Respiratory Diseases: Dyspnoea Sample College Essay

Dyspnoea refers to the sensation of difficulty in breathing, shortness of breath, or breathlessness that is mostly observed among patients with cardiac and respiratory diseases (Coccia et al., 2016). Dyspnoea is reported in approximately 4 million all-cause emergency room visits yearly in the United States alone (Anzueto & Miravitles, 2017). Dyspnea is usually a symptom of various physical underlying conditions normally involving the heart and the lungs. For instance, it is a symptom of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease where it limits physical activity, reduces survival, decreases the quality of life-related to health, and increases depression and anxiety. Currently, there lacks a physiological correlate that will correctly predict dyspnea, especially since the mechanisms contributing to respiratory discomfort differ between diseases and people experiencing it diagnosed with similar respiratory diseases (Anzueto & Miravitles, 2017). For this reason, questionnaires and psychophysical and subjective clinical scales are used to predict or measure dyspnea. This essay will discuss the underlying mechanism and pathophysiological processes behind dyspnea, the relationship between persistent dyspnea post Covid-19 recovery, considering the quality of life and the role of a respiratory healthcare practitioner within this patient pathway. In addition, it will discuss the impact of recent studies and how they have contributed to the knowledge base in this area and evaluate the management of a patient with persistent dyspnoea.

The Underlying Mechanism and Pathophysiological Processes Behind Dyspnea

As mentioned above, dyspnea is a disease symptom rather than the disease itself. For this reason, its etiology can be associated as arising from four main categories: systemic illness, psychogenic, neuromuscular, cardiac, respiratory, or a combination of these (Hashmi et al., 2023). Respiratory causes of dyspnea can include pneumothorax, pulmonary embolism, lung malignancy, pneumonia, asthma, or chronic congestive obstructive pulmonary disorder. On the other hand, cardiovascular causes may include cardiac arrhythmia, valvular heart defect, pericardial tamponade, pulmonary edema, intracardiac shunting, pulmonary hypertension, acute coronary syndrome, and congestive heart failure. Neuromuscular etiology includes neuropathy, kyphoscoliosis, myopathy, massive obesity, spinal cord or Central Nervous System dysfunction, chest trauma with a fracture or flail chest, and phrenic nerve paralysis. Additionally, psychogenic causes are foreign body aspiration, hyperventilation syndrome, vocal code dysfunction syndrome, and psychogenic dyspnea (Hashmi et al., 2023). Other systemic diseases may include liver cirrhosis, epiglottitis, sepsis, acute renal failure, angioedema, thyrotoxicosis, anaphylaxis, metabolic acidosis, and anemia.


Dyspnea is a sensation of being unable to breathe fast or deeply enough or running out of air. It results from various interactions of receptors and signals in the central nervous system, mechanoreceptors in the upper airway, chest wall, and lungs, and peripheral chemoreceptors. The brain’s respiratory center consists of three neuron groupings: pontine, ventral, and dorsal medullary groups (Hashmi et al., 2023). The pontine grouping consists of apneustic and pneumotaxic centers. This grouping modulates the frequency and intensity of the medullary signals where the apneustic centers encourage and prolong inhalation and the pneumotaxic center limits inhalation. Both centers work together in pace, making respiration. On the other hand, ventral medullary groups are responsible for exhalation, and the dorsal medullary for inhalation (Hashmi et al., 2023).

Mechanoreceptors in the pulmonary vessels, lung, trachea, and airways provide sensory information to the brain’s respiratory center regarding the lung space volume. Typically, two main types of thoracic sensors exist: rapid-adapting irritant receptors and slow-adapting stretch spindles (Hashmi et al., 2023). The rapid-acting receptors react to both chemical triggers like harmful foreign substances that might be present and the lung’s volume information. On the other hand, slow-acting spindle receptors only transmit volume information. These mechanoreceptors signal through cranial nerve X, the vagus nerve, to the brain to increase the breathing volume and rate or to stimulate errant coughing cycles of breathing secondary irritants in the airway (Hashmi et al., 2023).

Peripheral chemoreceptors compose of the aortic and the carotid bodies. Both sites monitor the particle arterial oxygen pressure in the blood. Nevertheless, acidosis and hypercapnia increase these receptors’ sensitivity, playing a partial role in the function of the receptor (Hashmi et al., 2023). The carotid bodies are positioned within the aortic arch. Once hypoxia stimulates them, they send a signal through the glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve IX, to the brain’s nucleus tractus solatarius, which increases ventilation by stimulating the excitatory neurons. It is estimated that 15% of respiration’s total driving force comprises carotid bodies (Hashmi et al., 2023).

