Review Of Tap Dancing Role In History And Nowadays Sample Essay

Tap dancing that gained popularity in the first part of the XX century, has remained one of the best loved dances in the world. Being relatively simple and not requiring musical accompaniment, the danse attracts people by its beauty and ingenuousness. People can danse tap dancing without learning to dance making the dance popular among all age groups. This paper hypostasizes that the fiery performances by tap dances have not lost their repute with the development of other dancing styles, and that tap dancing has retained its popularity and unique atmosphere.

Tap dancing was born in the USA, becoming popular among common people and finding its way into Broadway and then Hollywood. Frequent and rhythmic tapping of shoes with metal tips captured the minds of Americans, despite the Great Depression that swept the country in the late 20s and early 30s of the XX century (Wilham, 2020). People were happy to go to musical performances to admire the performance of their favorite dancers.

The origins of tap dancing can be traced in the ritual dances of the indigenous population of America — the Indians. Their movements during the rites are really somewhat reminiscent of the rhythm of tap dancing. But the true “parents” of the danse are the cultural traditions of Afro-Americans and the Irish, who settled in America back in the XVIII century. The Negroes brought African rhythms to America, and the Irish brought jig.

During the impromptu matches organized by immigrants, racial and other stereotypes were dissolved in the struggle for the best performance of the dance on wooden soles. These competitions did not get into the limelight of the general public until 1830, which is considered the year of tap dancing birth. In 1830, a famous Irish dancer, who performed under the pseudonym Papa Rice, demonstrated a new dance to the public. He combined the jig with some elements of African rhythms, in particular, borrowed certain movements of the legs, shoulders and arms (Wilham, 2020). Papa Rice was greeted with an ovation, and this is how tap dancing appeared. Until the 20s of the last century, the step was inextricably linked with Broadway and the artists who masterfully performed this dance.

With the development of the film industry, step dance acquired a different status. The style was cherished by the directors of musical comedies who gathered full halls introducing step dancing in their performances. The post-war period was considered a golden period in the development of tap dancing. The war was over and people wanted to relax and enjoy the performance of tap dancers. The names of Fred Astaire, Gene Kelly, Ginger Rogers were pronounced with reverence as they beat a clear rhythm with their shoes turning dance into art.

In the early 50s, the genre was going through a period of stagnation. The government imposed a tax on large orchestras, whose music accompanied most of the step dances. Musicals stop generating income and producers were looking for new ideas for scripts. Step dancing moved to the sidelines of the film industry giving way to ballet scenes. However, At the end of the 60s, film directors began to revive old musicals as well as tap dancing. At the same time, several programs about step were launched on television. All this led to the revival of the style and a new wave of its popularity.

Gradually, step ceased to be perceived only as entertainment. Virtuoso tapping has turned into art. Fans of the genre began to open step dance training schools, and festivals and competitions between step dancers were organized around the country. At present, interest in the style has not faded. Leaving big screens, tap dancing settled in small chamber institutions, where modern dancers continue to beat a clear rhythm in an attempt to gain the status of the most talented tap dancer.

The main features of American tap dancing include free movements which make the dance very graceful and smooth. The European style of tap dancing is more like an Irish or English dance, which is danced on wooden soils. The movements of this style are springier, but the body of the dancers remains motionless (Wilham, 2020). Whatever style is danced, the main feature of this dance is that the performers always improvise, expressing their mood through dance. The purity and elegance of the tap technique, the virtuoso movements of the dancer’s legs in harmony with the music create a spectacular dance, accompanied by a unique auditory series of fractional sounds.

Tap is a charismatic and free dance and the passion the dancers put into their performance is contagious. Born about a hundred years ago, nowadays this style retains its attractiveness due to the relative simplicity and fiery emotions the dancers put into their performance. Turning from screen style into popular dancing genre, tap dancing has remained one of the most loved dances in America for all generations.

Works Cited

Wilham, Elise. “Tap for the Times: A Study of Contemporary Tap Dance.” 2020, Web.

