Risk Management In Modern IT Plans Essay Example

Risk management framework

The objective of this research is to investigate the area of risk management. This paper suggests a theoretical outline that utilizes knowledge management methods to expand its usefulness range and upsurge the possibility of success in advanced IT plans (Alhawari et al. 2012). The paper develops ideas concerning the employment of knowledge management processes in risk management processes by studying, rendering the associated and pertinent literature and dwells on the incorporation of risk management processes in the IT project. The paper reveals some relevant fundamentals required for elaborating the knowledge-based risk management agenda for IT projects and correspondingly mentions some tools designed to improve the risk response preparation procedure effectiveness.

Consistency-based life-cycle multi-target optimization outline

The engineers’ ability to model, examine, project, preserve, monitor, foresee, and enhance the life-cycle efficacy of structures and substructures under hesitation is recurrently rising. Nevertheless, in numerous countries, together with the US, the public infrastructure is not within anticipated ranges of performance and security (Frangopol 2011). The verdicts concerning civil substructure organizations should be maintained by a cohesive consistency-based life-cycle multi-target optimization outline. The key purpose of Frangopol’s (2011) paper is to highlight current events in the life-cycle performance evaluation, preservation, observation, setup, and optimization of organizational systems under hesitation.

LCA and electricity generation technologies

Electricity production is the main supplier of worldwide discharges of greenhouse gasses and their associated ecological influence. A critical appraisal of numerous case studies concerning the life cycle assessment of electrical energy generation based on natural gas, hard coal, nuclear-powered means, hydroelectric stations, oil, and much more was conducted to recognize the ranges of discharge evidence for greenhouse gasses connected to specific technologies (Turconi, Boldrin & Astrup 2013). Turconi, Boldrin, and Astrup’s review proves that the inconsistency of the current LCA outcomes for electrical energy generation can induce quite a few contradictory decisions concerning the ecological consequences of employing these innovative technologies.

Risk management and project success

This article scrutinizes the efficiency of existing risk management methods to decrease project risk utilizing an international, multi-business study across diverse situations and beliefs. A poll was transferred to 700 managers and their superintendents. The outcomes of this research demonstrate that project background pointedly influences the alleged extents of project risk and the strength of risk management procedures (Zwikael & Ahn 2010). Zwikael and Ahn’s discoveries also state that risk management controls the relationship between the risk and project proficiency. They found that even the lowest levels of risk management forecasting are enough to decrease the adverse impact risk levels have on the project.

Integration framework

The necessity of mixing commercial and practical information structures, permitting associates to join forces efficiently in generating pioneering products, has inspired the design and distribution of a different integration framework for lifecycle management. The current situation is suitable for this integration framework due to the conjunction of three significant changes. First, the maturity of homogeneous merchandise data and meta-data representations, and consistent engineering and occupational procedures. Second, the development of a service-focused architecture for data distribution. Third, the accessibility of efficient middleware to employ them (Srinivasan 2011). These aspects permit manufacturing and corporate objects and procedures to be designed as integrated parts of the software. It is explicitly stated that these parts can interconnect and be utilized across diverse fragments of a business.

Life cycle assessment

Life cycle influence evaluation is a field of dynamic growth. During the last ten years, numerous productive articles dwelling on the new impact assessment methods have been published. They cover many dissimilar influence cohorts and provide classification aspects that habitually diverge from each other for the identical matter and effect (Hauschild et al. 2012). The life cycle ISO 14044 is moderately universal and indistinct in its necessities and suggests little help to the life cycle assessment manager who is on the verge of making a choice. Hauschild et al. conducted the research with the aim of detecting the greatest among the present-day classification representations and providing recommendations to the life cycle assessment managers.

Life cycle of engineered nanomaterials

Engineered nanomaterials are currently turning into a noteworthy segment of the material trade in the worldwide economy. As engineered nanomaterials saturate the international economy, nevertheless, it turns out to be vital to recognize their ecological implications (Keller et al. 2013). While there are substantial doubts in the estimations, the outline for approximating emissions can be effortlessly enhanced as better evidence becomes accessible. The material trade estimations can be exploited to measure the ejections at the local level as a means of conveying the representations. This is also done in order to evaluate the concentrations in diverse ecological sections (Keller et al. 2013).

