Role Of Chromium In Humans Free Essay

It was known by the 1950s that chromium was needed in humans to control blood sugar, but it wasn’t until the 1970s that chromium’s main role in humans was found out. It came accidentally, as a result of a new procedure that had been introduced to nourish hospitalized patients who could not take in food byeating. This method of nourishment was designed to give patients all the things people need to maintain health until they could eat normally and get these nutrients from food. Some of the patients who had been fed intravenously formonths developed a high blood sugar level just like diabetics (even though they weren’t). Then the doctors had to start insulin therapy to treat the thisdiabetes-like condition and even then the insulin didnt work right! People already knew that Chromium was needed to keep normal blood sugar levels, so whenthey added the Chromium to the food solutions, there was an immediateimprovement!

The people didnt need insulin injections, and their blood sugarsand other problems went back to normal. After a while doctors everywhere figuredout that Chromium was needed in humans and they didnt make the old mistakes anymore. Trivalent chromium works with insulin to move glucose into cells, wedont know how else it works but we think it has to do with the insulin binding to their receptor sites. Chromium and Diabetes Three of the 17 good studies showed that there wasnt any benefit of chromium with diabetics, 14did show blood glucose improvements in the patients. The results were impressive: blood glucose, insulin levels, and cholesterol all decreased, withthe higher dose (but not always).

No one knows how tiny amounts of chromium could have such big effects on insulins actions and no one knows why this isso but they believe that chromium strengthens some things that happen between insulin and the body. In other words, it doesn’t work by making the body makemore insulin, but instead chromium makes the insulin that is there work betterin the people’s cells. For all the Health Nuts! An area of interest lately is thepossible effect of chromium on body composition; or, how chromium affects therelative amounts of lean body mass (mainly muscle) compared to the amount ofbody fat. There have been positive results from studies with four separateanimal species, pigs, lambs, rats and chickens. They were given chromiumpicolinate. In all of these species, there were increases in muscle mass anddecreases in fat.

And, in the case of pigs, the results have been confirmed bymany other studies. Unfortunately, for humans, the evidence was not as clearuntil just recently. Earlier Studies were not even conducted properly so wecould not go by their results. But later studies used a large group of about average people and conducted a controlled experiment. After a while there seemedto benefits to the control group and it showed to be a result of the extra chromium intake! (I wish this was, totally the case because I myself am kind ofa health nut) Humans Daily Intake of Chromium Info from U. S. government shows that most Americans get less chromium a day than the amount recommended bynutrition experts (the RDA Committee recommends 50-200 mcg of chromium/day; thevast majority of Americans get less than 50 mcg/day). Not many foods have a lotof chromium.

The best foods are organ meats, mushrooms, wheat germ, broccoli and processed meats. It is thought that Stone Age people ate more chromium thanmodern people because they might have always eaten organ meats from the animals they hunted. And it is most likely that they lost less chromium in their peethan we do. This is probably because Stone Agers didnt eat nearly as muchsimple sugars as modern people and simple sugar intake causes chromium to belost in the urine. Americans consume about 120 pounds of sugar per year fromregular eating! Another interesting thing is that in large numbers of people inthe U.S.– chromium levels in our tissues lower over our lifetimes. In fact, thehighest chromium levels are found in babies! Conclusion Chromium is an essentialtrace mineral for humans, as far as we know chromium deficiency might havedirect effects on a societies obesity, diabetes, abnormal blood lipids,hypertension, and even coronary artery disease.

Even though it is allcontroversial, many sources show that this information is correct. Other Uses -To harden steel, manufacture stainless steel, form alloys. – Used in plating toform a hard, beautiful surface that is corrosion proof – Used to give glass anemerald green color (responsible for the green in Emeralds and the red inRubies!). – Use as a catalyst – Tanning leather – Pigment (lead chromate aschrome yellow). – Compounds are used in the textile industry as Mordants. ? -Used in the manufacturing of aircraft to anodize aluminum. – The refractoryindustry ? uses chromite for forming bricks and shapes (it has a high meltingpoint, moderate thermal expansion, and a stable crystal structure).