Central chemoreceptors hold respiratory’s drive major control. They work through PH changes sensing within the central nervous system. The major location within the brain is the retrotrapezoid nucleus and the medulla’s ventral surface (Hashmi et al., 2023). The PH change within the cerebrospinal fluid and the brain is derived mainly from decreases and increases in carbon dioxide levels. Carbon dioxide is a soluble lipid molecule that diffuses freely across the blood and brain barrier. This feature proves helpful because fast PH changes the possibility within the cerebrospinal fluid. Responsive PH changes chemoreceptors are located on the medulla’s ventral surface. Sensory input is generated to stimulate hyperventilation as these areas become acidic, and through increased ventilation, carbon dioxide within the body is reduced. On the other hand, hypoventilation occurs when the PH rises to more alkalotic levels and carbon dioxide levels decrease due to a decrease in ventilation (Hashmi et al., 2023).

Respiratory centers, which are found within the brainstem’s pons and the medulla oblongata, generate the respiratory rhythm baseline. Nonetheless, the respiration rate is modified by permitting aggregated sensory input from the central nervous system, which monitors PH, and the peripheral sensory system, which monitors oxygenation. The central nervous system also indirectly monitors the carbon dioxide levels and other portions of the brain’s cerebellar modulate to create a unified neural signal. The signal is then transmitted to the respiration’s primary muscles, scalene muscles, external intercostal muscles, the diaphragm, and other respiration minor muscles.

The Relationship Between Persistent Dyspnoea Post Covid-19 Recovery and The Role of a Respiratory Healthcare Practitioner Within This Patient Pathway

A prospective study by Grewal et al. (2023) shows that dyspnea is a persistent symptom following Covid-19. Many patients with this condition do not encounter meaningful enhancement in their symptoms’ severity in the first year following infection. The study also found that dyspnea was linked to worse frailty, quality of life, mood, and sleep at one-year post-Covid. Regarding the quality of life, research has shown that people with persistent dyspnea after Covid-19 recovery report higher levels of anxiety and depression, lower physical functioning, and reduced overall life quality. In the study by Grewal et al. (2023), there lacked a statistically significant difference comparing non-dyspneic and dyspneic post-Covid patients. These findings illustrate the multifaceted post-Covid dyspnea nature, with most patients having ongoing dyspnea for reasons apart from overt cardiac or pulmonary consequences of Covid-19. The mood impacts post-Covid dyspnea and thus can predict patients at potential risk for significant persistent dyspnea at one year.

According to the prospective cohort study by Grewal et al. (2023), post-covid dyspnea was a frequent problem in their patient’s cohort; 49% of them hospitalized for acute covid reported no dyspnea change, 24% reported dyspnea increase, and 20% reported the development of a new-onset of clinically significant dyspnea at the one-year mark when compared to the three months post-covid. The onset and increase in dyspnea at the one-year mark in the patient’s subset may be related to changes in aerobic activity ventilator response over time, peripheral oxygen delivery, and moods.

Respiratory healthcare professionals, including sleep physiologists, are essential in managing frequent dyspnea among coronavirus survivors. They can assist patients in identifying techniques to manage their symptoms, such as physical activity programs, relaxation techniques, and breathing exercises (Chambers et al.,2016). In addition, they can provide education on the efficient use of respiratory devices, like oxygen therapy or inhalers, and monitor the patients for any potential complications. Moreover, a sleep physiologist can also support patients in optimizing their general respiratory health. This may incorporate screening for sleep disorders, for instance, sleep apnea, which can contribute to dyspnea and other respiratory symptoms (Chambers et al.,2016). Additionally, they may work with patients to identify and address any underlying respiratory conditions that may increase their symptoms.

The Impact of Recent Studies and How They Have Contributed to the Knowledge Base in Dyspnea

A study by Tian et al. (2019) has shown the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions in managing persistent dyspnea among patients with chronic obstructive disease. Mindfulness-based interventions are typically described as short techniques, usually eight courses, offered in a group environment incorporating mindfulness mediation principles and exercises. The current mindfulness interventions include mindfulness-based stress reduction, cognitive therapy, and mindfulness meditation training. Of all these techniques, mindfulness-based stress reduction effectively reduced dyspnea in patients with COPD (Grosbois et al., 2022). This shows that non-pharmacological interventions such as this can also effectively manage dyspnea.

