Rice By Manuel Arguilla Essay Example

The story “Rice” is a narrative story describing the situation of rice farmers and their family in Hacienda Consuelo. It was when the social condition is only on the side of those in the higher class. At the beginning of the story you can actually feel the dark or unpleasant feeling the characters is experiencing. Mang Pablo, the main character has three children – two of them are boys and a little girl named Isabel. He is a thin dark man. Thin because of inadequate food especially this season when they have no harvest.

He is dark in complexion because of everyday farming under the heat of the sun. Her wife Sebia is also thin as indicated in the line “her skirts clung to her thin legs… ” The couple Andres and Osiang is the neighbour of Mang Pablo. There is also a rude senora and a watchman in the rice field. Other farmer named Elis act as the leader of the farmers. Elis and Andres aspire for changes or merely they just want a just arrangement for the rice they borrowed to senora. It is the farmers against the immoral senora.

Because of the situation, farmers start to complain about the arrangement that for every five cavans of rice they borrowed, they have to pay it for ten cavans and that even a handful of snails from the rice field costs five cavans of rice. Farmers plan to ambush the truck loaded of rice that are about to deliver in the city. Andres find it better to steal that rice than to have nothing to eat because for him it is not stealing like the statement suggests “it is not stealing… the rice is ours. Mang Pablo chose not to go with the plan of Elis and Andres but Pablo cant take to see his family especially his children crying because they have nothing to eat. In the end, Mang Pablo decided to go with Elis and Andres. He said “we shall have food tonight! ” that clearly shows that Mang Pablo is a father that will do anything for his family even stealing. The story is told by the narrator who is revealed by using his, her, she, he, they etc. And talking directly to the reader .

I can see thought and feelings of the characters if the author chooses to reveal them to the reader. The author did use figures of speech to improve the literary work and for the reader to imagine of feel what the story conveys. The use of sensory words really helps me in visualizing the story. BREAD OF SALT by N. V. M. Gonzales Formalistic Approach The Bread of Salt is a story about a young boy who was very much in love with a girl named Aida. One of his dreams is to become a rich and famous violinist.

This story talks about the painful realization of a young boy who was blinded by the reality. It is said in the opening part of the story that Aida is living in the great Spanish house and from the line “I often wondered whether i was being depended upon to spend the years ahead in the service of this great house”, it clearly shows the difference in their classes. The young boy turned down because of the difference in their class that he later realized. He wrongfully regarded Aida as his world. He also had so many plans for Aida like writing a letter and buying a brooch.

In the middle part of the story, the young boy was happy when her aunt brought a maid and his task of buying pan de Sal is given to the poor girl. At the end of the story, “the bread is not ready”, it means that the young boy is not quite ready to accept the real world. The narrator in this story is the young boy. It is revealed through his words and i can see thoughts and feelings of him. Aside from Aida and the young boy, the other characters in the story are the grandmother, Pete where the young boy attended his violin rehearsals, the Buenavistas and other minor characters.

Pan de Sal symbolizes the young boy and buy giving the task of buying pandesal every morning shows how he is trying to escape from the reality because he want to concentrate on his dreams. If from the very start, the boy had accepted the difference of their class and he realities of the world, he would not have been hurt. CEBU by Peter Bacho It’s coming-of-age time in the Philippines, where a young American priest returns to bury his mother, question his faith, find his home, and fall in love.

Ben Lucero first visits Cebu, his mother’s hometown near Manila, when he travels there for her funeral. As a guest in the home of his wealthy and powerful Aunt Clara, he finds himself disoriented by the unfamiliarity of Filipino life–especially when confronted by the spectacle of self-inflicted crucifixion, a grisly local custom by which penitents attempt to placate the divine wrath–and overwhelmed by his sudden infatuation for Ellen, his aunt’s secretary.

Gradually and belatedly, Ben discovers the forces and events that shaped his family and formed the silent, unknown background of his life: the brutality of the Japanese occupation, the poverty and clannishness of Filipino life, the weird syncretism of the indigenous Catholicism, the pervasive corruption of the island authorities. He flees to the security of his native Seattle, but there he finds himself haunted by his recollections of Cebu, and impelled by circumstance to resolve the doubts he has experienced regarding his faith and identity. The novel starts when Ben arrived in the Philippines and his reunion with his Aunt Clara.