Life cycle cost analysis

In spite of the fact that it encompasses a project period of two decades for flexible roadways, the Portuguese guide of roadway constructions stresses the significance of extending the life cycle cost investigation to a period that is equal to or longer than four decades. This interval is called “project analysis period” and it should be extended in order to compare diverse roadway resolutions in terms of the overall costs for the ultimate selection of the roadway construction for a national road or a freeway (Ferreira & Santos 2013). The problem is that up till now this examination has never been performed in Portugal. The results attained after the employment of the innovative life cycle cost analysis system evidently show that it is a valuable asset that is yet to be used by Portuguese road engineers.

Gaps and challenges of life cycle assessment

Finkbeiner et al. provide a wide-ranging summary of existing gaps of and challenges for life cycle assessment taking into consideration the influence assessment and its common and developing aspects. These comprise challenges like distribution, indecision, and biodiversity, in addition to topics like scattering which are not described as frequently in the current life cycle assessment literature (Finkbeiner et al. 2014). Each of these breaches is defined by a complex summary of the subject and its significance to the life cycle assessment, and the condition of the art in terms of fiction and possible explanations, if any, is offered. The enthusiasm for such an outline is two-fold. First, robust, maintainable, and reliable utilization of life cycle assessment should evade the over-explanation of LCA outcomes without appropriate reflection on its gaps and restrictions. Second, these breaches and contests characterize research requirements for the scientific life cycle assessment community and confidently stimulate more progress in system change.

Life cycle assessment and cost drivers

Life cycle assessment procedure is a deep-rooted investigative technique to measure ecological influences, which has been largely applied to products (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012). Nevertheless, the current literature would state that it also has the potential as an examination and design instrument for procedures, and emphasizes that one of the major challenges of this decade in the area of procedure schemes engineering is the elaboration of instruments for ecological observations.

Annotated bibliography

Jacquemin, L, Pontalier, P, & Sablayrolles, C 2012, ‘Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Applied to the Process Industry: A Review’, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1028-1041.

The article by Jacquemin, Pontalier, and Sablayrolles tries to present a synopsis of the incorporation of the life cycle assessment methodology in the setting of engineering environmental sciences, and concentrates its attention on the utilization of this practice for ecological examinations by taking into consideration the processes of elaboration and optimization (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012). The evaluation recognizes that life cycle assessment is repeatedly exploited as a multi-target optimization of procedures. First, managers use the life cycle assessment to attain the records and implement the outcomes into the optimization prototype (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012).

It also demonstrates that the majority of the life cycle assessment studies undertaken on procedure examination view the discrete procedures as black boxes and form the analysis of the records on secure functioning conditions. The article by Jacquemin, Pontalier, and Sablayrolles stresses the importance of assimilating the current PSE instruments with the life cycle assessment methodology, with the intention of generating a more comprehensive examination (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012). This will permit optimizing the impact of the functioning conditions on ecological influences and incorporating thorough environmental outcomes into the industry.

Moreover, this article presented a short history and a thorough review of the life cycle cost examination (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012). In particular, life cycle cost study in oil and chemical commerce, based on a comprehensive literature review, Internet browsing, and consultations with specialists. The main goal of the life cycle cost analysis conducted by Jacquemin, Pontalier, and Sablayrolles was to measure the total cost of proprietorship of a product through its complete life cycle, which embraces investigation and growth, construction, process development and conservation, and removal (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012).

The projected life-cycle cost is a rather beneficial statistic for decision making in acquiring a product, in improving the strategy, in setting up maintenance, or in scheduling the remodeling. This article presented a life cycle cost procedure that is made up of six stages, which are complications characterization, cost essentials description, scheme modeling, data gathering, cost side view elaboration, and estimation. Jacquemin, Pontalier, and Sablayrolles also described the minor events and actions that should be covered during the procedure. This article also offers codes and canons connected to the life cycle cost investigation and software instruments designed for the life cycle cost analysis (Jacquemin, Pontalier & Sablayrolles 2012).

Recommendations of how to address life cycle cost drivers

The costs of the factory-made parts frequently look as if they are too high in contrast to those of customarily human-made parts, as the information concerning the main cost drivers, particularly for the factory-made parts, is feeble. Consequently, the author of the paper recommends conducting a lifecycle investigation of these mass-produced parts so as to realize and assess the cost drivers that should be seen as the principal contributors to component costs, and to provide a focus for the forthcoming cost dropping actions for the current technology.