Historical Review Of Gender Inequality In The USA

Introduction

Throughout the history of human society, many different problems have been identified. Some were eliminated over time, and some, intertwined with history, remained in society until modern times. Most of these massive obstacles stem from conflicts related to the mentality of people and the established order of things. One of these problems is gender inequality, which is observed in almost all countries. The United States is no exception in this regard, as the United Nations Gender Inequality Index (GII) shows. According to this table, the United States is only in 46th place on the list of quality of life, behind many even smaller states (“Gender Inequality Index,” 2020). Consequently, despite all the policies adopted, this problem is still relevant for this country, which provides a vast space for studying and researching.

This social problem affects almost all spheres of human activity. Human gender is one of the fundamental characteristics of a person, based on which many relationships in society are built. That is why gender inequality is reflected in all areas where people are present: from health care to politics. In historical times, the differentiation between men and women was enshrined mainly in legislation. Even when legal measures of inequality were eliminated, the entrenched patriarchal order, based on the predominance of men in many areas, remained a powerful social construct. Echoes of past gender inequality are observed both in interpersonal relations and in large-scale adopted policies. Despite the colossal breakthrough made in this area over the past 100 years, this problem remains relevant and requires analysis, which forms the purpose of this review.

Historical Overview

As mentioned above, gender inequality was often enshrined at the legislative level, which deprived women of any right to defend their interests. Following this, it can be noted that a considerable gap in gender inequality in the United States persisted until the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution was formed, which allowed women to vote. At the same time, before forming the United States, women already had this right in some colonies, but by the beginning of the 19th century, only men had suffrage (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). Despite isolated cases, it can be noted that gender inequality in the United States during this period was enshrined in law.

Nevertheless, some individuals tried to influence this state of affairs by drawing attention to the problem. For example, John Adams’ wife encouraged him to pay more attention to women’s rights (“Women’s history milestones,” 2021). However, for the most part, such requests went unnoticed and did not have any significant consequences. Thus, many enlightened women were aware of the existing problems of inequality and even warned their husbands about the possibility of an uprising. Nevertheless, at the time of the formation of the United States, the prevalence of inequality was close to one hundred percent since women had practically no rights. This was partly due to the established patriarchal order since such gender inequality was prevalent in the world. In addition, from a legal perspective, many colonies relied on British common law legislation, in which husband and wife were defined as one person (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). However, the further development of the state as a free territory led to this concept being gradually revised.

With the introduction of various successive amendments to the Constitution, attention to gender inequality has been drawn more often. One of the reasons for this was the wording used in the Constitution: “persons,” “people,” and “electors,” which left the theoretical possibility of including women in this list (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). Through state division, parts of the United States have been able to make headway on inequality. For example, in 1839 in Mississippi, women received property rights with the permission of their husbands (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). The creation of such local precedents made it possible to attract the attention of other states and the nation as a whole. With each subsequent year, more women appeared who achieved success in previously considered only male areas. For example, in 1849, Elizabeth Blackwell became the first female doctor in the United States, graduating from Geneva College in New York with the highest grades (“Women’s history milestones,” 2021). Such cases led to the formation of local movements, among which the creation of the Declaration of Sentiments, a document that forms a plea for an end to discrimination, can be distinguished.

The most ambitious issue related to gender inequality and stopping women’s struggle for their rights was the virtual lack of suffrage. Before the constitutional Amendment was raised in 1878, Wyoming passed the Women’s History Milestones Act in 1869 (“Women’s history milestones,” 2021). However, until 1920 and the adoption of the 19th Amendment, this practice did not apply to the entire state. Many court cases were produced during this period to achieve this. For example, in 1900, women were given partial ownership rights, which allowed them to at least partially control their income (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). An all-important milestone was the opening of the first birth control clinic in 1916. Despite multiple raids and imminent closures, the clinic’s creator, Margaret Sanger, founded the American Birth Control League and created the first birth control pill lately (“Women’s history milestones, “2021). Since the introduction of the 19th Amendment, the social movement for women’s rights has grown significantly.

An increasing number of people recognized this problem, although many men in power initially chose to ignore it. Nevertheless, the right to vote allowed women to legally assert their rights and take actions that are precedents for the further development of this situation. Not all of them were successful, such as the Equal Rights Amendment in 1923, but they laid the foundation for further work (Quffa, 2016). Considering the timeline of the women’s political movement, it can be noted that most of the events took place precisely after the introduction of the 19th Amendment, which helped women enter the public field. This led to the promotion of several laws equalizing women and men in various spheres and the country’s top officials’ public recognition of this problem. In the following decades, thanks to this foundation, women began to occupy more iconic posts, make breakthroughs in previously predominantly male spheres of activity, and defend their rights, gradually reducing the level of inequality.