The first part talks about the history of Clara’s friendship with Ben’s mother and how Clara became wealthy, how she rescued Remedios from the Japanese and how Remedios married Ben’s father, Albert and moved to the States. It also tells more on Clara’s history during the War. The novel’s main character is an American priest named Ben Lucero, who is the son of a Filipino mother and a Filipino American father, as he makes his first trip to the Philippines. When Ben’s mother dies, he takes her body to Cebu, Philippines for burial; it is his first trip to his mother’s country.

In the Philippines, he stays with his mother’s best friend from childhood, “Aunt” Clara Natividad, who has become a wealthy and powerful businesswoman but led guerilla fighters during the war and earned her fortune through ethically questionable business practices. The novel follows Ben’s encounters with Philippine culture and tradition, both in Cebu City and in Manila where he spends time with Clara’s assistant Ellen but also sees the violence around him, such as a protest at the U. S. Embassy in which Philippine soldiers attacked their own people.

Unnerved by his experiences in Manila, Ben returns home to Seattle where he finds himself caught up in an escalating cycle of violence within the Filipino immigrant community. Ben is confused by his experiences, feeling like an outsider in both his mother’s homeland and his own local community. The characters in Seattle are Teddy, Johnny Romero: a local cop who works in Ben’s section of town; he is half-Filipino and half-Native American, and although he is raised Filipino, he uses his Native American ancestry to get a college degree and government money; he illustrates the impossibility of pinning minorities to either “Filipino” or white,” and he exemplifies the ways minority groups get ranked in a hierarchy of importance and/or respect, and Carmen “Zorro” Gamboa: a Mexican girl who moves into Ben’s neighbourhood while they are still in school; Teddy calls her Zorro because she has facial hair, and the nickname becomes popular with the school kids; only Ben is friendly with her, but she is upset to find out that he is not romantically interested in her; when she dies a few months later after getting involved with a “bad crowd,” Ben blames himself until he finds out that she came from a bad home and was all but destined for a bad life.

The novel features themes around the differences between American and Philippine culture and between American and Philippine Roman Catholicism. Other themes covered include the history of the Philippines from the final days of World War II, the effect of American presence in the country, and the difference between American-born Filipinos and Filipino immigrants. The Philippine concept of barkada, a notion of loyalty to one’s peer group, plays an important role in his experiences in Seattle after his return.

Bacho writes with a light touch, lending an ambiguity to his narration that can be frustrating but is more usually intriguing. His characters and situations reflect a maturity rarely found in first novels, and his ending, in its refusal to provide a simple resolution, succeeds in adding a new depth to an already-intricate construction. A sensitive–and convincing–debut.

Autobiography: Family Of Origin, Career And Professional Growth

I was born and brought up in India also known as the Republic of India. India is the largest subcontinent in South Asia which consists of six other countries including Nepal, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. My family is oriented by the Indian culture and lifestyle. In India, Kerala (my home State), is the first State to achieve 100% literacy. It is known for its natural beauty and nicknamed as God’s own country. India has a population of 1. 18 billion (April 2010 Estimate) and 29 main languages.

Life in my birth country (India) is fascinating as people from various different communities, ethnic and language groups, and religious traditions live together in unity. Indian population is polygenetic and is an amazing amalgamation of various races and cultures. The cultural anthropological studies reveal the fact that there are over 4000 ethnic groups and 1635 dialects in India. 41.03% of the Indian population speaks Hindi, the national language of India. Indian tradition and culture are demonstrated through language, food, religious festivals, jewelry, music, dance, and sculptures.

Being a child of Christian missionary I have had the opportunity to move to different states in India and live in their cultures from my early childhood. My High school education was done in Kerala, my home state, and moved to Karnataka, another South Indian State, for four years to do my undergraduate program in Cultural studies. After graduation I moved to Uttar Pradesh, a North Indian state, with employment. These experiences provided me the opportunity to understand the cultural differences within my country.