The author believes that a better understanding of the cost organization will assist in comparing the current costs with the occasional costs of the traditional industrial technologies and will make it more informal in terms of mitigating the utilization of the industrial parts. Bearing in mind all these characteristics, it is understandable that it is tough to associate the costs of a product merely founded upon the manufacturing costs per quantity. Consequently, a life cycle based tactic has to be implemented.

The main contributor to construction costs are the appliance costs. The discrepancy of impact factors has revealed that a condensed appliance rate cost can be attained but will be one of the central aspects of the manufacturing process. As the method is completely mechanized, it is reasonable that the mechanism rate costs present the utmost input to the overall costs of a build. The author recommends modifying the distribution of the overhead costs in order to improve the outcome.

The resources costs, as another principal cost driver, have a robust impact on the building costs, too. The author recommends that the designer constructs autonomously and not dependent on the industrial limitations. By doing this, the organization will be able to minimize the volume of the additionally mass-produced parts. Consequently, the impact of the selected resource on the total cost, particularly for low capacity parts, will decline even more in the future.

The biggest cost driver is characterized by the outlays for the data research. A trained and knowledgeable engineer is required for the research process. As the key aspect of the research is employment costs, the author recommends it to be conducted once for bigger series of portions. This will reduce the expenses on the data research. Therefore, the established cost model will signify a difference between machine-made parts and an adapted amalgamation of parts in the production chamber.

References

Alhawari, S, Karadsheh, L, Talet, A, & Mansour, E 2012, ‘Knowledge-Based Risk Management framework for Information Technology project’, International Journal of Information Management, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 50-65.

Ferreira, A, & Santos, J 2013, ‘Life-cycle Cost Analysis System for Pavement Management at Project Level: Sensitivity Analysis to the Discount Rate’, International Journal of Pavement Engineering, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 655-673.

Finkbeiner, M, Ackermann, R, Bach, V, Berger, M, Brankatschk, G, Chang, Y,… Wolf, K 2014, ‘Challenges in Life Cycle Assessment: An Overview of Current Gaps and Research Needs’, The Complete World of Life Cycle Assessment Background and Future Prospects in Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 207-258.

Frangopol, D 2011, ‘Life-cycle Performance, Management, and Optimisation of Structural Systems Under Uncertainty: Accomplishments and Challenges’, Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 389-413.

Hauschild, M, Goedkoop, M, Guinée, J, Heijungs, R, Huijbregts, M, Jolliet, O,… Pant, R 2012, ‘Identifying Best Existing Practice for Characterization Modeling in Life Cycle Impact Assessment’, The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 683-697.

Keller, A, McFerran, S, Lazareva, A, & Suh, S 2013, ‘Global Life Cycle Releases of Engineered Nanomaterials’, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 43-51.

Srinivasan, V 2011, ‘An Integration Framework for Product Lifecycle Management’, Computer-Aided Design, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 464-478.

Turconi, R, Boldrin, A, & Astrup, T 2013, ‘Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Electricity Generation Technologies: Overview, Comparability and Limitations’, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 555-565.

Zwikael, O, & Ahn, M 2010, ‘The Effectiveness of Risk Management: An Analysis of Project Risk Planning Across Industries and Countries’, Risk Analysis, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 25-37.

Child Labour In Canada

Introduction

From a general point of view child labour is described as a sustained and regular employment of children’s effort in both formal and informal work. This is an exploitative and harmful practice which is strongly abhorred by governments across the world. In a more specific approach Hindman (2009) defines child labour as work done by children under the age of 15 which may prevent them from going to school or interfere with their normal development. Despite its inappropriateness, child labour has proved to be inevitable mainly because of the tough economic conditions that characterize the lives of many families. For a person to be able to make reliable and ethical decision in regards to bringing up children, it is important to understand the status of societies’ moral standards. This paper gives a detailed inductive and deductive discussion on child labour.

Child labour in Canada has been prone to numerous controversies related to specific age at which children are exposed to labour (Barman, 2012). This paper intends to examine the case of child labour in Canada and relevant ethical decisions-making process that should be used in response to ethical distress situation.

