Role Of Employer Branding And Perceived Diversity In Organisational Performance Free Sample


The growing intensity of employment relations presupposes the development of more flexible and original approaches by employers to effectively differentiate them from other competitors. The present paper examines the role of employer branding in maintaining the highest possible degree of organisational sustainability with the identification of the major opportunities and challenges that exist in this sphere. The relevance of workplace diversity during recruitment will also be evaluated from several perspectives. The importance of workplace diversity for modern organisations will be explained. The analysed topic is relevant both for organisations and employees as it determines the major industry trends that exist in this field and allows identifying the hidden reserves of many organisations. The first section will specify the essence of employer branding and its importance for organisations. The second section will elaborate on the significance of workplace diversity during recruitment and its role for modern organisations. In order to maximise positive effects associated with employer branding and perceived diversity, the holistic approach should be demonstrated by management with the orientation toward creating the synergic effect of employees’ and managers’ collaboration.

Employer Branding and Its Importance

According to Backhaus and Tikoo (2004), employer branding refers to the company’s efforts to promote its positive perception as an employer to effectively differentiate from other competitors from the same industry. The efforts both within and outside the firm should be properly balanced with one another to contribute to its credibility and market reputation. Barbaros (2020) claims that employer branding may contribute to the higher attractiveness of such companies in the long term. At the same time, branding strategies should be complementary in relation to recruitment plans in order to confirm the company’s adherence to the highest ethical and professional standards with the possibility of timely adjusting to unique needs and requests of every employee. The company’s culture should illustrate the respect for the major values and principles declared during employer branding and formulate specific policies that will be beneficial for all internal and external stakeholders.

Theurer et al. (2018) advocate for the systematic implementation of an employer branding value chain model that allows integrating various elements of brand development in a manner that will contribute to the higher long-term results in terms of the company’s brand perception and collaboration with its strategic partners. The following branding dimensions play the major role in this process: conceptual; employer knowledge dimensions; and employer branding strategies and activities (Theurer et al., 2018). Modern companies tend to assign the higher priority to finding the consistent balance between the application of relevant theoretical models and their practical implementation. Brand equity theory and a resource-based view may be helpful for determining the most relevant resources that may be used (Backhaus & Tikoo, 2004). In particular, both human and material resources should be integrated with one another in a way that will contribute to the highest operational effectiveness.

Graham and Cascio (2018) state that employer branding promotion should be organised in a way that perceives employees as brand ambassadors. By maintaining strong reputation, companies may become more effective in attracting and retaining the most talented and productive employees. Such a strategy may allow obtaining additional competitive advantages in their industry, contributing to the higher capitalisation and financial gains in the future. Therefore, employer branding is important both for current industry leaders and other companies that try to improve their industry positions and enjoy the maximum sustainability. All companies should invest in determining the major determinants of employees’ perception of brands in their sphere as well as specify a set of strategic actions that may enable promoting the desired values at different organisational levels, including recruiting and daily performance (Barbaros, 2020). According to Hoppe (2018), target group-oriented communications may be highly helpful in this regard as employees may adequately perceive the company’s prestige and sincerity. The continuous monitoring of their job satisfaction may also identify the major directions of future organisational reforms to be implemented by the management. The increasing complexity of business processes and growing global competition may contribute to the higher role played by employer branding in the following years as it will be recognised as being the major element of organisational sustainability.

Workplace Diversity during Recruitment and Its Importance for Organisations

Workplace diversity presupposes the inclusion of employees of different backgrounds with the creation of optimal conditions for their productive collaboration when working on the assigned projects. Avery (2003) claims that despite the growing racial diversity in corporate recruitment advertisements, significant problems still exist in this field. In particular, White applicants demonstrate no reaction to such recruitment strategies, while members of minority groups are attracted only in relation to superior managerial positions (Avery, 2003). At the same time, the findings by Flory et al. (2021) indicate that the communication of explicit interest in employee diversity approximately doubles the involvement of racial minority applicants, including non-managerial positions. Therefore, workplace diversity should be not only declared by the management and HR specialists but also effectively communicated to the target audience. The impact on gender diversity is typically lower as compared with racial one, and such differences should be properly recognised when planning recruitment initiatives (Flory et al. 2021).

