This year at Howard Days, I talked to a couple of people about my obsession with the minutia of Robert E. Howard’s life. While I am a firm believer that the more we know, the clearer the picture of the writer from Cross Plains will become, I still think some of the things that intrigue me are pretty far out in left field. But the folks I talked to said that they found these things interesting, too, and that I should keep on keeping on. Well, I’ve got a few things lined up that may change their minds. Read on, if you dare.
When I first became interested in Howard’s life he seemed to be characterized as kind of a lone nut, with only a couple of friends over in Brownwood and maybe one or two more in Cross Plains. But when you start digging, others emerge. Without mentioning any female companionship (we’ll get to that at a later time), Howard had more friends than just Clyde Smith, Truett Vinson, Dave Lee, and Lindsey Tyson.
Reading Howard’s correspondence and autobiographical writings reveals other friends, including Aud “Slue Foot” Cross, Winfred Brigner, and Ottie Gill, not to mention Harold Preece and E. Hoffmann Price who both visited Cross Plains on more than one occasion. The de Camp papers at the Harry Ransom Center in Austin contain interviews with other Howard pals like Austin Newton, Leroy Butler, and Tom Ray Wilson. Even Howard’s hometown newspaper, the Cross Plains Review, has items of interest like this one from July 25, 1924: “Earl Baker of Ballinger visited Robert Howard last week.” (Baker was a buddy from the Burkett days.) These were all people who came in and out of Howard’s life, friends of circumstance like we all have from time to time, while our core group remains somewhat stable. To this list we should add Ray Adams.
Not too long ago Patrice Louinet sent me a clipping from the November 16, 1923 edition of the Cross Plains Review: One little clipping, and a question: did I know anything about Ray Adams. At the time, I’d never even heard of him, now I know more than anyone outside of his family needs to know. I’ll share the relevant bits here.
Alton Ray Adams was born in Eastland County, Texas, on October 11, 1905, the first child of William and Fannie. His father was a farmer. Sometime after the 1910 enumeration of the U.S. Census but before the end of the year 1919, the Adams family had moved to Cross Plains and gained two more members: Kermit and Bonnie. And if they hadn’t met earlier, Ray Adams and Robert E. Howard would have bumped into each other at the Methodist Church on Christmas Eve 1919 where they are both on the program giving readings, as reported on December 26.
Presumably, Adams attended school in Cross Plains and, since he was just a few months older, may have had classes with Robert E. Howard, whose family had moved to Cross Plains in 1919. If they attended school together, they don’t appear to have been in the same class: Adams is not listed with Howard in the graduating class of 1922 that appeared in the paper. But he is one of the young men, along with Howard, mentioned in the following July 28, 1922 item: After the radio experiment, Robert E. Howard went off to Brownwood for another year of high school. Ray Adams moved back to Eastland County, Cisco to be precise. But the two appear to have been good enough friends that they tried to stay in touch. When Howard returned to Cross Plains in 1923, Adams visited at least once, as the clip at the head of this post indicates.
How long the pair remained friends is a mystery. Like many school friendships, it may have simply dwindled away, or perhaps they became pen pals, though I haven’t found reference to Adams in Howard’s surviving correspondence. Whatever the case, sometime before the death of his father, W. M. Adams in June 1934, Ray had moved to Montana. He died there in 1942.
Light And Dark Reactions Of Photosynthesis And C3 And C4 Plants
Light reactions in photosynthesis involve the soaking up and usage of visible radiation. The reactions take topographic point in the thylakoid membrane where chlorophyll and other sorts of smaller organic molecules are present. There are two types of photosystems. exposure system I and exposure system II. The reaction centre in exposure system I is knon as P700 and the reaction centre in Photosystem II is P680.
The splitting of a H2O molecule is required to pull out negatrons for the P680. The cholorphyll molecule becomes excited and base on ballss from the primary negatron acceptor of exposure system I into exposure system I by the ETC. The energy is harnessed by the thylakoid membrane to bring forth ATP through the procedure of photophosphorylation. This energy is used in the production of NADPH after a redox reaction. The O that came from the H2O molecule is released through the air.
In C4 and C3 workss. CO2 enters through the pore and is diffused into the mesophyll. The CO2 is stored in the stroma of the mesophyll for usage in the Calvin rhythm. The ATP and NADPH are used for energy in the reactions. The ATP is an energy beginning and consumes NADPH as areducing power for high-energy negatrons to do sugar. While C3 workss use the palisade bed and the squashy mesophyll. C4 workss use bundle sheaths for the reaction centres.
The chloroplasts for C4 cells are found within the bundle sheath cells. C4 workss combine CO2 with RuBP while C3 workss combine CO2 with PEP and utilize the CAM tract for transit. In the Calvin rhythm. Carbon dioxide enters the cell. and attaches to a five-carbon sugar. The RUBP caboxylase catalyzes the compound. The merchandise of the reaction is a six-carbon intermediate. Then. a brace of negatrons donated from NADPH reduces 3-bisphosphoglcerate to G3P which stoares for possible energy. Then the rhythm uses 3 more molecules ATP and RuBP is prepared to have CO2.
The Fall Of The City: Unnatural Growth
Every kid has their ain adulthood and prefrence degree. Should one’s behavior be forced to alter because of the stereotypes in society? In Alden Nowlan’s The Fall of the City, he writes in first individual about a immature honest male child, named Teddy, differing with his uncle to be a good taught normal male child. It is of import for a kid to turn up and go an grownup, but they need to be the one edifice themselves up. Alternatively of being forced like Teddy. Alden Nowlan develops Teddy by comparing him with his uncle with a strong tone stereotipical adult male of the house. He besides created concealed messages by holding the war between Danova and Upalia relate to the struggle between Teddy and his uncle.
Throughout the narrative, Teddy’s imaginativeness falls apart easy as he approximately passages from an inventive male child into his father’s phantasy, to protect himself emotionally. After his uncle told him to get down his prep, “his uncle stood in the room access between kitchen and life room, his shoulders agitating with laughter. ‘you’d ne’er think what that child has been making up at that place! ’ … that great lout has been playing with paper dolls! ” while Teddy knows that he will necessitate to turn up sometime. his defenders that are populating with him are seeking to assist, Teddy does non believe that they he is playing with paper dolls. The Uncle creates his ain sentiment and forces Teddy to alter by doing merriment of him. Teddy should be influenced to alter alternatively of forced.
Nowlan uses an interesting tone to make complicated and a slightly baffled emotional quality to the narrative. During the statement with Teddy and his uncle, The tone starts to be more vulnerable when “Teddy’s fists were clenched … his voice agitating … his uncle pointed a warning finger” which converts the ambiance to be more serious.