Role Of Athletics In Higher Education Free Sample


Athletics is a collective term used to refer to competition in different sporting events like walking, throwing, jumping and running. Competitions involved in athletics include race walking, road running, track field and cross-country. Athletic competitions are simple because they do not involve the use of expensive equipments. Athletics is among the world’s most competed sports because it is simple and less expensive compared to other sports (Chu, Segrave & Becker, 1985).

Chu, Segrave and Becker (1985) point out that in the institutions of higher educations, sports is an important activity, which plays a major role to students and members of staff. Sports were included in the curriculum of higher education even during the last century. Initially, sports were mainly done for recreational purposes during physical education. Even today, sports plays the role of recreation among students and staff members in the higher education.

However, athletics plays other roles apart from being a recreational activity. Knowledge and theories acquired from academic disciplines like sociology, management, psychology, medicine, and biomechanics have led to development of undergraduate and postgraduate courses related to sports and sports science.

Role of athletics

Students who graduate with degrees in sports have a variety of career options to choose from ranging from working in local and government authorities, sports administration, commercial fitness and coaching. To develop the sports industry, students in higher education are specializing in sport related courses like sports law, sports journalism, sports engineering, and sports development. Studies have shown that sport related courses are flexible, coherent and multi-disciplinary.

Sport related degree courses act as an added advantage to students when seeking for jobs because they can be employed in different firms. Sports play the role of community, regional and national development strategies through improvement, and evaluation of public policies like health improvement plans (Chu, Segrave & Becker, 1985).

Duderstadt (2000) argues that inclusion of sports in higher education helps in growth and development of young people. According to General Douglas MacArthur, sports helps in building individuals character. He argues that through sports, the youth become the custodians in the country. Values like teamwork, leadership, integrity, dedication, and sacrifice learned during sports are activities attributed to building positive characteristics.

During sports, youths learn to socialize and interact with other people. Because they are working toward a common goal, athletes learn much from one another .During competitions, students have two expectations, they can be winners or losers. Losing is a major challenge to students, but it is important in the sense that it strengthens them in facing tougher challenges later in life by making them strong. Socialization learned during sports activities is important in child’s growth and development.

Studies have shown that sports activities contribute to increase in academic performance among students. In addition, sports does not affect academic studies as many people tend to think. For example, in a study conducted in Yale University by Ryan Miller in 1997, 58% of the total athletes in the university were graduated with Division one in relation to 56% of the total of nonathletic. The results reflect clearly that sports does not affect academic work in any way.

Sports activities help students refresh their minds after hard and tedious class works during the day. Studies show that students understand better after they have had sports activities because their minds are fresh. Reading from morning to evening does not mean that everything is being absorbed in the brain. Higher education students are encouraged to set apart some time to engage in sports activities like athletics to refresh their minds and improve their level of understanding (Duderstadt, 2000).

Students’ participation in sports activities make them realize their talent. Individuals are born with different talent. In the course of sports activities some students realize that they can make good athletes. For some, sports become their major career, which earn them a living throughout the rest of life. For instance, athletic champions like Kiptanui, Eliud from Kenya, Horibata, Feyisa from Japan, Farah, Mo from Britain and Taylor Christian from the United States among other athletic heros earn much from sports, which has developed into a career. Students who specialize in courses related to sports, get employments from which they earn income. With the knowledge and skills acquired related sports, they can train other people into becoming successful participants in sports activities.

Rhoads and Gerking (2000) assert that students exercise their bodies through sports activities making them strong and healthy. Exercises are important in the maintenance of good health. The risks of contracting diseases like obesity, which are caused by lack of exercises, are reduced. Studies show that students who engage in co-curricular activities are health and strong, and they are not prone to disease attacks.

Sporting activities are very important not only to students and staff in the institutions of higher education learning but to all people. The role that sports activities play is important and cannot be overlooked. Students from primary schools all the way to the university should be encouraged to participate actively in sports activities. This will help them as they grow up and improve their academic work (Rhoads & Gerking, 2000).


Chu, D., Segrave, J. & Becker, B. (1985). Sport and higher education. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers Inc.

Duderstadt, J. (2000). Intercollegiate athletics and the American university. Ann Arbor, AA: The University of Michigan Press.

Rhoads, T. & Gerking, S. (2000). Educational contributions, academic quality, and athletic success. Contemporary Economic Policy, 18, 248.

Must Identity Movements Self-Destruct? A Queer Dilemma


Joshua Gamson argues that the significance of the queerness phenomenon lies not in the gender definitions, but rather in the necessity, viability, and usefulness of such definitions. Gamson points out that insufficient attention has been paid to the tendency of such movements to destroy identities from within. He argues that identity definitions are both the source of political power and a potential source of oppression.