  1. – – Care

Computer Systems Analyst

Computer Systems AnalystI push the button, I hear a noise, the screen comes alive. My computerloads up and starts to process. I see the start screen for Windows 95, and Itype in my password. Even though this takes time, I know that I will be able todo whatever I want to do without any trouble, without any glitches, without anyquestions. My computer is now easier to use and more user friendly becausecomputer systems analysts have worked out the problems that many computersystems still have.

It appears to me that a career choice needs to contain a number ofdifferent features. The first being: Will this area of interest mentallystimulate me as well as challenge me? The second being: Is there a way ofmaking a living in these areas of interest? And finally: Do I enjoy thedifferent activities within this area of interest? From the first day that Istarted my first computer, I have grasped the concepts quickly and with ease.

But the computer as well as I will never stop growing. I have introduced myselfto all topics of word processing to surfing the web. After reviewing a numberof resources, I have noticed a relatively high demand for technologicallyintegrated hardware and software positions available with companies that wish tocompete with the demand for networking. (Computer Scientists 95) This leadsme to believe that future employment prospects will be high and of high qualitypay within the next eight to ten years. The past, present, and future have andwill see the computer. Since I have seen the computer, I have enjoyed thechallenges and countless opportunities to gain in life from this machine.Fromschool projects to games; from the Internet to programming languages; I have andalways will feel like that little kid in the candy store.

Job DescriptionA Computer Systems Analyst decides how data are collected, prepared forcomputers, processed, stored, and made available for users. (Computer SystemsCOIN 1) The main achievement as a systems analyst is to improve the efficiencyor create a whole new computer system that proves to be more efficient for acontracting company. When on an assignment, the analyst must meet a deadline.

While striving for a deadline, he must create and comprehend many sources ofinformation for the presentation. He must review the systems capabilities,workflow, and scheduling limitations (Systems Analyst 44), to determine ifcertain parts of the system must be modified for a new program.

First, a computer programmer writes a program that he thinks will bebeneficial for a certain system. He incorporates all of what he thinks isnecessary. But the hard part is when the programmer runs the program. 99% ofthe time the program will not work, thus not creating a profit for the company.

Then the analyst looks at the program. It is now his job to get rid of all ofthe glitches that are present. He must go over every strand of the programuntil the program is perfect.

When the analyst is finished chopping up the program, he must thenfollow a technical procedure of data collecting, much like that of a science lab.

The Dictionary of Occupational Titles says he must plan and prepare technicalreports, memoranda, and instructional manuals as documentation of programdevelopment. (44)When the presentation day is near, the analyst submits the proof. Hemust organize and relate the data to a workflow chart and many diagrams. Moreoften than not, an idea is always to good to be true unless the proof is there.

For this new program that will go into the system, detailed operations must belaid out for the presentation. Yet, when the system hits the market, theprogram must be as simple as possible. A computer systems analyst must alwayslook for the most minute points whenever a program is be reviewed. Education andTrainingMany people think that this is the type of a job where you must reallylike the concept. This is true. Many people thing that you need a great priorexperience to ever make it somewhere. This is true. Many people think that youneed a Bachelors degree to at least star out somewhere. This is not true.

Through research, it a known fact that you don’t really have to go to college toever make it. In this particular field, a college education would be helpful toimpress the employer, but for a basic analyst job, the only proof really neededto go somewhere is the Quality Assurance Institute. This awards the designationCertified Quality Analyst (CQA) to those who meet education and experiencerequirements, pass an exam, and endorse a code of ethics. (Computer Scientists95) Linda Williams found a technical analyst at the Toledo Hospital, who wentto the Total Technical Institute near Cleveland and earned his CQA. (11 -13)However, college is the best bet and a bachelors is the best reward tohave after achieving the CQA. Employers almost always seek college graduatesfor analyst positions. Many however, have some prior experience. Many rookiesare found in the small temporary agencies that need small help. The one whohave really made it are in the business for at least 15 years.

