selection of participants will be based on online databases, which will have the necessary research results. However, one may conduct the research oneself using online surveys. The selection criteria for participants will be the age and places of study, thus, the location should be a public place (not individual learning). Speaking about what will happen in the study, one can distinguish several stages. The first stage will be introductory, thus presenting information and variables. Further, it will be necessary to conduct a study (or analyze the results of existing studies). Finally, the final stage will be formulated by summing up the results of the previous stages.


Each research should be based on certain ethical guidelines that formulate the moral aspects of the study. Thus, one may distinguish the two main ethical guidelines in the current study. The first practice will be based on respect for people’s privacy, confidentiality, and dignity. In other words, all confidential information will not be published, moreover, all results will be based on anonymity. The second guideline formulates minimizing harms and risks and maximizing benefits. Thus, the study should not cause any harm to the study participants or any other groups.


The conclusions that can be drawn after studying this issue may be divided into two parts. The first part implies the theoretical foundation of this issue, namely, information about how masks affect the emotional perception of peers and each other. The second part is constituted by the results of the study, namely the number of positive, negative, and indeterminate answers.

Adolescent Addiction And Behavioral-Based Alcoholism


Addiction to substances can be perplexing and difficult to comprehend. Despite the progressively unfavorable consequences, addicted people take drugs and alcohol obsessively. Psychiatrists and psychologists have created a variety of theoretical models to explain the paradoxical and complicated character of addictive behavior throughout the years. Various techniques have been taken in an attempt to understand why people get addicted to drugs. However, the models utilized by addiction treatment centers do not provide the activities necessary to address concerns of alcohol and drug misuse. As a result, addiction counselors must develop new models within the recovery field and focus on assisting clients in dealing with their addiction. In Connor’s case, his history of early instances of alcohol use throughout adolescence and military service put him into a risk group for behavioral-based alcoholism.

Application of Disease Models

It may be determined that Conner has an alcohol use problem based on the client’s behavioral patterns as examined above. The DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for alcoholism are also used to make this determination. To understand why people drink abusively, one must first understand their drinking habits and routines, as well as their attitudes about alcohol and themselves. This method is known as cognitive behavioral theory, and it was used to emphasize the client’s addiction during the analysis. Cognitive behavioral theory perceives alcoholism as a maladaptive approach for people to deal with issues and satisfy specific needs; a series of learned behaviors that can therefore be unlearned.

Such behaviors are taught through emulating role models or by experiencing the beneficial consequences of drinking, which include pain relief, increased sociability, and reduced anxiety, among other things. Individuals get reliant on alcohol as a preferred method of dealing with issues after experiencing repeated favorable benefits (Käll et al., 2020). These learned habits, according to this idea, can be changed through both cognitive and behavioral treatments. These therapies are appropriate for this client as they assist alcoholics in achieving and maintaining recovery.

The variables that lead to and maintain drinking are the focus of cognitive-behavioral methods to treating alcoholism. The practitioners focus on finding the most powerful antecedents for each addict, which might be social, psychological, or biological. These techniques help alcoholics break their addiction to alcohol by teaching them new ways to avoid and respond to the potential triggers. The said triggers are known to be a major obstacle in the recovery process as most alcoholics are not capable of avoiding them without the presence of proper support. This support is generally incorporated into the treatment and is known as coping skills training: a part of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) recommended to Connor. When it comes to treating alcoholism, CBT has two key components: functional analysis and skills training (Käll et al., 2020). A therapist will do a functional analysis to determine the relationship between the client’s drinking and its antecedents and consequences in this method. This understanding helps to define the function of drinking in a person’s life and provides a focus for efforts to change behavior.

Sociocultural Factors and the Disease Models

As a multi-layered phenomenon, alcoholism is associated with a variety of causes and correlating factors, the precise combination of which depends on an individual case. Culture, religion, family, and job are all factors that might impact a person’s conduct. As previously said, the family is the most important factor in determining the chance of having an alcohol addiction. Children who are exposed to alcohol misuse at a young age are more likely to develop hazardous drinking habits. This might have been the situation with Conner, who is stated to having begun drinking as a teenager in the company of peers. A person’s susceptibility to alcohol consumption may increase when they start a new job. It is during these moments that a person looks for new acquaintances and forms new ties with peers.

Furthermore, if a person is already interested in such activities, being around others who are also active in them reinforces the habit, making it difficult for them to stop even if they wanted to. Alcohol addiction is influenced by culture as well. For example, some cultures, such as Irish culture, are linked with heavy drinking. To begin with, Conner is Irish, which might explain his drinking habits. Second, he works in a construction business where drinking is tolerated to a great degree. It implies that the majority of his coworkers are alcoholics, and that they have encouraged his bad habits.

Various psychological variables have been shown to enhance the likelihood of compulsive drinking. Every person has their own method of dealing with problems. However, the ways in which children learn to cope with these emotions might have an impact on their conduct (Fosha et al., 2019). Individuals suffering from stress, sadness, and anxiety, as well as other mental illnesses, are more likely to develop an alcohol addiction (Käll et al., 2020). People use alcohol to repress sentiments as well as relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders in such situations. When someone has a stressful occupation, they may resort to alcohol to help them deal with the emotional baggage. Connor’s employment in the military fits the aforementioned pattern, especially since it correlated with his episodes of heightened alcohol abuse.


Fosha, D., Thoma, N., & Yeung, D. (2019). Transforming emotional suffering into flourishing: Metatherapeutic processing of positive affect as a trans-theoretical vehicle for change. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 32(3-4), 563-593.

Käll, A., Shafran, R., Lindegaard, T., Bennett, S., Cooper, Z., Coughtrey, A., & Andersson, G. (2020). A common elements approach to the development of a modular cognitive behavioral theory for chronic loneliness. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 88(3), 269.

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