Current Situation

Thus, the situation with female inequality has improved significantly compared to what it was 100 years ago. Women have addressed many of the points of gender inequality that have been present in a patriarchal society for hundreds of years. Nevertheless, there are still many problematic points that have not been resolved so far. Despite many support structures for women that have emerged, from the UN Office for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women to centers that monitor women’s reproductive rights, many elements of the unequal treatment of women remain in society. The foundations for the gender inequality gap have been primarily addressed. However, the existing problematic points are much more subtle, and it is incredibly problematic to change them with any laws or policies.

Thus, gender inequality has become less pronounced, but this makes it no less widespread. Being legally able to vote and stand up for their rights does not mean that women will be equal to men. Kamala Harris, who became the first female vice president of the United States in 2021, is a prime example (“Women’s history milestones,” 2021). Although legally, women can achieve this position for a long time, until 2021, there was no single woman in such a post.

Existing hidden gender inequality can also be discerned through statistics. According to available data, in the United States, the overwhelming majority of high positions are held by men (“Gender economic inequality,” n.d.). On the other hand, there are far more women than men in low-paid jobs. Another striking example is the situation with COVID-19 and health workers, who, according to statistics, in three cases out of four are women (“Gender economic inequality,” n.d.). At the same time, the pandemic hit much harder precisely on married women since mothers lost their jobs two to three times more often than fathers.

Unfortunately, there are not many current bills to address such inequality. Laws like the Equal Pay Act were passed in the last century, and many of these documents have not yet been revised following the current situation. Nevertheless, among the current laws, one can single out the lifting of restrictions on women’s military service in 2013, which allows them to take up combat positions (“Timeline of legal history,” 2021). The Violence Against Women Act was re-authorized to include women from Native American lands in the same year. Finally, in 2013, a key component of the Defense of Marriage Act was declared unconstitutional, defining marriage as only a union of a man and a woman, which now allows people of non-binary gender to also fight for their rights.

Recommendations

However, all the political acts and measures described above are insufficient to address the existing gender inequality fully. Statistics also evidence this: the dynamics of changes in gender inequality in recent years have sharply decreased (England et al., 2020). Accordingly, although the measures taken have reduced the fundamental difference between genders, there are many nuances. This is partly because, during the period of inequality, the party with the advantage accumulated money, connections, and opportunities (Jansson, 2015). Thus, inequality is dictated by historical factors, and other approaches must be taken to address it.

First of all, the existing policies are aimed at creating a level playing field. However, due to the historical perspective described above, women and men initially find themselves in different conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to create situations in which women will be given the advantage to balance the system. The introduction, for example, of various kinds of quotas for female workers will, over time, create a situation in which an equal number of women and men in one position will be the norm. When such a situation is reached, it will no longer be needed since social traditions will be changed.

However, it is necessary to introduce various measures to protect women from male pressure until this happens. Despite all the measures taken, America still has exceptionally high adolescent birth rates, which is both a cause and an indicator of gender inequality (“Gender Inequality Index,” 2020). Therefore, it is necessary to introduce measures to protect women in areas where they are most at risk. So, for example, since most frontline health workers in the event of a pandemic are women, it is necessary to introduce support measures for them: from increasing salaries to providing benefits. Finally, the most ambitious step should be to disseminate detailed information about gender inequality and its historical causes in society. The more people know why women are more vulnerable, the easier it will be to change this situation and create new traditions based on gender equality.

Conclusion

Gender inequality in society is a widespread problem worldwide, rooted in the patriarchal system and associated prejudices. The United States is no exception in this regard, and despite the high development of the country as a whole, the situation with inequality remains very problematic. Until the beginning of the 20th century, there were practically no significant improvements in this situation, apart from isolated cases. Moreover, during the creation of the state, some of the rights that women already possessed were taken away.