Now I live in Houston. Houston is a city with a large number of Asian Indian immigrants. Therefore, we have Indian associations and community groups in Houston to foster the Indian traditions and culture, and to transfer the Indian heritage to the second and third-generation Indian immigrants in Houston.

Family of Origin – Genogram

I was born and raised in a small town in Kerala, India. My parents, also born and raised in Kerala, India, have been in Church ministry for the last fifty-five years.

It has been a challenge for my father and mother as they have endured many struggles such as poverty, lack of support from family and friends, and extreme opposition from other religious fundamentalists and further social pressures to conform. Such events enable me to understand the struggles and emotions that people in such situations experience. My father is so gentle and soft-spoken. He comes from a farmer family. I have never seen my grandfather. I was told that he was a hard-working farmer. He owned 10 acres of agricultural land. He had begun his day daily by 4 am and after the Morning Prayer, he used to go to the land for his work.

His children, including my father, helped him in the work of agricultural cultivation and production. The trait of hard-working from my grandpa and the spiritual discipline of my grandma, later, influenced my father to be a strict religious and hard-working person in his family. The strict discipline received from my father helps me a lot to be self-disciplined in my daily personal and professional work plan. My Father, after his High School graduation, became a Christian minister. My mother, a housewife, is so loving and caring. She respects my father as he, in turn, loved her.

It was also the cultural trait in India that women to be submissive to their husbands. While my father was busy with his church ministry responsibilities, my mother took care of the house and was always concerned with our school work, our homework, projects, and tests My elder sister, who is an accountant, was just like a mother for me as she was 12 years older than me. She was a woman of patience and perseverance. Sometimes she demanded respect from us arguing for her position of being the eldest among the children, but my brother had a patriarchal orientation as a woman is always submissive to men.

Therefore, he used to argue with her to keep his position as the eldest male child. Another brother, youngest in the family, who is currently an Electronic Engineer, used to brag about the special care he received from the parents and others. In India, the youngest male child had all the privileges of having more share in the family, having the privilege to stay with parents even after the marriage. Many times I felt so uncomfortable with my position, as the middle child, in the birth order. My brother, who is a pastor, was so strict and serious in disciplining us.

He, sometimes, claims the position of my father to discipline us, especially on the educational side. Now as a graduate student at the University of Houston I am so grateful to him for the guidance and punishment he gave me that brought me thus far in the education. My mother and my brother place so much confidence in me that I truly felt it deep inside the core of my being. The positive feedback, praise, and affection helped me to believe that I can achieve whichever height of life I want to pursue in my life and career. I got married in 1995 and have two beautiful children. My wife is loving and bold.

She corrected many of my misunderstanding of marriage. Born and brought up in Bangalore, one of the Metropolitan cities in India, and having more exposure to city life, she made me understand that every responsibility in the family is a shared responsibility, not shouldered by any one part of it. Being a Registered Nurse, she joined a hospital for work and we together shared the responsibility of bread-winning, child-caring, and other family responsibilities.

Career History

I started my career as an instructor at a private school in Kerala, India. I worked there for a year teaching basic reading and writing skills in the English language.

When I look back today to my career history I agree with the principles of Social Cognitive Career Theory. The SCCT gives emphasis on the social contexts, experiences, and encouragements from significant others in a person’s life in choosing his career. It was during the 12th grade I was inspired by the message of Reverend Joshua D., Director of Intercollegiate Prayer Fellowship of India, to commit my life to the Christian ministry. After graduation in Theology (Masters in Theology), I moved to North India to teach at New Theological Seminary located at Dehradun, in Uttaranchal.

In 1994 I joined Bharat Susamachar Samity, India as a missionary to North India. The dedication and meekness of Reverend George C. Kuruvila, Founder of Bharat Susamachar Samiti, Dehradun, had a significant influence on my life. My relationship and involvement with Bharat Susamachar Samiti (Good News for India), a charitable organization working for the welfare of the impoverished and oppressed people in North India, broadened my understanding of Christian mission and molded me to become more of a people person.

Choosing Counseling Career

My intention to pursue Professional counseling stems from my personal and pastoral ministry experiences.