Cases of child labour

Barman (2012) defines child labour as the act of employing individuals particularly below the age of 16 years as sustained or regular labourers. This is due to the fact that children are the most vulnerable individuals especially those who are below the age of 16 years (Barman, 2012). Notably, in developed nations such as UK, USA and Canada, it becomes difficult to determine the exact age at which children should be considered as labourers. For this reason, there is a pronounced debate on the minimum age at which children should be forced to work. From a careful review of literature, one can analyse that this act is perceived by international organizations as exploitative and therefore illegal. According to Barnetson (2009), international standards that govern human labour have set a global baseline dictating that the minimum working age for children should be 15 years. Canada on its own signed the ILO convention yet this is more of a symbolic contract since the terms of child labour in the country are still very complex.

Evidence has shown that child labour in Canada is perceived differently in numerous provinces. In this case, different provinces have varying specifications in terms of age at which children should work (McLachlan, 2009). In line with this, research has revealed that there has been dramatic change in the attitude towards employment of children in Canada since 18th century (Barnetson, 2009). Unlike other nations who oppose child labor, Canadian government has not yet ratified its convention 138 of the International Labor Organization Charter (Roberts, 2010). For this reason, there is no specification of the minimum age that a child can be used as an economic asset. Roberts (2010) comments that majority of the children are exposed to labour at the age of 14 years especially in provinces such as New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario and Labrador.

Contrastingly, there are those who begin to work at the age of 12 years especially in Alberta province (Roberts, 2010). These children are exposed to work for 2 hours during weekdays and 8 hours on weekends. Moreover, evidence has revealed that in British Columbia, a child as low as twelve years can work as long as the directors for employment standards give the permission. Exceptionally, it is only in Manitoba where children above the age of 16 years are allowed to work (Barnetson, 2009). Additionally, there are provinces such as Saskatchewan, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward where children below the age of 12 years do not even need permit to work.

Roberts (2010) notes that people have gradually changed their attitude on child labour. Some decades ago, children at the age of 7 years were supposed to assist their family with household tasks. Nevertheless, the mentality changed with time and this made children to be subjected to work outside homes to boost the income of their families (Roberts, 2010). Notably, child labour has been perceived as a means through which children acquire useful skills in preparation for adulthood. For this reason, formal apprenticeship has highly contributed to employment of young children in Canada (Barman, 2012). That not withstanding, empirical research has revealed that the societal cultures especially in English Canada are a major cause of child labour (Roberts, 2010). In the meantime, children in Canada have been used as economic liabilities in their families, and this consumes much of their time for studies. Barman (2012) comprehends that during the era of 19th and 20th century, most of Canadian children began to evade labour and concentrated on their studies. In the period between 19th and 20th centuries, the percentage of children labourers gainfully reduced by 68% and a steady number of child labourers began to attend schools (Barnetson, 2009).

Besides, studies have revealed that there are certain restrictions that govern child labour in Canada. Barman (2012) asserts that individuals who employ children must obtain permission from their parents or other relevant authorities. Moreover, there are specific regulations that govern working conditions depending on the age of the child. Nevertheless, majority of employers in numerous provinces violate the Convention 138 of human labour. Notably in the convention, there is section 3 of article no. 2 that states that children under the age of 12 years should not be employed. In this case, the article considers a child as any individual who is below the age of 18 years. Even with such laws being enacted, provinces such as Alberto and Ontario continue to employ children at the age of 14years and below (Barnetson, 2009). In this case, it is suggested that appropriate penalties should be imposed on individuals who violate the act.

It is imperative to note that some of the types of employment offered to children have negative impacts to their health and safety. Despite the fact that majority of child labourers worked in agricultural farms, new jobs kept cropping up in factories. For instance, during the mid of 19th century, Canada was at the peak of industrialization and urbanization. In this case, a significant proportion of children labourers got new jobs in urban businesses, mines and textile mills (Roberts, 2010). For this reason, the number of attendance in school dropped while those who were gainfully employed rose tremendously. As a result, evidence has shown that most of the jobs were at their dead end. In this case, children were subjected into menial positions and were poorly paid (McLachlan, 2009). Needless to say, despite the fact that most of the jobs were done for apprenticeship purposes, they never landed the children to adult jobs. Instead, only children from well-up background benefited from better jobs.