In addition, a study by Mahmu et al. (2021) illustrated the Covid-19 pandemic’s impact on dyspnea in heart failure patients. The research showed that patients with heart failure encountered increased dyspnea during the pandemic, possibly due to a combination of factors such as decreased physical activity, increased anxiety, and reduced access to healthcare. This implies that various factors can lead to the onset and increased dyspnea.

The Management of a Patient with Persistent Dyspnoea

Managing a patient with persistent dyspnea requires a comprehensive and individualized approach considering the symptoms’ severity, underlying cause, and preferences. The first step in managing persistent dyspnea is to assess the patient’s symptoms and perform a thorough medical evaluation to identify the underlying cause. The assessment should include a detailed medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, pulmonary function tests, and echocardiograms (Chambers et al.,2016). Non-pharmacological interventions such as breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and pulmonary rehabilitation may help manage dyspnea. These interventions can improve lung function, reduce anxiety, and enhance the patient’s overall well-being (Ekström et al., 2015).

Pharmacological interventions such as bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and diuretics may be prescribed depending on the underlying cause of dyspnea. Opioids may also be used in some cases, particularly in patients with advanced cancer or end-stage lung disease (Ekström et al., 2015). In cases where dyspnea cannot be effectively managed, palliative care may be appropriate. This involves focusing on symptom management, quality of life, and end-of-life care. Palliative care may involve using opioids, sedatives, or other medications to alleviate symptoms and improve the patient’s comfort (Ekström et al., 2015).


In summary, dyspnea is a disease symptom, not a disease itself. It can be managed by respiratory healthcare professionals or even sleep physiologists. Recent studies on dyspnea have shed light on understanding the condition well. They have identified management interventions for dyspnea and the factors that can lead to its onset or increase. The management of patients with dyspnea can be done through pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions or palliative care, depending on the severity of the symptoms.


Anzueto, A. and Miravitlles, M., 2017. Pathophysiology of dyspnea in COPD. Postgraduate medicine129(3), pp.366-374.

Coccia, C.B., Palkowski, G.H., Ntusi, N.A.B., Schweitzer, B. and Motsohi, T., 2016. Dyspnoea: Pathophysiology and a clinical approach. South African Medical Journal106(1), pp.32-36.

Chambers, D., Booth, A., Baxter, S.K., Johnson, M., Dickinson, K.C. and Goyder, EC, 2016. Primary care/community-led diagnostic pathways for the assessment of breathlessness. In Evidence for models of diagnostic service provision in the community: literature mapping exercise and focused rapid reviews. NIHR Journals Library.

Ekström, M.P., Abernethy, A.P. and Currow, D.C., 2015. The management of chronic breathlessness in patients with advanced and terminal illness. BMJ, 349.

Grosbois, J.M., Gephine, S., Kyheng, M., Henguelle, J., Le Rouzic, O., Saey, D., Maltais, F. and Chenivesse, C., 2022. Physical and affective components of dyspnoea are improved by pulmonary rehabilitation in COPD. BMJ open respiratory research9(1), p.e001160.

Grewal, J.S., Carlsten, C., Johnston, J.C., Shah, A.S., Wong, A.W., and Ryerson, C.J., 2023. Post-COVID dyspnea: Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes in a longitudinal, prospective cohort. BMC Pulmonary Medicine23(1), pp.1-9.,to3monthspostCOVID.

Hashmi, F.M., Modi, P., Basit, H., and Sandeep Sharma, S. 2023. Dyspnea. StatPearls Publishing.

Mahmud, R., Rahman, M.M., Rassel, M.A., Monayem, F.B., Sayeed, S.J.B., Islam, M.S. and Islam, M.M., 2021. Post-COVID-19 syndrome among symptomatic COVID-19 patients: A prospective cohort study in a tertiary care center of Bangladesh. PLoS One16(4), p.e0249644.

Tian, L., Zhang, Y., Li, L., Wu, Y. and Li, Y., 2019. The efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions for patients with COPD: A systematic review and meta-analysis protocol. BMJ open9(5), p.e026061.