Responsible organisations should contribute to the identity formation of all their employees with corresponding implications for their self-realisation in the current organisational setting. Avery et al. (2013) confirm that diversity recruitment strategies may affect recruitment outcomes with the higher likelihood of attracting the most competent and devoted workforce. Most job seekers positively perceive those organisations that stress the role of diversity as they believe that their identities will be accepted and confirmed. According to Avery and McKay (2006), the growing number of companies assigns the main priority to attracting minority and female job applicants. However, the successful implementation of such plans requires the development of a radically different approach in relation to impression management, psychology, marketing, and other recruitment-related spheres (Avery & McKay, 2006). The collection of empirical information on applicants’ reactions may be helpful for objectively assessing the major strengths and directions of future adjustments.

The contribution of workplace diversity to the company’s strategic sustainability is generally recognised by the majority of leaders and managers from different industries. The study by Graham et al. (2017) illustrates the close association between the commitment to diversity and presence of minority members in managerial positions. As a result, such companies may become more effective in utilising all diversity opportunities that may affect their performance and financial results. At the same time, Hirsch et al. (2020) report on considerable risks of the higher turnover among employees as the reduced similarity may lead to the desire to change their employer. However, such risks can be systematically addressed by promoting the corporate culture that creates mutually beneficial conditions for employees with additional incentives for their close collaboration with each other. Moreover, more efficient companies may be able to offer better conditions to their employees, thus, increasing the likelihood of long-term collaboration.

Workplace ethnic diversity may allow designing original solutions that will promote the emergence of the synergic effects among members. Thus, the impact of their collaboration on the company’s productivity and performance outcomes may exceed the sum of their individual contributions. Valenzuela et al. (2020) claim that such considerations are also applicable to immigrants who may contribute to the higher operational outcomes in the future. By focusing on deep-level attributes, additional similarities in employees can be identified with corresponding implications for their job satisfaction and collaboration with each other. Thus, workplace diversity may be relevant not only in the context of higher productivity but also potential conflict prevention. Those companies that successfully utilise all opportunities created by workplace diversity may achieve the maximum flexibility that will contribute to the higher quality of strategic decisions under the conditions of global and industry uncertainty (Flory et al., 2021). As diversity directly affects all operational and managerial functions, its significance is critical to almost any company.


The provided analysis indicates that employer branding plays an important role in recruiting the most talented and productive employees by successfully differentiating the company from its competitors. Brand equity theory and a resource-based view may assist in rationally allocating the available resources in a manner that will contribute to the maximum long-term effects. The company’s HR specialists should also pay considerable attention to the way the main ideas are communicated to the target audience as it affects potential responses and the company’s reputation. Although workplace diversity positively affects the company’s strategic positions in the industry, it does not significantly affect the behaviour demonstrated by Whites. However, the involvement of minority groups can be substantially stimulated in this way. When recruiting females and members of ethnic minorities, new approaches to impression management, psychology, etc. should be developed to reflect their unique preferences and needs. Workplace diversity is important for maximising companies’ sustainability and conflict resolution effectiveness. The holistic approach demonstrated by management may facilitate the transformation of the workplace environment in a mutually beneficial and socially responsible manner. Overall, the significance of employer branding and workplace diversity may continue to increase in the following years.

Reference List

Avery, D. R. et al. 2013, “Examining the draw of diversity: How diversity climate perceptions affect job-pursuit intentions”, Human Resource Management, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 175–193.

Avery, D. R. 2003, “Reactions to diversity in recruitment advertising – are differences black and white?” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 88, no. 4, 672–679.

Avery, D. R., & McKay, P. F. 2006, “Target practice: an organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants”, Personnel Psychology, vol. 59, no. 1, 157–187.

Backhaus, K., & Tikoo, S. 2004, “Conceptualizing and researching employer branding”, The Career Development International, vol. 9, no. 5, 501–517.

Barbaros, M.C. 2020, “Does employer branding beat head hunting? The potential of company culture to increase employer attractiveness”, Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 87-112.

Flory, J.A., Leibbrandt, A., Rott, C. & Stoddard, O. 2021, “Increasing workplace diversity: evidence from a recruiting experiment at a Fortune 500 company”, The Journal of Human Resources, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 73-92.