As a result, the Canadian society saw the need to raise special concern for compulsory schooling. At this juncture, reformers came up with strategies to ban juvenile delinquency. Despite the labour legislations that were enacted by the government to stop child labour, it has still persisted in less visible forms. Research evidences have shown that even in the 21st century, there is a growing sensitivity in child labour where children are still allowed to work after school (McLachlan, 2009). Notably, there are restrictions that prohibit child labour and also encourage compulsory schooling. Nonetheless, there is lack clear legislation on the minimum age at which children should work. For this reason, there exist controversies facing the issue of age and number of working hours for Canadian children (Barnetson, 2009). This is due to the fact that these factors are considered independently in all the provinces. Moreover, there have been ethical distresses related on the way legislations protect the rights, health and safety of the minors who work in liquors, mines, factories and industries. With this in mind, there is need to have a relevant decision-making process in order to solve the impending ethical distress in regards to child labour.

The relevant decision-making process

Needless to say, child labour is an issue that deserve more attention since it has caused several health related challenges among children subjected to child labour (Barnetson, 2009). It is imperative to note that in every dilemma, there is need to have a relevant strategy of decisions-making in order to solve the ethical challenges (Barman, 2012). In the context of child labour, numerous ethics have to be put in place by society in order to eliminate the resultant side effects. In this case, when making decisions related to child labour, it is important for society to consider the best alternative for dealing with challenges facing child labourers. This has something to do with what can be done to ensure that children remain in school while their parents or guardians work. To emphasize on this, research has revealed that majority of children in Canada venture into early employment due to poverty (Barnetson, 2009). In this case, they face rough economic conditions, limited educational opportunities and lack of social amenities.

Barman (2012) observes that the society should come up with ethics that ensure that children are not exploited. In line with this, it is important to consider the obstacles that inhibit the use of ethics in society. Pointless, to say, there is need to harmonize the legislation acts in order to have a collective approach of eradicating child labour. In most cases, it is vital to consider the necessary steps that should be used in making ethical decisions and as well the concept of ethical sensitivity in the context of child labour (McLachlan, 2009). Having considered the above factors, a remarkable platform will be provided for a relevant decision-making process.

Child labor is one of the most persistent problems which face nations today. It is a big challenge which nations have to deal with for them to continue having a good standard of living for their citizens (Kolb, 2008). The high prevalence of this problem is evident by the high child work involvement rates both in our nation and many other developing countries. Research reveals that there is between 70 and 120 million children who work in each middle class economy. This is believed to be the highest number to be recorded in this century (Hindman, 2009). It is believed to be mainly caused by the high levels of poverty which are escalating every day.

Arnal, Tobin and Torres (2003) point out that it is poverty which compels children to child labor in order to support their families. Although child labor is a problem which is experienced all over the world, continuous studies have revealed that it is acute in regions which are socially and economically challenged. Apart from poverty, poor education and the lack of reliable sources of income for parents do force children to participate in child labor activities. The most profound issues in regards to child labor in middle economy nations are provision of healthcare, nutrition and education to all children. Parents who live in poverty cannot be able to evaluate the elementary facets applied in decision making. They lack the capacity to gather details, mount information and to come up with sound strategies for solving the social- economic issues which face them. This explains why the irrational steps of options which subject children to child labor have continued to exist. It is recommended that organizations which fight for social justice in society should come up with strategies which will help individuals to make sound and ethical decisions. Parents have to be empowered with skills of detaching emotions from their daily decisions. This will place them in a position which they can do away with child labor.

More than 80 per cent of child labor is experienced in rural areas (Arnal, Tobin & Torres, 2003). This is the case in most countries. Children are involved in agricultural related activities. The main tasks which characterize child labor are work done in fishery, forestry, livestock farming and crop farming. These are normally classified outside formal sector labor. Some governments also classify them as non industrial labor. It is also evident that a great portion of the children who work are limited to family settings. This is done to ensure that the civil society is not aware of what is happening in the labor market. It is one of the circumstantial decisions which call for special interventions from human rights institutions.

During the work they under take in the family settings, children develop varied experiences and skills which may be both traditional and modern. This is believed to be an important element which incorporates them in the running of a family. Decision making especially when an individual is in distress, is done through the consideration of the expected outcome. In this case, it is clear that society has been forced to lose this elementary aspect. This explains why it is possible to hide cases of child labor from regulatory bodies.