Until the adoption of the 19th Amendment to the US Constitution, women declared themselves independent, achieving success and proving that they had the right to have equal rights with men. After the Amendment was adopted, a new era of emancipation began. Political figures finally began to pay attention to women, making it possible to promote even more necessary legislation. However, although in the second half of the 20th century, there was a boom in women’s rights, at the moment, the dynamics of the elimination of gender inequality have significantly decreased. Current laws provide little protection against inequalities for women as the situation has become much more complex. Accordingly, it is necessary to revise the old laws and introduce new actions based not on the provision of a level playing field but on providing women with advantages and protection.

References

England, P., Levine, A., & Mishel, E. (2020). Progress toward gender equality in the United States has slowed or stalled. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(13), 6990-6997. Web.

Gender Inequality Index (GII). (2020). United Nation Development Programme. Web.

Gender economic inequality. (n.d.). Inequality.org. Web.

Jansson, B.S. (2015). The reluctant welfare state: American social welfare policies past, present and future (9th ed.). Brooks Cole.

Quffa, W. A. (2016). A review of the history of gender equality in the United States of America. Social Sciences and Education Research Review, 3(2), 143-149.

Timeline of legal history of women in the United States. (2021). National Women’s History Alliance. Web.

Women’s history milestones: A timeline. (2021). History. Web.

Constitutionality Of Closed-Circuit Television Surveillance

Today the surveillance techniques are widely used by the police for various purposes, such as to protect citizens and detect illegal activities. Even though some might consider the techniques useful and harmless, others might question the constitutionality of such an approach to controlling crime level by the Government. The primary reason for that is that surveillance might be a threat to the privacy of the citizens and thus violate the right to privacy. The work will emphasize closed-circuit television (CCTV) surveillance and provide an analysis of the constitutionality of the technique. Video surveillance can cause pressure on residents, as well as violate personal space. First, the work will evaluate the efficiency of closed-circuit television surveillance. Next, it will assess the constitutionality of the technique from the perspective of three doctrines, which are the Fourth Amendment prohibition, the First Amendment, and the constitutional right of privacy. Despite the possible effectiveness of the closed-circuit television surveillance in preventing crime and controlling the crime level, it might threaten citizens’ right to privacy and pose several questions regarding the constitutional implication of the technique.

CCTV surveillance is used in the private sector, in commercial buildings like hospitals, banks, and shopping centers. The CCTV screens are monitored by the police officers, and they detect any suspicious actions on the screen. The camera could be regulated and adjusted by the officer. The cameras are also lightly amplifiable, so they are able to detect criminal activity both during the day and the nighttime. The main purpose of adjusting cameras is to prevent and reduce crime cases. A study conducted by Welsh et al. (2019) demonstrates that the noticeable reduction in crime is associated with the intervention of CCTV. However, crime reduction is affected by various factors, such as the type of crime and the geographical setting (Piza, 2019). According to Jang et al. (2018), CCTV surveillance had affected the reduction in property crime, but it did not affect other types of crime estimates. Hence, the efficiency of CCTV surveillance depends on the different factors that might influence the crime; nevertheless, this surveillance technique contributes to crime reduction.

In order to assess the constitutionality of CCTV, three primary constitutional doctrines will be mentioned: the Fourth Amendment prohibition, the constitutional right for privacy, and the First Amendment. By the Fourth Amendment, the Constitution protects citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures. However, the Supreme Court had not defined what aspects make the expectation of privacy reasons. (Tokson, 2020). For a long time, courts have concluded that there is no violation of the Fourth Amendment by the CCTV surveillance and juxtaposed it to the basic surveillance by a police officer. (Gee, 2020). In the Katz V. United States case, the Supreme Court established a legal rule regarding what accounts for a search under the Fourth Amendment. The doctrine was superseded by this rule, which switched the attention from the means of search to the standpoint of the person being searched.

A conversation is protected from arbitrary search and seizure regardless of location, according to the Court, if it is held with a “reasonable expectation of privacy.” The two-part criteria, first outlined by Justice Harlan in his concurring decision, is whether the individual has “expressed an actual expectation of privacy” and whether “the expectation be one that society is willing to acknowledge as reasonable.” The reasonableness of citizens’ expectations regarding the preservation of privacy is determined based on what is reasonable in society and what is reasonable for an individual. The Court mentioned this aspect during the case of aerial surveillance. Aerial surveillance is different from CCTV surveillance, but technology cannot give authorities the right to ignore the Constitution.

