Restaurant Management Free Sample

The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management is a four-year program that prepares individuals for careers in the Hospitality/Hotel and Restaurant industry. This program follows a competency-based training approach to develop graduates who have global competitiveness, professional competence, moral integrity, and social responsibility towards national progress.The Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management program aims to cultivate students’ expertise and leadership abilities for roles in hospitality enterprises. It emphasizes intellectual growth, communication skills, ethical awareness, and societal values appreciation. Additionally, it provides professional knowledge of the hospitality industry. The program strives to equip aspiring hoteliers and entrepreneurs with up-to-date technical and managerial skills required for utilizing e-commerce application software in hotel operations as well as travel institutions that are related. (Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Management, copyright 2000-2006)

The BSHRM: Culinary Arts course offers various fields of study. These include small business management, butchery, international cuisine, and financial management. In addition, the course covers topics such as entrepreneurship, franchising, and fishmonger. The Hospitality industry aspect of the course focuses on providing lodging and dining services. It also includes details on hotel and restaurant management and operation. Quality service is emphasized in providing guests with accommodations and food. The Tourism component of the course aims to fulfill clients’ travel needs. This includes foreign language and personality development courses. Both local and international tours are offered. (BS in Hotel and Restaurant Management in the Philippines, copyright 2010-2012)

The popularity of the course HRM among incoming college students in the Philippines is increasing every year. This indicates a growing interest in the course and has resulted in its recognition as one of the top courses to be taken. Lito B. Soriano, president of LBS-E Recruitment and executive director of the Federated Associations of Manpower Exporters Inc., states that data from the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) reveals that over 120,000 HRM graduates are produced annually. However, Soriano notes that many of these graduates require additional skill training to become eligible for employment both locally and internationally (Oversupply of Unemployable Graduates, 2010).

Labor Undersecretary Rosalinda Baldoz has confirmed that HRM is one of the courses with the highest number of graduates in recent years. She explains that many HRM graduates aspire to work overseas but struggle to find employment due to a lack of required experience by foreign employers. Officials from the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) believe that the oversupply of nurses and professionals, including HRM graduates, is a result of students’ increasing desire to pursue opportunities abroad. CHED-Cordillera Administrative Director Ramon Santiago has noted that Hotel and Restaurant Management is a popular choice among students in the region, as it offers better chances of securing an overseas job after graduation.

Despite the popularity and demand for certain courses, finding job opportunities in foreign countries is not necessarily easy. The chances of employment abroad are influenced by factors such as a decrease in job vacancies and the qualifications of graduates. Unemployment among professionals has increased due to colleges and universities introducing new programs each year without ensuring the quality of education provided to students because of the high demand for these courses. Consequently, this situation results in either unemployment or underemployment. (Source: CHED explains oversupply of nurses and others, 2011)

According to Debra Wheatman, president of Careers Done Write, the ability to manage multiple tasks simultaneously is crucial when working in a management role in the hotel or restaurant industry. Additionally, outstanding customer service skills and the ability to motivate staff are important qualities for success. Engaging customers and generating new business through social skills is a significant aspect of this position. It is also essential to possess knowledge in increasing sales and driving profits. Interacting with a diverse and dynamic group of individuals from various backgrounds is inevitable in this role. Advancement opportunities exist; however, note that this is not a typical 9-5 job and may require weekend work and extended hours.

Academic training is crucial, but experience serves as the most effective teacher in this domain. To truly comprehend the expectations essential for success and become well-rounded, it is advisable to work in the industry at an early stage. This will provide a taste of the requirements needed for a managerial position in a restaurant or hotel. The amalgamation of practical business knowledge and classroom experiences will enhance your skills and minimize the learning curve when securing a full-time position. First-hand experiences are unparalleled in aiding one’s comprehension of expectations.

Practical Training is crucial for gaining experience in hotel and restaurant management. Consider working as a server or bartender to gain knowledge of front of house operations and customer service. Additionally, it will be beneficial to spend time in the kitchen to understand the behind-the-scenes aspects. This will provide insight into the importance of timeliness and enhance your understanding of running a smooth kitchen operation. If working in a hotel, try a front desk position to gain comprehensive customer service experience. This role involves troubleshooting and will help develop problem resolution skills (Finding Careers in Hotel and Restaurant Management, 2011).