When in a secure professional position, an analyst will always need anupgrading just a quickly as the systems themselves do. Continuous study isnecessary to keep the skills up to date. Continuing education is usuallyoffered by employers in the form of paid time in night classes. Hardware andsoftware vendors might also sponsor a seminar where analysts will go to gatherideas and new products. Even colleges and universities will sponsor some ofthese types of events. (Computer Systems America’s 36) Environment, Hours, andEarningsSystems analysts work in offices in comfortable surroundings. Theyusually work about 40 hours a week – the same as other professionals and officeworkers. Occasionally, however, evening or weekend work may be necessary tomeet deadlines according to America’s 50 fastest Growing Jobs. (36) Most of thetime, an analyst will live a quite lifestyle, unlike that of a lawyer or doctor.

Even he has the freedoms that those occupations don’t offer. The pay mightdecrease, but the family time increases. Although this may sound pretty basic,it is coming to the point where the common analyst will work from the everydaysetting. In bed, at home, in the car and at the diner might all be places wherean analyst might perform his work thanks to the technology available today.

Even technical support can be done from a remote location largely in part tomodems, laptops, electronic mail and even the Internet. (Computer Scientists94)So as the hours per week is starting to vary because of where the workcan be done, so are the earnings. The industry is growing and according to theOccupational Outlook Quarterly Chart, the industry will be the fastest growingfrom now until 2005. This occupation will grow so rapidly in fact, that in 2005,the number of systems analysts will have increased by 92%. To imagine that thisis the only job that will practically double by the year 2005 is to think thatthe earnings would go up too. According to the same chart, the average weeklyearning are $845. This is third only to the two obvious occupations of Lawyers,and Physicians. (48)In 1994, the median earning for a full time computer systems analyst wasabout $44,000. The middle 50% earned between $34,100 and $55,000. The highesttenth of all analysts earned $69,400 where those with degrees generally earnmore. (Computer Scientists 95) It is also stated in America’s 50 FastestGrowing Jobs that systems analysts working in the Northeast had the highestearnings and those working in the Midwest had the lowest earnings. (37)Works Cited”America’s Fastest Growing Job Opportunities.” Hispanic Times. 1996 “ComputerScientists and Systems Analysts.” Occupational Outlook Handbook.

Indianapolis: JIST Works Inc. pp. 93-95. “Computer Systems Analyst.” COINEducational Products. CD-ROM, 1995-96:1-6 Farr, J. Michael. (1994). America’s 50 Fasted Growing Jobs.

Indianapolis: JISTWorks Inc. Emch, Brian. Job Shadowing. Dana Corporation. 1996 OccupationalOutlook Quarterly. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 1996. “Systems Analyst.”Dictionary of Occupational Titles. US Department of Labor.

1992: p.44 Williams, Linda. Careers Without College: Computers. Princeton:Peterson’sGuides. 1992.

Migrant Workers In Of Mice And Men

Of Mice And Men This novel is set on the Californian Grain Farms in the 1930s. The town is called Soledad and is four miles south of San Jose. The inspiration for the book probably came from a poem by Robert Burns.

The poem was about the plans of mice and men going wrong. The book generally is about all of the migrant workers, all with their own dreams. The main characters George and Lennie go from farm to farm, trying to work up a stake and save enough to buy their own farm. The other characters in the book are also all lonely in their own way. Crooks is black and the blacks are seen as outcasts. Curleys wife is a woman and therefore insignificant, perhaps this is why she has not been given a name.

Candy has become old, and without his hand is next to useless. George is a typical migrant worker. Hes not particularly strong, but hes smart and good at his job. The difference between him and the rest of the workers is that he has someone to call a friend. Lennie is the opposite of George in every physical way. Hes much taller and better built, and consequently an amazing worker.