In addition, the Court stated that the society did not recognize any objectively justified expectations of confidentiality in open fields. This holds true in both the pre- and post-Katz eras. For example, in the case of Oliver, police followed a tip that marijuana was cultivated at the backyards of the defendant. The cops got out of their car and walked for approximately a mile around the gate into his property until they came across massive marijuana grow. The Court ruled that the search was conducted illegally and not in accordance with the Fourth Amendment concerning the open fields doctrine.

CCTV surveillance can be compared to aerial surveillance since aerial research has also been investigated for constitutionality. Aerial surveillance was conducted in Baltimore, and this case was investigated on the topic of whether this kind of surveillance complies with the Fourth Amendment. According to the Court’s ruling, it was decided that aerial surveillance was not a search. Therefore, this kind of surveillance complies with constitutional norms. However, new technologies make it possible not only to observe but also to review the videos made. This enables the police and those involved in surveillance to monitor the private lives of law-abiding citizens. Therefore, video surveillance can be considered a violation of privacy rights. In order to use video surveillance materials, the police need a warrant. The police would be permitted to eavesdrop on Baltimore residents without a warrant and approval to utilize CCTV surveillance for criminal investigations.

As previously stated, the Court has reviewed the subject of aerial surveillance from the perspective of the Fourth Amendment multiple times. According to the Court’s decision, aerial surveillance does not contradict the Constitution. Consider the case of California vs. Chiraolo, where a man was accused of growing marijuana in the yard. The police employed a private plane to track this man after receiving an anonymous tip. Further, a search warrant was issued for a private territory. The Court determined that these actions are legal and justified. Hence the question arises whether surveillance of private life is considered reasonable.

There is a spillover effect of the Constitutional Right of Privacy on a CCTV surveillance system. Law-abiding residents living in a building in the range of a video surveillance system may not be willing to sacrifice their privacy to influence street crime. The constitutional right to privacy is an amalgamation of several separate rights specifically mentioned in the Bill of Rights. Unintentional surveillance of the private lives of law-abiding people can mean non-compliance with the Constitution. The effective application of the right to privacy against the spillover impact of CCTV surveillance of nonpublic activities is hampered by two major barriers. The first is the requirement of citizens to consider the conflict in Court; the second is the right to privacy within certain limits that comply with the Constitution. The two factors mentioned make the process of filing a lawsuit for illegal surveillance of personal life difficult. In order for the Court to prohibit the Government from its actions, the plaintiff must show significant evidence that he has received damage as a result of surveillance or may receive damage in the future.

The right to privacy is one of the most important of the various interests at stake in the governance of the digital world. It is also one that has been recognized as a common interest in international law. Article 17 of the International Covenant on Civil states that: “No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his honour and reputation.” (The UN General Assembly, 1966). It is a fundamental human right that all members of the human community have and that all states must respect whenever they operate on their territory or have “effective control” over people. Thus, it appears that, at least in terms of the right to privacy, the promise of community engagement in digital governance is matched by the text of international law.

This contribution examines how well state practice in the area of digital privacy law fulfills the promise of the universal right to privacy. It looks at the laws of the United States and the European Union, which are often regarded as two of the most important countries for digital privacy. It also focuses on a policy area that has recently sparked a lot of public interest and debate: national security surveillance by intelligence agencies.

The First Amendment guarantees freedom of speech and association. However, Government acts that may restrict freedom are dangerous because the notion of what prohibited behavior is is inaccurate and ambiguous. State law will not comply with the Constitution if it prevents people from expressing themselves freely in accordance with the laws. The balancing criterion, which was established by the Supreme Court, takes into account the interests of the state and decides to what extent the state violates the human rights mentioned in the First Amendment. Restrictions imposed by the Government that may infringe on freedom of expression are legal as long as the state has a compelling interest. That is, depending on how significant the state’s interest is, a balancing act will be established in accordance with the First Amendment. Let’s imagine a scenario where video surveillance will be challenged with the help of the First Amendment.