Graham, B.Z. & Cascio, W.F. 2018, “The employer-branding journey: its relationship with cross-cultural branding, brand reputation, and brand repair”, Management Research, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 363-379.

Graham, M.E., Belliveau, M.A. & Hotchkiss, J.L. 2017, “The view at the top or signing at the bottom? Workplace diversity responsibility and women’s representation in management”, Industrial & Labor Relations Review, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 223-258.

Hirsch, B., Jahn, E.J. & Zwick, T. 2020, “Birds, birds, birds: co-worker similarity, workplace diversity and job switches”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 690-718.

Hoppe, D. 2018, “Linking employer branding and internal branding: establishing perceived employer brand image as an antecedent of favourable employee brand attitudes and behaviours”, The Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 452-467.

Theurer, C.P., Tumasjan, A., Welpe, I.M. & Lievens, F. 2018, “Employer branding: a brand equity-based literature review and research agenda”, International Journal of Management Reviews: IJMR, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 155-179.

Valenzuela, M.A., Jian, G. & Jolly, P.M. 2020, “When more is better: The relationships between perceived deep-level similarity, perceived workplace ethnic diversity, and immigrants’ quality of coworker relationships”, Employee Relations, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 507-524.

Role Of Human Resource Managers In Implementing Ethical Policies & Human Resource Strategy Free Essay

1.0 Introduction

Change in the business environment is continuous and inevitable, and when overlooked or managed poorly, risk causing organizational tension and slowing overall progress. Change management involves transforming or transitioning an organization’s goals, processes, or technologies. Change management is a systematic process that seeks to formulate and implement strategies to influence and control change (Stouten et al., 2018). Human resources are the most strategic resources in a modern organization; therefore, change management strategies aim at helping people adapt to change. By focusing on people, processes, and the overall organization, change management increases the probability of success of business processes improves the ability to change quickly. This report aims to examine the concept of change management and provide practical recommendations for implementing change management. By studying existing literature and examining current business environmental factors, this report seeks to provide three recommendations to help the organization handle change management.

2.0 Significance of Change Management

Change management is a fundamental part of organizational management. With changes constantly occurring in the business environment, organizations must keep pace and adjust their products, people and processes accordingly. External environmental factors pose the most significant challenges since an organization has no control over them. However, a functional change management strategy can enable an organization to adjust its business model effectively and maintain success even in unprecedented change (Kroll & Pasha, 2021). Failure to recognize and adjust to changes in the external environment is a recipe for dismal business performance or ultimate failure.

Change management provides a robust and effective platform for a seamless transition when preparing for an organizational transition. In this case, an organization can utilize change management to assess the benefits of a planned change prior. Change management assists an organization in assessing the overall impact of a change, enabling a smooth transition process. Change management processes are susceptible to internal resistance. By instituting change management strategies, managers can quickly overcome this obstacle. Transparent and adequate communication, combined with sufficient employee engagement, significantly reduces the chances of changes being resisted or rejected (Stouten et al., 2018).

Change management improves organizational performance and enhances innovation. Changes in the business environment usually compel businesses to change their products, processes, or people. Making such changes enables an organization to align resources with organizational objectives and achieve efficiency (Dumas & Beinecke, 2018). In addition, change allows an organization to acquire new technologies that streamline processes to reduce wastage and improve productivity. The combined benefits of change management generally contribute significantly to reducing operating costs. Change is characterized by waste reduction, human resource optimization, effective processes, and efficient technologies. All these factors produce systematic changes, resulting in significant cost savings.

Engaging people in implementing change is critical in improving employee relations and performance. An integral characteristic of change management is engaging the very people affected by a change and assisting them in adapting accordingly (Amarantou et al., 2018). Such a process involves involving employees from the initial stage of planning change, engaging them in constant communication, and informing them about the organizational and individual benefits of the planned change. In addition, change management is achieved through cross-functional collaborations and cooperation, enhancing teamwork and cohesion in the process. Therefore, change management plays a significant role in employee engagement and boosts job morale and motivation.