Most governments are keen to eradicate child labor. Very resilient commitments to the worthy cause have been observed in the international forums. Nations have embarked on the expression of their efforts through special programs, policies, legislations and appropriate constitutional provisions. Box (2008) indicates that the fundamental rights of children can only be preserved through the joint effort of the civil society. Indeed, this is the reason why every nation has been called to adopt the international policy on child rights. This ratification dictates that nations should champion for increased awareness on the issue of child labor. It is mandatory for governments to keep the international declarations on the protection, survival and stabilized development of children.

Child labor has proven to be a great challenge to the social and economic well being of societies. As a matter of fact, many families have embraced this unethical practice as their major source of income. It is not uncommon to see scores of children who work to cater for the needs of their families. This is observed when children undertake heavy household duties; assist in demanding family enterprises as well as undertaking formal work to obtain wages. In all these ways, the basic goal is normally to provide a consistent financial flow to cater for the unending needs of a family. Research shows that there are cases whereby children’s generated income accounts for more than forty per cent of the total earnings of a family (Gifford, 2009). In such cases, the income from child labor is deemed to be essential in the livelihood of the poor households. This is quite unfortunate towards the pursuit of ethics in society. It makes the lives of the common citizens of a nation miserable enough for them to forego the expected values of morality (Gifford, 2009).

Societal decision making relies heavily on the decisions made by the elite members. This is the case because knowledge on moral values used in the structuring of decisions is gained at a personal level. The decisions made in communities which are economically constrained are expected to have a large margin of compromise. This is not in line with the desirable standards of making socially acceptable decisions.

There is no need to keep a focus on the well being of society which is under too much pressure. Box (2008) notes that the decisions made in such societies are largely affected by compromise on ethics. The job providers end up submitting to the forces from the labor providers who are ready to take any available job. Besides, children continue to work without having the knowledge of what they should be doing at their age. There is no doubt that the economic conditions of families do not allow parents to bring up their children well. It is normally essential for them to allow their children to become alternative sources of income to supplement their income. In places where there are no established systems of ensuring social welfare, it becomes an acceptable thing to see children busy helping their parents in ensuring the upkeep of family (Kolb, 2008).

Some extreme cases have been experienced in areas where parents are perpetually unable to work and support the family. High interest rates make innocent children to work hard and complete their bonded labor. Parents in such situations are left with the choice of exchanging their children’s labor for money. Cases of bonded labor for children are highly enslaving. The desperate conditions created by poverty keep on making the desperate families to go back.

In order to ensure an effective control on child labor, it is important to improve the levels of literacy. Educational systems have to be made more adequate. It is well known that ineffectiveness in education is the major cause of poverty (Hindman, 2009). Children are forced to acquire informal skills in order to place them in a position where they can provide for their needs. In the case where education is not affordable, children are forced to spend time working to pay for it.

Child labor is a very transient developmental issue. It should be noted that it cannot be fully eliminated through the use of non unified efforts. The best strategy to curb this problem is the employment of interventions which focus on all the determinants of child labor (Gifford, 2009). Before making accusations to perpetrators of child labor, the society needs to make efforts of fulfilling the needs of all citizens. It is important to note that child labor cannot be finished if the need for it is not done away with. If the nation eliminates the need for the young people to work, then child labor is expected to decline automatically.

Child labor is one of the greatest hindrances to the propagation of ethical living. Children have continually been misused. A vicious cycle of unacceptable decisions by parents have continued to worsen the well being of children. This kind of decision making is regarded to be faulty since it lacks ethical intelligence. Due to such occurrences, it is impossible to rescue victims of child labor. People ought to learn the act of making morally acceptable decisions even when under economic crises. Box (2008) elaborates how most societies have developed poor social systems as a result of their tolerance of social ills such as child labor.

It is also worth mentioning that the problem of child labor will remain if the relevant authorities keep on applying a wrong approach in tackling it. This issue needs to be viewed as a major social-economic problem. It is a problem which has a very intrinsic social dimension. Child labor can only be eradicated if a holistic approach is chosen. This is a problem which involves everyone. Without the creation of a general understanding, it is impossible to come up with decisions which can change all the involved parties. The issue calls for a total revolution of the values of people. It is a change towards creation of better lives which can help in doing away with the mindsets which support child labor.