The Use And Impact Of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) In Iraq Essay Example For College

In the current digital era defined by increased technological evolution and advancement, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have taken center stage in their applications in various fields. In the middle east, specifically Iraq, UAVs, also known as drone technology, have been integrated into various operations such as military operations, peace-seeking organizations, and terrorist groups amid heightening conflicts and instability. Their use has been widespread, subjecting civilians and other public members to mixed reactions (Roque, 2006). Military and peacekeeping organizations have been focused on enhancing people’s lives, while terrorist groups spark tremendous fear that elevates the uncertainty due to the catastrophic nature of terrorist activities. As such, this essay will focus on the utilization and the effects of UAVs in Iraq by the state military organizations, peacekeeping groups, and terrorism activities, considering their mitigation methods to minimize terrorism.

UAVs Utilization in Government and Peacekeeping Operations

In Iraq, government and military operations utilize military and civilian drone technology. Specifically, the United States military groups have been significant technology users for many operations, such as the acquisition of targets and reconnaissance in the country (Haugstvedt & Jacobsen, 2020). Such operations aim to assess people’s movement and consequently gather insightful surveillance to understand terrorist activities and movements utilizing MQ-9 Reaper and RQ Shadow, among others. Besides, the military activities integrate armed UAVs that are utilized in effecting targeted elimination of enemy combatants and carrying out airstrikes (Śniatała et al., 2021). They are also effective in providing military groups will real-time data on situational awareness to facilitate the thwarting of high-value individuals and enemies with precision-guided munitions. The technology protects the pilots and soldiers from engaging directly with the terrorist groups providing the group with ample time and required human resources to access the situations and plan effectively based on the challenges or variations experienced during such an operation.

The United States Army is the most significant user of the technology as well as the Iraq military operations. The activities carried out are primarily reconnaissance and surveillance activities. In the last decade, various terrorist activities and modes of gathering intelligence have significantly evolved, forcing UAVs to adjust accordingly. As such, in advancing their activities and the range of applications, drones have been forced to incorporate various technologies such as the global positioning system (GPS) and geographic information systems (GIS) (O’Brien, 2013). The drones incorporate the capability to take pictures and simultaneously record videos of the targeted individual or group. Unarmed drones often carry out reconnaissance and surveillance activities, although an impending airstrike features ammunition. Specifically, the drones such as MQ-9 Reaper feature hellfire missiles or laser-guided bombs (Śniatała et al., 2021). These are utilized for a targeted airstrike aimed at specific groups or individuals who are potential masterminds of criminal or terrorist activities based on the intelligence accrued.

Terrorists’ Utilization of UAVs

Iraq has experienced tremendous terrorist activities, and drone technology has been a significant tool in advancing its operations. In most cases, they utilize drones to carry out surveillance and consequently carry out targeted airstrikes using explosives. An example of terrorist groups that continues to wreak havoc in the country includes the Al-Qaeda and Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). The utilization of the UAVs in these groups has evolved, incorporating some advanced technology that makes them difficult to detect even though they are relatively cheap (Roque, 2006). They are integrated with high-resolution cameras, making it relatively easier to carry out their intelligence activities as they plan attacks. The airstrikes are carried out using explosive devices, and, in some cases, small bombs are incorporated, depending on the target, which can be civilians or military groups. In other cases, the terrorists target the critical infrastructure of the country as they attempt to cripple the government or military operations directed in the territory where they reside (Roque, 2006). In recent times, there have been reports of terrorists incorporating biological and chemical weapons in their strikes, although there has been no evidence to support the claim.

Mitigating and stopping terrorist’s utilization of UAVs

Minimizing and subsequently stopping the utilization of UAVs by terrorist groups is a multi-faceted process amid a challenging terrain due to the increased technological advancement and the inability to detect and track drones promptly. However, the multi-faceted approach can incorporate various strategies to aid the process. First, anti-drone technology can be incorporated to ensure the drones are detected and intercepted before initiating an attack (O’Brien, 2013). Even though drone technology has evolved, anti-drone technology has considerably advanced to keep up with the changes in the industry. The incorporation of radar, detectors that can analyze a plethora of radio frequencies, and the ability to track small drones has been on an upward trajectory. The technology allows for drone detection and interception facilitated by signal jamming. Secondly, advancing security measures on specific targets prone to attacks can minimize the possibility of a drone attack. This can be facilitated by integrating significant barriers that repel the bombs and explosives, especially around the critical infrastructures, to ensure they are not damaged. Thirdly, the integration of regulation and licensing practices for drone technology through stakeholder involvement can aid in thwarting terrorists’ activities (Haugstvedt & Jacobsen, 2020). The regulations include mandatory registration of the UAVs and consequently restricting the access of drones to sensitive areas.