A political rally is taking place on the street where the surveillance cameras are located. According to the plaintiffs, surveillance cameras installed on the street prevent more people from participating in the rally, as people will be afraid of government surveillance. In this regard, they are demanding an injunction and compensation for damages. However, given the case law, the probability that the claim will be rejected is very high. This is owing to the fact that the application of surveillance cameras will be different from the government’s previous strategies of using pictures and covert operatives. The most significant problem for the defendants is that video surveillance is carried out in open places where any member of society can observe a person’s actions.

It follows that case law does not fully affect the use of video surveillance systems by the police. Even if these systems have successfully stopped street crime, their potential for widespread abuse necessitates certain restrictions, even if constitutional concerns are not present. Constitutional norms, on the other hand, are the basic requirements for CCTV users. The Fourth Amendment’s exclusionary rule’s insufficiency in providing a meaningful remedy, as well as the difficulty courts have in creating exact restrictions, suggest that statutory law and administrative regulations are a better way to regulate CCTV use.

It is required to determine the competent authority which is responsible for the implementation of limits on video surveillance undertaken by the police in order to impose restrictions. The LEAA has the authority to manage the requirements for the allocation of funds by the state. He must analyze the causes and consequences of using video surveillance. LEAA is engaged in distributing the state budget to various organizations in accordance with their goals. Thus, if States receive funding from LEE to install and purchase cameras, then the LEAA may require restrictions on their use. Since LEAA has been working in support of video surveillance for quite a long time, this approach may be feasible.

However, the Supreme Court restricts the powers of Congress regarding trade if it prevents the state from performing operations. This fact reduces the likelihood of supporting the previous approach. Congress cannot influence the entire police force, but it can apply some procedural laws that prohibit the use of video surveillance without federal approval. Any video surveillance system must have the appropriate license. Federal or state agencies should issue such a license to the police only if there is sufficient evidence showing its necessity. The police authority, in turn, must provide detailed reasons and reasons for the use of video surveillance and justify its effectiveness for the operation.

Licenses should be issued only for the use of video cameras in places with a high crime rate. It is also possible to hold hearings and votes on the installation of cameras in certain places. If a large number of law-abiding citizens vote against the installation of cameras, then it should not be carried out. Also, it is important to establish technical requirements for the equipment of the state prosecutor’s office. Cameras should be marked and installed in prominent places so that they can be noticed.

Video surveillance is used by the police in order to recognize street crimes and prevent them. However, it is important to remember that the introduction of technology should not contradict the Constitution. In order to protect the rights of citizens, courts and legislative bodies must take into account certain guarantees provided by legislation. Based on constitutional principles, this work examined the constitutionality of police use of video surveillance. A hypothetical scenario was mentioned, which showed that it would not be easy to restrict the installation of CCTV cameras since government agencies have the right to do so under certain conditions. Video surveillance has great opportunities to maintain order and the safety of citizens because its exclusion would be too risky. However, the state should not exceed its official powers and respect the right to privacy and freedom of expression. A compromise is required: CCTV surveillance should be employed, but only under strict conditions. Then it will be possible to reap its considerable benefits while also guaranteeing citizens’ fundamental rights. Following such an approach the CCTV surveillance is considered constitutional.

References

Gee, H. (2020). Surveillance State: Fourth Amendment Law, Big Data Policing, and Facial Recognition Technology. [Review of the book The rise of big data policing: Surveillance, race, and the future of law inforcement, by A. G. Ferguson]. Berkeley Journal of African-American Law & Policy.

Jang, Y., Kim, D., Park, J., & Kim, D. (2018). Conditional effects of open-street closed-circuit television (CCTV) on crime: A case from Korea. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 53, 9-24.

Piza, E. L. (2019). The crime prevention effect of CCTV in public places: A propensity score analysis. Journal of Crime and Justice, 41, 14–30.

The United Nations General Assembly. (1966). International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Treaty Series, 999, 171.

Tokson, M. (2020). The emerging principles of fourth amendment privacy. Geo. Wash. L. Rev., 88, 1.

Welsh, B. C., Piza, E. L., Thomas, A. L., & Farrington, D. P. (2020). Private Security and Closed-Circuit Television (CCTV) Surveillance: A Systematic Review of Function and Performance. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 36(1), 56-69.

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