I was born and raised in Kerala, India. My parents have been in Christian ministry for the last fifty-five years. It has been a challenge for our family to do the Lord’s work as we have endured many struggles such as poverty, lack of support from family and friends, and extreme opposition from other religious fundamentalists, cultural shocks, and further social pressures to conform. These situations caused stress, disappointment, and frustrations even from very early childhood. Being brought up in such a situation enable me to understand the emotional struggles and behavioral changes of the people.

The entry to the pastoral ministry in 1999 further developed my interest in the area of counseling. I realized the importance of further training in the area of counseling to become an effective and efficient counselor. I have had many opportunities in India and Kuwait to help people in their crisis.

UHV’s Role in my Professional Training

I believe that the graduate program in professional counseling at UHV would prepare me to be a professional with relevant academic training, as well as the self-understanding and awareness needed to facilitate growth, development, and healing among others.

The dynamic training at UHV has been helping me to develop appropriate knowledge and skills in me to effectively affect wellness and facilitate change in persons, respecting their cultures, values, beliefs, and talents. I hope to integrate Biblical and psychological insights into effective counseling ministry, stimulate the development of personal maturity, self-understanding, and interpersonal sensitivity. My immediate goal also includes being a Licensed Counselor in the State of Texas.

My long term goal is to pursue my studies in counseling at the Doctoral level and later teach in the School of Psychology/ Counseling to transfer the knowledge and experience to the upcoming practitioners. Career Theory The theory I prefer to choose is the Social Cognitive Career Theory developed by Lent, Brown, and Hackett (Anderson & Vandehey, 2006, p. 87). The Social Cognitive Career Theory is developed from the Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura and it addresses the issues of culture, gender, genetic endowment, social context, and unexpected life events that people might interact with and how they influence the career choices.

Career choice is seen as the product of the interaction between an individual, his/her behavior, and the environment (Anderson & Vandehey, 2006, p. 87). The Social Cognitive Career Theory is constructed on the proposal that people’s career choice is influenced by their self-efficacy and their career choices are refined by four major sources:

  • a) Personal performance accomplishments: – Experiences of previous success and failures;
  • b) Vicarious learning: – developing career choices though watching others, modeling and mentoring;
  • c) Social persuasion:- encouragement and discouragement from society or significant others. This source could also be called verbal persuasion;
  • d) Physiological states and reactions: This is the principle of stress reactions in the body. Individuals’ psychological and emotional factors affect their career choices.


There is a long-term evolutionary process in my life that last from my childhood in the development of my career goals and choices.

My professional development is influenced by many contextual factors and personal influences from the significant others including my parents, siblings, and leaders of the Bharat Susamachar Samiti in Dehradun, India. As seen in the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT), the career focus is developed through a process of intervening learning experiences that shapes one’s abilities and impacts self-efficacy and outcome beliefs, one’s vocational interests, and choices (“Overview of the Career Development Theory”, p. 1).


  1. Anderson, P., & Vandehey, M. (2006). Career Counseling and Development in a Global Economy. Boston: Lahaska Press.
  2. Overview of the Career Development Theory. (). Retrieved from Extensio.psu.edu/workforce/briefs/overviewcareerdev(insert).pdf

Mad Dogs, Englishmen, And The Errant Anthropologist

Mad Dogs, Englishmen, and the Errant Anthropologist Reflection In his book Mad Dogs, English, and the Errant Anthropologist, Raybeck discusses his observations as he immerses himself in Wakaf Bharu, a city in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia. Throughout the ethnography, he discusses the various differences that he observes with the Kelantanese culture and the American culture, while using his prior knowledge to explain the observations he takes note of. By using these observations, Raybeck proceeds to answer different Naturalistic Questions which explain how Raybeck gathers the information and in what ways his studies impact the culture.

Then, he elaborates on the economical aspect of the culture he studies, explaining how relationships and activities affect the economics of the culture. Finally, I will share my thoughts regarding the ethnography and what types of ethnocentrisms were shown throughout the ethnography and some which I felt. At first, the most important item for Raybeck was the location of the fieldwork as it had to fulfill the set requirements. Raybeck focused on the resources available: a close distance to the capital, a local building which kept all local demographic records, and a population which was not too large or too small.