UAVs have played a significant role in advancing the government and military operations in Iraq as they aid in carrying out surveillance and reconnaissance and consequently carry out targeted airstrikes to thwart possible criminal or terrorist activity. In retaliation, the terrorist groups in the country have also advanced significantly as they advance with technology. The integration of UAVs allows them to carry out targeted attacks and gather significant intelligence that they can use to advance their activities. As such, incorporating mitigation and stopping measures can be a significant pathway to minimizing terrorists’ activities in the county. For instance, laws and regulations can be initiated to regulate the sector while critical infrastructure can be protected by incorporating anti-drone technologies.


Haugstvedt, H., & Jacobsen, J. O. (2020). Taking fourth-generation warfare to the skies? An empirical exploration of non-state actors’ use of weaponized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs—‘drones’). Perspectives on terrorism14(5), 26-40.

O’Brien, M. E. (2013). Unmanned Drones and the National Airspace System: Challenges and Considerations. Nova Science Publishers, Incorporated.

Śniatała, P., Iyengar, S. S., & Bendarma, A. (Eds.). (2021). Modern Technologies Enabling Safe and Secure UAV Operation in Urban Airspace (Vol. 59). IOS Press.

Roque, A. (2006). More support for armed UAVs in Iraq: Army again Working to Equip Hunter Aircraft with Viper Strike. Inside the Army18(50), 7–7.

Early Childhood Education Free Writing Sample


Classroom organization and management refers to the processes and techniques instructors employ to create a positive and productive learning environment for students. This includes establishing a secure and comfortable physical environment, clear expectations for student behavior and academic performance, and implementing strategies to promote student engagement and achievement (Pringle,2013). Effective classroom organization and administration are essential to ensuring that students can learn to the best of their abilities and that instructors can facilitate student learning effectively. The activity chosen for this essay is a mathematics activity that emphasizes developing students’ number awareness and counting abilities. This activity is suitable for early childhood settings because it is aligned with the mathematics curriculum and is developmentally appropriate for young students. Using manipulatives such as blocks or counting animals, this activity engages students in hands-on learning experiences that foster the development of number sense and counting abilities. This activity is aligned with the big idea of mathematics, which emphasizes the necessity of comprehending mathematical concepts and procedures to solve problems in ordinary life. This essay will also examine strategies teachers can implement to meet the learning requirements of children at different grade levels and suggest two extended learning activities that can be used to integrate mathematics learning with other learning areas.

Classroom Organization and Management Issues

Classroom organization and management are critical for providing young children with a secure, caring, and productive learning environment. It is critical to consider the classroom structure and climate, student grouping, behavior management, and the teacher’s position while conducting any activity, particularly mathematics (Li, 2006).

Classroom Layout and Environment

Students’ attitudes and performance in class are strongly influenced by the classroom’s design and atmosphere. The learning process may be helped or hindered by the classroom’s setup and supplies. Pupils’ age and developmental level should inform how teachers set up their classes. A play-based approach often outperforms a more traditional classroom when working with young children. The classroom environment should be conducive to learning, allowing students to walk around and do independent research. There should be plenty of space for students to walk about, and all necessary equipment and furnishings should be within easy reach. Classroom conditions, including lighting and ventilation, should be carefully monitored and maintained by teachers.

Student Grouping

Teachers should consider student grouping when implementing the chosen activity in early childhood contexts. Individualized grouping is suitable for autonomous work and evaluation duties. It allows instructors to assess each student’s comprehension of the activity and allows students to work at their tempo. Individual classification can be isolating and limit social interaction and peer learning opportunities. Small group clustering involves three to five students working on a task together. Students can assume various positions within a small group, providing collaboration and peer learning opportunities. Teachers must ensure that all students are actively engaged and contributing to the task in small groups, which can be challenging to manage.