Due to the increase in tourism, many people are choosing a successful career in hotel restaurant management. In cities around the world, there is a growing demand for skilled managers as businesses thrive in previously vacant areas. Training plays a vital role in establishing a strong hotel restaurant management career because of the significant responsibilities involved. Managers must not only fulfill their own duties but also have the ability to motivate and inspire their employees. This is crucial because the smooth operation of a restaurant or hotel heavily relies on consistent performance from its staff.

To pursue a profitable career in hotel restaurant management, there are two main options: on-the-job training within a restaurant or hotel, or enrolling in a specialized school. On-the-job training allows for gradual advancement but may lack comprehensive training in areas such as accounting and purchasing. However, reputable specialized schools offer tailored programs and job placement assistance for this career.

Graduates of BS in Hotel and Restaurant Management have various career options. These include roles such as Food and Beverage Director, Restaurant Operations Manager, Leisure and Recreation Consultant, Restaurant or Hotel Owner, Front Office Staff and Manager, Cruise Line Staff, Independent Caterer, Housekeeper, Chef, Food Service Consultant, and Academian (BS in Hotel and Restaurant Management in the Philippines, copyright 2010-2012).

HRM graduates have various career options in the hospitality industry, including restaurant management, hotelier roles, and entrepreneurship. Unemployment is typically attributed to insufficient skills and experience, which employers prioritize as essential qualifications. Hence, HRM students should partake in training programs to acquire the required experience. Ultimately, it is crucial to secure a job that aligns with one’s knowledge and abilities for both success and enjoyment in their chosen career.

How Far Did Stalin’s Social Policies Change The Lives

Following Stalin’s succession to power in 1929, once again, Russia was transformed. As part of Socialism in One Country, Stalin focussed his intentions internally. This involved the notorious industrialisation and collectivisation drives which were intended to reform the economy. Nevertheless, do so, Stalin realised he would have to create a more ordered and disciplined society.

Consequently, as part of the Revolution from Above and what was deemed by Sheila Fitzpatrick as the “great retreat”, where Stalin turned away from the policies of his predecessor, Stalin embarked on numerous social policies which focussed on the reforms of education and family life. Consequently, Stalin’s legislation on the one hand, changed the lives of countless Soviet women and children. Nevertheless, it is also argued that his policies were no similar to previous social legislation under the Tsar and Lenin.

Consequently the extent of change and the significance of Stalins policies remains in question. Following the Russian revolution, Lenin assumed the Premiership of Russia and redefined the social polices experienced by women and children. In terms of policies which affected women and the family, Lenin was comparatively Liberal compared to Tsarist Russia. He considered traditional marriage to be slavery, economic and sexual exploitation. Robert Service has argued that as a result, official spokesmen began to urge wives to refuse to give “automatic obedience to husbands.

” Lenin went against previously traditional conservative policy and legalised divorce as well as abortion. Lenin attempted to free women from their domestic roles under Tsarism by requisitioning large scale provision of facilities such as canteens, laundries and creches as party of what is argued by Corin and Fiehn as the “socialisation of domestic services. ” Although, in retrospect, this policy was unaffordable, costing well over the national budget and consequently, the socialisation was not universal, reducing overall change.

Nevertheless, Lenin did implement legislation previously unthinkable to allow free love, as well as the creation the Zhenotdel, which gave opportunity for the first time for women to be involved in the running of the state. Additionally, Lenin reformed the education system which ultimately impacted heavily on children. Lenin focussed on an industrial education which made use of apprenticeship schemes, but to the detriment of a broad education. Yet, also as part of his liberalising of once Tsarist Russia, he took the power to discipline away from teachers and scrapped the examination and homework methods of education.

He also denounced all university lectures as members of the bourgeoisie and members of a hostile class in the proletariats struggle and were subsequently arrested. Ultimately, under Lenin, education was more liberal than anything previous children had ever seen. Under Stalin, the changing of social policies and their effect on women were numerous. Stalin as part of industrialisation put greater emphasis on job opportunities for women, by 1940 for example, nearly 41% of heavy industry workers were women. Although, in retrospect, women were still underpaid, receiving only 60-65% of a mans salary in the same job, reducing overall change.