Unfortunately for him and George he is not very intelligent. George enjoys going to brothels, getting drunk and generally wasting his money. Lennie adores animals and he likes to pet them. He forgets how strong he is and usually kills them.

They both share the dream of one day owning their own farm. George wants freedom to work how he wants, and Lennie wants to tend the rabbits. There is a very strong bond between the two. Lennie looks up to George and has a great amount of respect and admiration.

Lennie could not survive without him. George feels sorry for Lennie but finds him almost impossible to deal with, because he always gets them into trouble. Although George would not admit it, he also needs Lennie. Lennie is the on who attracts the bosses, because of his capability. George is just an average worker, and only gets jobs because he controls Lennie. They both grew up in auburn.

George knew Lennies aunt who was taking care of Lennie, and when she died, George took over. Candy is an old man who has been at the ranch for some time. He can remember people who have come and gone previously. He doesnt do much on the ranch, but he can do small odd jobs about the place.

He has lost his hand in an accident, which makes him even less useful. The others do not hate him, he just gets left out because he is old. He has a companion, his dog, whose life parallels his. The dog was once a sheepdog, but has aged and now is only kept around because he is liked. The others all agree that the best thing for the dog is to shoot it. Candy fears the same, but when he hears of George and Lennies plan to have their own farm, he offers the a considerable amount of money if they will let him come with, so he will have a purpose once again.

Crooks is the stable buck. He is different from the rest because he is black, in a time where racial prejudice is strong. He has also been crippled, and so his life is very bad. He lives separately to the others in his own room, the harness room. He has books on his shelves, which shows that he is more intellectual than the others.

He has fond m…..emories of his past, when he and his white friends would play on their chicken ranch, and were oblivious as to why their parents didnt like it. Now he knows why, and he hates the fact that he cant come into the bunkhouse to play cards, but has to spend all his free time by himself. The white people exclude him, so instead of pleading with them he decides he is going to exclude them as well. Curleys wife is the wife of the boss son, Curley.

She is lonely and different because she is a woman. Perhaps to signify the fact that she is insignificant, though not to this novel, she is called Curleys wife, and not given a name. She is heavily made up with contrasting colours on her face. She has blond hair with a flick at the end. She wears a cotton housedress.

All of the workers on the farm spread rumours about her, and all conversations about her are negative. They are frightened to talk to her because she can make up things about those that she dislikes, and tell Curley. Curley can tell the boss, and subsequently they will get the can. She was promised fine things in show business by an old lover, who promised to write. She never got letters, and blamed it on her family, and left home. On the rebound she met Curley and married him because he was there.

She doesnt like him, and says that he aint nice. She feels that all she is good for on the ranch is staying in Curleys house. In order to liven things up for her, she is always looking for Curley, so she has an excuse to go in the barn and talk to the men. She isnt really a tart, she just does things to get attention, which she doesnt get from Curley. Curleys wifes loneliness causes her to talk to Lennie, because only he will let her talk eventually. They have got a lot in common, not physically, but they are both lonely and excluded from the others.

She does not know Lennie and that inevitably causes her death. Lennie accidentally hurts her by tugging her hair, and she screams. Since Lennie doesnt want to get into trouble with George, and doesnt know better he takes it into his own hands to stop her, and it even takes him a while to realise she is dead. Candy realises that their dream is never going to come true, and the truth comes back to George.

He realises that he only believed it because he kept saying it to Lennie. George and Candy both know that this incident will mean that they will not see neither each other for much longer, nor Lennie. All of the characters in the novel are lonely, and the only thing that separates them is that some know it and some dont. Crooks is the main Person who knows it, and because of that he has moved himself further away. George and Lennie were different because they had each other to call a friend, or just companionship. Curley knows he is different and goes around trying to disprove that, like the incidents with Lennie.

My opinion on this book is that it tells a story of what can happen when you try to break a link. All of the typical workers live, work and die. This book is a story about a similar group who are more than just machines, and start making plans, the optimism only makes their current situation seem more desperate and depressing.

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