Behavior Management

Classroom structure and administration must include behavior management. Instructors must set explicit norms and procedures for classroom behavior and guarantee that pupils understand them. When rules are breached, positive reinforcement should encourage good conduct, and punishments should be imposed. Positive reinforcement, such as verbal praise or awards when pupils obey the rules, should be used by teachers to promote good conduct. When rules are breached, consequences should be used.

Teacher’s Role

The instructor plays a crucial role in classroom organization and administration. Teachers must establish a positive classroom environment, model appropriate behavior, and communicate effectively with students, parents, and colleagues. In addition to assuming a leadership role in the classroom, teachers should guide students toward accomplishing their learning objectives. Effective communication is essential to the function of an instructor. When communicating expectations to students, teachers should be clear and concise and actively respond to their questions and concerns (Sarama & Clements, 2009).

Strategies for Addressing the Learning Needs of Children of the Other Two Grade Levels

Learning Styles

Every kid’s learning style determines how he or she processes and retains knowledge. Instructors must determine their students’ learning styles and incorporate them into classroom education. Visual, aural, and kinesthetic learning methods are the most frequent.

Visual learners like to learn via observation. To grasp information, they need to see diagrams, photos, charts, and other visual aids. Visual learners’ demands can be met by teachers introducing visual aids into their lessons. Teachers can use diagrams and charts to describe concepts and difficulties when teaching mathematics.

Listening is the most significant way for auditory learners to learn. People must hear information in order to comprehend and remember it. Instructors may meet the demands of auditory learners by using aural aspects in their lessons. Teachers can use music, rhymes, and vocal instructions to teach mathematical ideas and abilities.

Kinesthetic learners learn best via doing. To comprehend knowledge, they must engage in hands-on activities and motions. Physical exercises can be included in classroom education to meet the demands of kinesthetic learners. To teach mathematical ideas and abilities, teachers might employ manipulatives, games, and activities that require movement and physical interactions (Linder et al., 2011).

Differentiated Instruction

Differentiated instruction is a method of education that tailors students’ learning experiences to their learning styles, aptitudes, and interests. This strategy acknowledges that students have diverse learning requirements and that a one-size-fits-all approach is ineffective for all students. Typical forms of differentiated instruction include tiered assignments, flexible classification, and learning contracts.

They are creating differentiated student assignments based on their learning requirements and abilities. To meet the requirements of all students, teachers can offer multiple variants of a task with varying degrees of difficulty and complexity. When instructing mathematical concepts, teachers can construct assignments with varying degrees of difficulty for students of various grade levels.

Flexible grouping involves grouping students based on their learning requirements and abilities. Teachers can organize pupils according to their skill level or learning style to provide individualized instruction and support. When instructing mathematical skills, teachers can divide students based on their level of mastery and tailor instruction to each group accordingly.

Universal Design for Learning

Universal learning design is an instructional strategy that provides multiple access and engagement points for learning materials. This approach acknowledges that students have varying learning requirements and abilities and that instruction must be tailored to meet those needs. Multiple means of representation, multiple means of expression, and multiple means of engagement are the three essential components of universal learning design.

Multiple means of representation entail delivering information in various formats to accommodate all students’ requirements. Information can be presented to students through text, audio, and visual aids. To meet the requirements of all students, teachers can provide text-based explanations, visual aids, and audio recordings of lessons when teaching mathematical concepts.

Multiple means of expression entail giving students varied opportunities to demonstrate their comprehension of course materials. Teachers can give students options for expressing mathematical comprehension, such as written or verbal responses, diagrams, and models. This approach allows students to select the mode of expression that best complements their learning style and ensures that every student can demonstrate comprehension (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2012).

Extended Learning Activities to Integrate Mathematics Learning with Other Areas of Learning

 Science Integration

  1. Measuring and Data Collection: As part of their science studies, students can participate in this activity by measuring and collecting data. Instructors might provide children with measuring equipment like rulers, scales, and thermometers to use in the classroom or outside to measure different materials and substances. Students can collect measurement data to construct graphs and charts to show their results. Students may measure the height and weight of several plants, record the data, and then plot their findings on a graph.
  2. Problem-Solving: Problem-solving is essential to both mathematics and science education. Instructors might assign pupils tasks that incorporate mathematical ideas and scientific principles. Pupils may be given a scenario where they must design and build a bridge using particular materials while adhering to specific safety criteria. To construct the bridge and assure its structural integrity, students must employ mathematical principles such as measuring, geometry, and spatial reasoning (Clements, 1999).