Nevertheless, in contrast to Lenin and Tsarist Russia, Stalin put even greater focus on educational opportunities for women, increasing places for the number of women in colleges and universities. Although, again, these courses were purely focussed on industry, reducing overall change from Lenin. Although, as part of urbanisation, women obtained greater opportunities to work in agriculture and by 1945, 80% of workers on the collectives were female. Stalin also placed even greater emphasis on propaganda compared to Lenin and employed the Stakhanov spirit in the female working environment to ensure maximum potential.

Women also saw greater opportunities to serve in the armed forces and by 1945, half a million Soviet Women had served. However, Stalin did abolish the Zhenotdel, formed under Lenin, reducing women’s ability to be involved in the running of the state once again, as under Tsarism, reducing the breath of change in overall opportunity. Additionally, Lynch argues that the increase in women into the armed forces, whilst increased their equality, increased their likelihood of “mistreatment” and “sexual abuse”, especially by senior officers.

This bears similarity to pre-Leninism where abuse of women was commonplace, reducing overall significance of Stalin’s social policies effect on changing the lives of women for the better. Although, the state under Stalin compensated the abuse of women in the home itself by introducing a series of social polices which championed the revival of marriage. For example, the state now promoted marriage, legalising wedding rings which had previously been made illegal under Lenin. Stalin in contrast to Lenin who legalised divorce, limited the availability to end a marriage.

This has the effect of reducing the number of women and children becoming impoverished, under Lenin and his policy of free love. Women and children would no longer be left to fend for themselves if a husband chose to divorce. Local Party officials would in addition seek out any husbands who absconded from their marital obligations ensuring this change would be successful and significant. Women were also encouraged more to increase their reproductivity. This was due to greater amounts of women in work as part of industrialisation.

Stalin introduced incentives to women with a certain amount of children-7 would gain 2,0000 roubles per year for 5 consecutive years. However, this increased the likelihood of pressure being put on women from their male counterparts to terminate their babies as had been the case when Lenin previously legalised abortion, suggesting a reduction in overall change for the better. Although, Stalin did put in place laws to punish such offence with two years imprisonment and made termination illegal. However, ultimately the banning of abortion was an infringement on civil liberties, similar to that of Tsarism, reducing overall change.

Additionally, Stalin reverted back to the traditional role of the women in the home. Whilst his changes meant they could work and could receive state support and were compensated by his promotion of the Women’s Activists Movement which encouraged women to help each other, he still expected them to look after their own family as a “good Communist” should rather than socialise the entire family as Lenin argued. Stalin therefore reverted back to the traditional view of the purpose of women. He however, gave them two roles.

Essentially, as Geoffrey Hosking argues “the fruits of female emancipation became the building blocks of the Stalinists neopatriarchal society. ” In terms of Stalins social policies and it’s effects on children for the better, they are arguably of less significance. Whilst Stalin continued to run the education system via the state as Lenin condoned, Stalin controlled the education of children to a precedent unseen before. Stalin condoned the more extensive regulation of education in order to shape the next younger generation of society, whom could be easily influenced, into the Communist way of thinking.

This was seen most notably in 1935, when Stalin brought the original Tsars Imperial Academy, or Soviets Academy of Sciences under direct state control forcing personnel to produce work only in line with Stalinist views. Stalin also reintroduced discipline into children’s lives, giving power back to teachers which had previously been taken away under Lenin. He also further tightened the regulations imposed on children in terms of appearance, such as school uniforms, to surpass Lenin’s attempts to create a truly egalitarian society.

Stalin also changed the material in lessons, introducing a new curriculum in 1935 which was created by the state which was accompanied by State prescribed textbooks through which children would now learn; a valuable method in the influencing of the next generation of socialists. Although, in retrospect, it could be argued that state influence in children’s education was not a vast change. Lenin himself had requisitioned a book entitled A Brief History of Russia by Bolshevik Pokrovsky which was acquired as the Soviet School Text Book. Although, state influence in education under Lenin was rather in terms of class struggle.

Stalin changed this to an overall insight into the positive age of the Russian past, focussing on figures such as Peter the Great. He also made it compulsory along with homework and exams to in fact go to school. Whereas Lenin saw it as a mere obligation to learn the basic aspects of reading and writing, Stalin saw education as essential in breeding a new generation of productive and capable workers and consequently provided free schooling for the first time time up to the age of 15. For example, between 1929 and 1940, the number of children attending school rose from 12 to 35 million.