To reiterate on the above, child labour is one of the most exploitative acts where children below the age of 16 years are subjected to work as regular or sustained labourers. Canada is one of the countries in the world where the act is very rampant and has negative effects to the victims. Notably, the act of child labour is practiced in dissimilar ways in all the provinces in Canada. Research has shown that there is lack of proper legislations to govern the specific age and working condition for children. Therefore, despite the restrictions and regulation governing child labour, numerous provinces violate the rules and this has been one of the major ethical issues in Canada. However, one of the major causes of child labour in Canada is poverty whereby children work to boost the economy of their families. The resultant side effects of child labour are poor health and also limited time for study. Notably, a relevant decision-making process can be used to solve the ethical distress in the case of child labour in Canada. For this process to become relevant, the society should consider the effects of child labour and ethics that are crucial in solving the situation.

References

Arnal, E., Tobin, S. & Torres, R. (2003). Combating Child Labour: A Review of Policies, Paris: OECD.

Barman, J. (2012). The Canadian Encyclopaedia: Child labour. Web.

Barnetson, B. (2009). The Regulation of Child and Adolescent Labour in Alberta: Just Labour. A Canadian Journal of Work and Society. 13:29-37.

Box, R. (2008). Making a Difference: Progressive Values in Public Administration, New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Gifford, C. (2009). Child Labour, Paris: Evans Brothers.

Hindman, H. (2009). The World of Child Labor: An Historical and Regional Survey. New York: M.E. Sharpe.

Kolb, R. (2008).Encyclopedia of business ethics and society, London: Sage Publications.

McLachlan, J. (2009). The right choice making ethical decisions on the job. Ottawa: Pearson Education, Inc.

Roberts, K. (2010). The Child as Currency: Examining Adults’ Concepts of the Value of Childhood. The Plymouth Student Educator 2(1):40-49.

Samuel Taylor Coleridge And William Wordsworth Comparison

Want to know more about the similarities and differences between Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth and their works? This essay example is here to help you out! Keep reading to get some ideas for your Wordsworth and Coleridge comparison paper.

Wordsworth

In this review, we are going to discuss Wordsworth’s analysis of Lyrical ballads. Wordsworth is a famous English poet whom together with Samuel Taylor helped shape Romantic poems in English literature. According to Booker (45), “His poem “Magnum opus is the one referred to as the Prelude, a poem which he wrote in his early years and revised several times.” The first publication of lyrical ballads was 1798, while its edition came two years later. The reason for the second edition was due to the demand by people to know exactly what the poets were implying, whether there was a hypothesis behind its writing.

Coleridge

Among the two authors of the poem, Coleridge was more critical and philosophical and I think he should have been the one writing the prelude. In the preface, Wordsworth gives a new meaning to nature and poetry along appearance perspectives. He disregards the idea that poetry is meant to please the audience and imitate actions but rather regards it as a form of expression of the poet as a result of his interactions with the world. However, this does not mean that Wordsworth has neglected the elements of imitation, teaching and entertainment in poetry but analyses them from different perspectives.

Critical review

Romantics

Wordsworth is one of the proponents of Romanticism in poetry. This includes considering individual feelings, internal experiences, nature and religion of the poet. Wordsworth advocated that poetry should be articulated in a simple language that can easily be understood by men. As an example, he wrote poems using an ordinary language yet his poetry is good. He made poets to break away from established rules of poetry and instead follow their inner feelings and experiences in order to speak for the ordinary people (Booker, 646).

Wordsworth’s regards poetry as a natural spill over of powerful feelings. This means bringing out to the environment what is internally felt by the poet. His poems on nature have less emphasis on nature, but rather concentrate on the feelings of the poet as he thinks about nature. In a sample of his descriptive poems, he emphasizes that, feeling give more meaning to actions and not actions to feelings, thereby, implying that feelings determine actions. Aristotle does not agree with this statement as can be seen from the example he gave about the plot and character. According to Aristotle, “the plot was more important than character.” But with Wordsworth, he could have proposed that character was more important than plot because he emphasizes that the feelings of a poet is the one that matters (Kirsch, 102).