Art Integration

  1. Geometry and Spatial Reasoning: Students may explore geometric ideas and spatial thinking using their creative skills in this exercise. Instructors can supply kids with art supplies such as paper, paint, clay, and blocks to help them build diverse geometric forms and structures. Pupils can also practice spatial reasoning by doing three-dimensional artworks like sculptures or mobiles.
  2. Patterns and Number Sense: Art may also investigate number sense and patterns. Instructors can supply children with various art supplies, such as beads, buttons, and shapes, to help them construct patterns and explore topics like symmetry and asymmetry. Colors and shapes may also help students learn about fractions and ratios (Ginsburg et al., 2008).

Lesson Plan


  1. Students will be able to identify and name different 2D shapes.
  2. Students will be able to classify 2D shapes according to their properties.
  3. Students will be able to create composite shapes using 2D shapes.

Materials Needed

  1. Whiteboard and markers
  2. Chart paper and markers
  3. 2D shape cutouts
  4. Scissors and glue
  5. Worksheets on 2D shapes

  1. Introduction
  2. The instructor will introduce the topic by asking the students if they know what shapes are and if they can name any shapes they are familiar with.
  3. The instructor will use the whiteboard to draw and designate various 2D shapes, including circles, squares, triangles, etc.
  4. The instructor will describe the properties of various two-dimensional structures, including the number of sides, angles, and vertices.
  5. Principal Action
  6. The instructor will distribute the 2D shape cutouts to the students and have them identify and name the shapes.
  7. The instructor will ask students to categorize the shapes based on their properties.
  8. The teacher will illustrate how to create composite shapes from 2D shapes before requesting that the students construct their own composite shapes.
  9. The students will present their composite structures to the class and describe how they were constructed.
  10. Evaluation
  11. The instructor will evaluate the student’s comprehension by observing their participation and engagement throughout the activity.
  12. The teacher will also evaluate the student’s ability to recognize, name, and categorize 2D shapes by reviewing their finished worksheets.


  1. Visual Students
  2. To emphasize the characteristics of distinct 2D forms, the instructor will utilize visual aids such as charts and diagrams.
  3. The instructor will provide the kids’ worksheets with visual aids like drawings of shapes on them to assist them in recognizing and labeling the shapes.
  4. Auditory Learners
  5. The teacher will describe the characteristics of several 2D forms orally.
  6. The teacher will encourage pupils to ask questions and engage in class discussions to reinforce their comprehension.
  7. Kinesthetic Learners
  8. The instructor will engage the kids in hands-on activities such as cutting out composite forms.
  9. The instructor will urge pupils to move about and engage with the shapes to strengthen their knowledge.


This article examined how vital classroom management and structure are for delivering effective mathematical education to young children. Essential factors such as classroom architecture and climate, student grouping, behavior management, and the instructor’s role have been highlighted. Learning styles, differentiated instruction, and universal learning design were also considered as methods for meeting the needs of students in the last two grades. Instructors are advised to use these methods to give all children a fair shot at mathematical achievement. Instructors should make an effort to design classrooms that are stimulating for students and tailored to their specific needs. In retrospect, this essay’s goal and intent were to provide educators with the tools they need to introduce mathematical activities into their early childhood classrooms successfully. These methods can help teachers give their pupils a leg up when building lifelong proficiency in mathematics.


Clements, D. H. (1999). Subitizing: What Is It? Why Teach It?. Teaching Children Mathematics, 5(6), 400-405.

Ginsburg, H. P., Lee, J. S., & Boyd, J. S. (2008). Mathematics education for young children: What it is and how to promote it. Social Policy Report, 22(1), 1-28.

Li, Y. L. (2006). Classroom organization: Understanding the context in which children are expected to learn. Early Childhood Education Journal34, 37-43.

Linder, S. M., Powers-Costello, B., & Stegelin, D. A. (2011). Mathematics in early childhood: Research-based rationale and practical strategies. Early Childhood Education Journal39, 29-37.

National Association for the Education of Young Children. (2012). Early childhood mathematics: Promoting good beginnings. Washington, DC: National Association for the Education of Young Children.

Pringle, M. K. (2013). The needs of children. Routledge.

Sarama, J., & Clements, D. H. (2009). Early childhood mathematics education research: Learning trajectories for young children. Routledge.