Although, in retrospect, whilst there were grants, most parents of children in secondary education were still expected to pay and certainly could not attend higher education without such a financial contribution, reducing overall change in terms of opportunity for children. This change is made more insignificant by the fact that ironically, whilst the Russian revolutionaries had poured scorn on the bourgeoisie governing elites that monopolised power previously, Stalin continued to produce an equivalent and did not change this hypocrisy.

Party officials were allowed the right for their children to have the best training to give them access to higher education and were often given the best places, similar to the Tsarist elite, and going against Lenin. For example, in the period from 1928-1932, a third of all undergraduates were Party nominees. Essentially, Stalin did not change the existence of a ruling class which allowed their children to dominate the education system. Lynch even argues that, “it enhanced Stalins power by creating a class of privileged administrators who had every motive for supporting him since they were his creatures.

” In conclusion, essentially, Stalin did make extensive changes in social polices which effected the lives of countless women and children. Authority, discipline and effort were now championed in a drive to become a truly independent Socialist State. In terms of children and their education, Stalin, although he continued with state intervention, undeniably made changes to allow compulsory education to all which made the literacy rate rise significantly from 51% in 1926 to 88% in 1940, allowing a new breed of educated workers to run the economy.

However, Stalins changes to the lives of children are however inevitably undermined by the fact that he did nothing to prevent an intelligentsia forming once again which was allowed to dominate the nomenklatura. Not only was education still streamlined as it had been under Lenin and even under Tsarism in the universities, but ordinary children were still prevented from top posts and were confined to be “cogs” in the industrialisation process.

In terms of significance consequently, the changes he made to the lives of women were of more importance. Whilst one could argue he increased the exploitation of women and continued the advocation of their traditional roles, taking away the liberal polices of Lenin and the Zhenotdel, not only did he compensate this with other types of state support, but his reform changes undeniably gave women job opportunities on a magnitude as part of industrialisation, never before seen for women in Russia under Lenin or his Tsarist predecessor.

Kitty Genovese’ Case

In 1964, Kitty Genovese was murdered in New York City; for over half an hour she put up a desperate fight against her assailant, and 38 neighbors later reported hearing her ongoing screams for help. But no one helped – not one witness even so much as called the police. Instead of being remembered for the lovely, vivacious and caring woman she was, Kitty Genovese’s name has become a grim label for an ugly phenomenon called bystander apathy. It defines a national character that is lacking in courage, is too frightened to “get involved,” and cares nothing for helping anyone other than the self. (Gado 2006)

A pair of social psychologists who specialize in the area social cognition began research into the cause and effect of the witnesses’ apparent apathy. Their findings have been labeled diffusion of responsibility or bystander apathy. The theory being that an individual is less likely to exhibit helping behavior as the number of bystanders increases.

The possible reasons for bystander apathy can be the feelings of powerless and confusion during the attack, the desire not to get involved. People may also assume that other bystanders may be more qualified to help, such as being a doctor or police officer, and their intervention would thus be unneeded. People may also fear “losing face” in front of the other bystanders, being superseded by a “superior” helper, or offering unwanted assistance. Another explanation is that bystanders monitor the reactions of other people in an emergency situation to see if others think that it is necessary to intervene. (Latane & Darley 1969)

Psychological approaches assume that many disorders result from mental, behavioral, and social factors, such as personal experiences, traumas, conflicts, and environmental conditions. Psychodynamic approach focuses on the inner, often unconscious motivations as well as attempts to resolve conflicts between personal needs and social requirements. So, according to this approach a major motivating force for people to stand and watch without intervening laid in their unconsciousness.  In explaining the onlookers’ apathy the behaviorist will point to the previous learning experiences. The behavioral approach maintain the fact that the bystanders always remember their previous experience in the case of emergency, and if they had bad experience they won’t interrupt in any way. The cognitive approach is based on focusing on the thoughts and thought processes that cause problematic emotions and behaviors. In problematic situations people have a lot of thoughts in their mind, and a little time to decide. (Latane ; Darley 1969)


Gado, Mark. (2006). All About Kitty Genovese. Retrieved January 17, 2007, from

Latane, B., ; Darley, J. (1969). Bystander “Apathy”. American Scientist, 57, 244-268.

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