Main text

Gamson employs several arguments to prove his point. Firstly, the author points out that members of the queer community perceive their own identity as fixed, thereby demanding it is legally recognized (Gamson 391). However, the tendency of their movement is to destabilize the traditional notions of gender categories. Gamson calls it a deconstructionist politics, aimed at destroying the conservative categories of gender perception. Gamson pinpoints a paradox: could it be that in their struggle for the queer rights, the socio-political foundations for gay and lesbian rights movements are to be undermined?

Collective identity is an essential component of any social action. Nowadays, the nature of collective identity is changing. Many point out that the queer movement does not protest against its outsider status but rather enjoys it. Thus, they do not defy the normality of social conventions but rather the very idea of normality. The very ideas of the usefulness of gender categories are thereby subject to reinterpretation or even rendered unnecessary.

Gamson concludes by emphasizing that the tendency of the queer to destabilize the conventional social categories has been underestimated. Fixed identities are necessary for the social life to thrive, including, ironically, the queer movement. Thus, fixed identity categories can be seen as both destructive and indispensable. Gamson points out that this paradox is yet to be studied further in order to gain a deeper understanding of the nature of social life.

Critical Response

Gamson makes a valid point by emphasizing the paradoxical nature of the queer movement’s protest. Indeed, it is necessary for social conventions to exist and for the gender categories to have certain boundaries that might delineate individuals according to certain characteristics. Paradoxically, neither transgender nor queer movements would have a possibility to revel in their outsider nature if it were not for the existence of fixed gender categories.

However, it is possible to assume that it is rather natural for every social movement to struggle against the conventional frameworks that actually made a particular social movement possible. This is why both the logic of the queer proponents and their opponents is valid, thereby creating a social paradox. Gamson is right in arguing that this phenomenon is yet to be studied in detail, as it might reveal interesting features of our modern social life. Moreover, further analysis of the contradictory character of these phenomena could serve as a basis for developing innovative methods of solving the current social problems.


Based on Joshua Gamson’s article it is possible to conclude that there are always two tendencies in our social life: stabilizing and destabilizing. Social movements can either be adopting the former or the latter approach. To this end, it is important to comprehend that every social movement will eventually strive to deconstruct certain conventions. The queer movement is no exception to that rule.

Work Cited

Gamson, Joshua. “Must identity movements self-destruct? A queer dilemma.” Social Problems 42.3 (1995): 390-407. Print.

The Bill Of Rights, Its Historical And Modern Role

Description of the Document

Description of the Document

The document we are talking about could be considered fundamental for the appearance and development of the USA. It is the Bill of Rights which includes the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution. The example presented in web archives is the photo of the historical document that was added to the Constitution in 1791 (“The Bill of Rights,” n.d.). In such a way, a visitor could observe its authentic image and improve his/her comprehension of this very document.

Historical Significance

The historical importance of the Bill of Rights could hardly be overestimated. It appeared in times when the future of the USA was unclear, and the way the country would evolve had to be chosen. There were vigorous debates related to the Constitution and rights it would guarantee to all citizens. Being a union of numerous states with their perspectives on the future, the USA had to elaborate a document that would satisfy all parties and contribute to the empowerment of the commonwealth. However, the debates over the ratification of the Constitution were difficult because of numerous fears related to the creation of the powerful state machine and its impact on citizens rights. For this reason, the question about the distribution of power remained topical. The adherers of the Virginia Plan proposed the Bicameral Congress with members elected according to the states population (“The Bill of Rights: Its history and significance,” n.d.).

Their opponents promoted the New Jersey plan which included a unicameral body consisting of an equal number of representatives of all states, no matter how populous they were (“The Bill of Rights: Its history and significance,” n.d.). For this reason, the U.S. Constitution could be considered an attempt to find a compromise and satisfy representatives of all parties. In such a way, the final version of the document suggested the proportional distribution of seats in the House of Representatives, and equal representation in the Senate (“The Bill of Rights: Its history and significance,” n.d.). The given compromise resulted in the ratification of the U.S. Constitution and it is becoming the main law. However, many disappointed people were afraid of the abuse of power and rights impairment because of the increased power of the government. That is why the document that is now known as the Bill of Rights was introduced. It included ten significant amendments to the constitution which provided all citizens with their lawful rights and ensure fair distribution of power. Consequently, Bill helped to make a compromise and reconcile two points of view. Moreover, it promoted the further development of the country and it’s becoming one of the first democratic states in the world.

Current Status

The Bill of Rights remains topical today as it still regulates the mechanisms according to which the state functions and evolves. For instance, by the First Amendment, the freedom of speech and the free exercise of religion is protected by the law and every citizen can appeal to it. These postulates remain crucial for the modern U.S. environment as any law or legislative act is not able to ignore the Amendment. Altogether, the creation and ratification of the Bill of Rights became the turning point in American history as it contributed to the creation of the legal environment in which we live nowadays.


The Bill of Rights. (n.d.). Web.

The Bill of Rights: Its history and significance. (n.d.). Web.

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