Self expression

According to Wordsworth, self expression alone is not a factor but a means that enables one get what is permanent and universal. Some poets these days believe that self expression is an end in itself, because they believe all they got to do is to express them. Wordsworth uses self expression to extract eternal truth which distinguishes Romantics from modern poets. This is a generalization that a poet speaks for all the people when he speaks. In other words, Wordsworth meant that expressing his own subjective experience and putting it on paper, he thought he was expressing what all men feel. According to Wordsworth, Dorothy (66) “this is why Wordsworth believes that his self expression is linked to eternal “unchangingness” of his home district.” The difference between modern poetry and the original romantic poetry is seen from this argument.

When Wordsworth wrote his poems, he used the setting of his district and the simple lives of his people to write the essay. Wordsworth advocated for real language to be used in poetry by which he meant simple and unsophisticated language that could be easily understood by people but it had to be purified. Wordsworth and other Romantics redefined poetry because they brought in the fact that if you understood the poem, then you understood the poet. That is, poetry is to be written in a simple language of human beings and the poet to be a speaker to men, and that the poet should be viewed as a man but with some little difference in degree (Wordsworth, 211).

All the poems used in the preface have a purpose. The purpose is meant to inform the audience of how feeling and ideas are related to the state of excitement. The language used illustrates the reactions of the mind when irritated by major and minor affections of nature. An element that distinguishes these poems from poems of the day is that they give emphasis to action and situation. To support this argument, the following verse of the poem from London genre can be supportive, by William Blake

“I wandered through each chartered street,

Near where the chartered Thames does flow,

And mark in every face I meet,

Marks of weakness, marks of woe.

In every cry of every man,

In every infant’s cry of fear,

In every voice, in every ban,

The mind-forged manacles I hear:

How the chimney-sweeper’s cry

Every blackening church appalls,

And the hapless soldier’s sigh

Runs in blood down palace-walls.

But most, through midnight streets I hear

How the youthful harlot’s curse

Blasts the new-born infant’s tear,

And blights with plagues the marriage-hearse.”

Wordsworth gives poetry a new philosophical meaning unlike it was in 18th century. He warned against threats of urbanization and industrialization because it made people develop ignoring attitudes after unusual events. He felt the idea of people going to cities was unnatural and that it suppressed the soul. He argues that minds of people who go to the cities become dull and they often need violent stimulants to bring back their low psyches which Wordsworth refers to as spiritual deadness. He sees people in the city walking and they are quite insensitive and cut off (Hermione, 44).

Wordsworth work

Mimetic theory

Although his theory of poetry emphasizes on expression of the poet, mimetic elements are present in his proposals. Wordsworth often wrote poems about rural or country areas due to the fact that people in these areas were in touch with basic life and lasting truths. It was this natural lifestyle, uninterrupted environment that he wanted to capture in his work. His main aim was to include a life of experience in the poems because he argued out that country life was more natural and was in touch with something that last forever. In the countryside, changes are very slow compared to the city and Wordsworth said that romantics like things stay the same not because they are conservative but due to the fact that they want to get things that are unmediated, that are direct and true.

According to him, this kind of lifestyle can only be found in the countryside. He and other romantics considered the life in urban areas as something artificial and out of touch with human experiences. Jean Rousseau agrees with this argument because he believes that genuine life is only found in rural areas. Wordsworth was looking for a free lifestyle, which he believed was found in the countryside and for real passion and truth. According to Wordsworth Dorothy (55), “Wordsworth, Sydney and Aristotle agreed that poetry has got a lot to do with philosophy than history because it deals with facts and general truths which is an important aspect of this discussion.”

Example

In the modern world, Louis, says that children spent most of their time watching TV, listening to rock music playing computer games and watching violent and sex movies. He says that this is one of the worst habits of the modern time because it destroys the soul and mind. Their heads are bombarded by these things to an extent that they can’t appreciate small or subtle things in life. It also happens to adults who spent their time reading newspapers which impart sensationalism in them. According to Wordsworth, poetry and poems has the ability to bring back our sensitivity thereby, making it possible to restore humanity in us. He argues that poetry helps us remember our child experiences, appreciate nature and relax our souls.

Works cited

Booker, Edith. The Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism. New Yolk: W.W. Norton & Co., 2001.

Hermione, Lee. “Strange Fits of Passion,” New York Times,  1999, Web.

Kirsch, Adam. “Strange Fits of Passion,” The New Yorker, 2005, Web.

Wordsworth, Dorothy. “Grasmere Journal, 15 April 1802,” Romantic Circles High School, Web.

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