Using these guidelines, he chose Wakaf Bharu as the site where he would conduct his fieldwork, using the villagers as the subjects of his studies. Next, was gaining entree, or entrance to the village (Omohundro 63), he was to find a modestly priced house in the village where he and his wife Karen could live in, which he was able to do with some help. The only thing that Raybeck had to do was fulfill the landowner’s obligation of doing guard duty which proved to be a good resource in collecting information and gaining contacts within the village.

After settling in, the culture shock starts to kick in for Raybeck which varied from different sources, ranging from the lack of privacy within his home to the straight forward discussion regarding bowel movements, which he and his wife found very inappropriate but important to the villagers. However Raybeck was not the only person who felt a culture shock; this shock was reciprocated by the villagers through Raybeck’s lack of knowledge with certain Kelantanese way of life, especially in regards to dressing and the act of bargaining.

His western style dressing in the beginning of the book, and tendency to not be able to bargain shocked the villagers to a point where Raybeck started to conform. To lessen his impact on the village, he and his wife adopt the traditional sarong called kain and also take lessons from a local merchant in regards to bargaining (Raybeck 43, 45). Moreoever, with his new acquaintances, he learns about the do’s and don’ts of the Kelantanese culture, immersing himself into the culture more. Using both the naturalistic and humanistic approaches, Raybeck is able to engage with and develop a greater understanding of Kelantanese culture.

The humanistic approach requires a great deal of immersion into the culture being studied and Raybeck does that very thing. Early on Raybeck learns the language in order to successfully study the culture. Using this skill, he spends hours talking to villagers about local affairs, learning about the culture as well as gaining rapport, or mutual understanding (Omohundro 64), from the village. His interviews were structured so that each question would not be in the form of a leading question, questions that led to specific answers, so the most honest response would be given (Raybeck 56).

As he interviews more locals and presents himself as a researcher studying the Kelantanese culture, he unofficially gets the role of being the village’s personal scribe, taking notes about the happenings of the society (Raybeck 51). With this role and the well respected image he garners, he notices a greater acceptance by the locals who show appreciation for the work that he does. And by using this acceptance from the locals, he is able to receive help not only from his wife Karen who accompanied him on this journey, but was also able to gain crucial friendships which aided his understanding of the Kelantanese culture.

Friends such as Yusof, Cik Din, and Encik Hussein aided him in giving a tour of the village, explaining certain customs that he was not aware of, giving him their life stories, allowing him to interview them as key informants, individuals who have a great rapport towards the fieldworker (Omohundro 64), and letting Raybeck accompany them to social events so that he could study the social behavior of the natives.

As time passes by, his increased participation in the Kelantanese culture results in a greater rapport within the village. Once incident that really shows this acquired rapport was when he was studying the lives of the prostitutes in the nearby capital, Kota Bharu. A villager who asks him for a ride to the barbershop but detours to the nearest whorehouse, only to be seen by Raybeck. When the villager realizes that Raybeck caught him in the act, he proceeds in lying, trying to establish a reason for this sudden detour.

Raybeck notes how this scene starts to show how his status changing from being an outsider through the act of lying, because He notices the change immediately as described from this section and it shows how a simple act of lying was able to show Raybeck’s increasing rapport vividly. The challenges the Raybeck faces are the ethical issues involving the reporting of certain information. Personal information that came from the villagers were usually out of bounds for Raybeck and he did not have access to many of the arguments and such, but when he did have access, he was not allowed to report on them.

Keeping this confidentiality was an ethical concern as the social status of the villagers was at stake. For example, during a quarrel between a man and a woman one evening, the villagers were not letting Raybeck gain knowledge of the event by denying its occurrence (Raybeck 63). And when Raybeck actually gained knowledge of this, he was to keep the names confidential due to the villagers wanting confidentiality. This is a weakness, he explains, about fieldwork.

The lack of openness to certain information and the status as an outsider really hinders sensitive information to come to you, information that is usually very crucial. However, to Raybeck, the strength of being able to experience the Kelantanese way of life first hand overweighed the weakness and still gave Raybeck crucial information that helped him document the Kelantanese culture. In regards to economics, the Kelantanese culture stresses an importance in interpersonal relationships between the seller and buyer which are crucial and affect how they transfer goods.

For example, because of the importance of interpersonal relationships when buying certain goods in the market, the Kelantanese culture has a bargaining system which Raybeck encounters when buying items from the market. The system was so important that when Raybeck was not able to bargain proficiently, the merchant told him to sit down as she explained every little detail about bargaining, even if some of her tricks of the trade were revealed to the consumer (Raybeck 47). By illustrating this example, the importance of bargaining was not only an economic benefit, but a key to creating a great relationship between the seller and the buyer.

On top of this, Raybeck notices how the individual who is able to bargain the best is looked up upon, gaining a level of respect within the village. During religious days such as Hari Raya Haji, it is customary to go to many different houses during these days so more food is made and eaten. Because of the high food consumption, there is a greater level of food production (Raybeck 49) so the economic activity of farming and producing food is greater during these religious days. Families of poor income will have children who help their families with farming, largely due to economic reasons (Raybeck 102).

Because of not being able to spare the help of the adolescent teenagers who would be able to bring a part of the income to the family, these families would farm together, showing that farming is a family ordeal, mostly related to the lower incomes. The higher income families would be able to send their children to secondary schools in order for them to go into medicine, business, teaching, army officers, and even government services (Raybeck 103). The difference of status would then show that farmers are lower class and producers, while the higher professions were upper class and the consumers.

As far as ethnocentricities go, I found myself uncovering my own ethnocentricities as I read through Raybeck’s ethnography. For example, when Raybeck discusses how the villagers would enter each other’s households unannounced took me with great surprise (Raybeck, 37). Growing up in the American culture which puts a great deal of emphasis on personal privacy, it was startling to see how another culture could just walk into a house that did not belong to them, bringing out my ethnocentrism regarding privacy. Another ethnocentrism that also affected me was the open talk about bowel movement between the villagers (Raybeck 40).

I felt a slight uneasiness when the villagers brought this topic up in such an open manner because of the explicit nature of the discussions. This behavior just seemed to be too much information for me because in the American culture, certain information would be deemed inappropriate to talk about in public. So naturally, I found it very disturbing when the villagers talked about the topic of bowel movement in public. Even Raybeck and his wife found the talk of bowel movements unsettling at first by considering these talks as irregular by the American standard.

Raybeck also notes the villagers’ interest in finding what the price was for a mattress he bought, which Raybeck viewed as impolite in American standards (Raybeck, 45). This again brought out ethnocentricity within Raybeck as he started to judge the villagers action based on the American culture. Finally, even the Villagers expressed certain ethnocentricities towards Raybeck and his wife after they move in. The villagers believed that since Raybeck and his wife were so involved in the culture, they would convert to Islam, a customary act which many individuals do as they settle into the village (Raybeck 50).

From this, the villagers expressed how their preconceptions of being accepted into their own culture required accepting the Islamic religion. By having this mindset, they brought out an ethnocentricity of their own, showing that Raybeck was not the only one with ethnocentrisms. I was very impressed by the fact that Raybeck was able to conduct this research using a Humanistic approach. The level of immersion he brings upon himself leads to honest information, hardly tampered by any bias.

One memorable instance which reflected this level of immersion was when Raybeck took the initiative to join the jaga, or the guard, only a couple of days into his arrival in the village (Raybeck 26). Without knowing anyone else in the village and possessing a basic understanding of the language, he bravely takes part in an important aspect of the village traditions exhibiting his level of dedication towards the research. However, one of the items that upset me the most was the fact that Raybeck kept his sample to the village of Wakaf Bharu and did not focus more on any of the other villages.

Even though this would have taken a greater amount of time and resources, I felt that limiting the majority of the responses from one village did not encompass the Kelantanese culture as well as getting the information from more than one sample. Moreover, by keeping the sample as that one village, Raybeck could have only experienced a certain area’s beliefs and customs which could lead to a bias. However, even with this drawback, I was impressed by the amount of depth that Raybeck puts into his research and found it not only informative but enjoyable as well.

error: Content is protected !!