Certain organizational can lead to increased anxiety or fear among managers and employees. Such an environment is characterized by inconsistencies that risk disrupting business processes or lowering performance and output quality. Effective change management is critical in reassuring employees and providing them with guarantees about job security and benefits. As a result, change management contributes to workplace stability and promotes a sense of job security. When properly managed, change management assists in overcoming organizational disruptions and stress and helps reduce or eliminate costs associated with them. According to Al-Ali (2017), change management standardizes the efficiency and consistency of allocated duties, assuring employees that their contribution is critical to organizational success. In instituting changes, change management helps employees understand their new roles and responsibilities, thereby fostering a process-led work culture.

3.0. Change Management Steps

Effective change management is a holistic process consisting of systematic and elaborate processes. Change management begins by preparing the organization for change. Successful change is dependent on an organization being ready logistically and culturally. In the initial phase, management communicates to employees the necessity for change and the expected organizational and individual benefits expected from a change. Dumas & Beinecke (2018) assert that gaining the support of employees from the beginning is critical in protecting the change management strategy from possible internal resistance in the future.

The second stage in change management involves formulating a vision and plan for change. This stage in change management involves developing comprehensive and realistic strategies for delivering change. In this stage, the management formulates strategic goals and develops key performance indicators to identify the measurable parameters of the overall change management strategy. This process is also concerned with identifying the stakeholders interested in the project and building the team to deliver the strategies (Neves et al., 2018). Finally, this stage involves identifying and agreeing on the scope of the change management strategy. Determining the project’s scope is particularly important in budgeting and allocating resources to various tasks. When planning for this phase, possible obstacles that might hamper the implementation of the project are identified, and mitigation strategies are formulated.

The third and most significant step in change management is implementing the actual changes. The management uses the plans initially drafted to implement the proposed changes (Bel et al., 2018). This stage involves several changes to several organizational elements, such as; changes to organizational structure, systems, processes, and regulations. During this process, leaders should prioritize empowering employees and team leaders to be proactive in achieving the project’s objectives. Any obstacles experienced at this stage are quickly removed, and relevant corrective actions are taken. To make this step successful, constant communication reminding all stakeholders and team members about the strategic vision of the process is critical.

The fourth step in change management involves aligning and embedding changes within company culture and practices. It is critical to prevent the organization from reversing to its initial status, especially for workflows, processes strategies, and culture changes. Without proper safeguards and sufficient planning, team members are vulnerable during the transition period and may easily get tempted to reverse to the previous state. According to Dumas & Beinecke (2018), management can use controls, reward systems, and new organizational structures to safeguard the newly instituted changes. Embedding changes into the organizational culture and practices protects the company from sliding back to the previous status quo.

The final stage in the change management process involves monitoring and reviewing progress and analyzing results. Any mechanism or process is only effective where its performance can be monitored and results analyzed. Monitoring, evaluating, and analyzing results is critical to helping leaders understand whether the change management strategy has succeeded or failed. According to Marshall (2019), evaluating and analyzing results can help leaders to identify specific weak areas and institute relevant corrective strategies to improve them. In addition, analyzing results provides critical insights that can offer valuable lessons for future projects of similar nature.

4.0 Barriers to Effective Change Management

The success of a change management strategy depends on several organizational and external factors. Formulating change management strategies alone is not adequate; effective implementation is critical to the success of change management strategy. Change management instituted without proper evaluation of the current state of an organization might not be successful. Failure to conduct a proper business environmental analysis is a barrier to the changes that an organization seeks to achieve. Any organization aiming to institute change should prioritize the analysis of its current before deciding to effect change (Stouten et al., 2018). Having a clear picture of the current organizational state eases the planning and transition to a new state.

Organizational complexity can be a significant barrier to change management. Some organizations are characterized by highly complex products, processes, or systems that are difficult to understand. The complexity factor hinders the organization’s ability to plan and implement changes. If these barriers are not broken down, the possibility of instituting meaningful change fades, and the company loses lucrative opportunities brought about by change. A company can institute mechanisms such as using a quality, diligent, and highly effective approach to change management. However, an organization must resist the temptation to effect change without breaking down the identified barriers (Dumas & Beinecke, 2018). Such action can lead to disastrous results that might leave an organization in a far, much worse state.

Inadequate consideration of organizational culture can be a significant impediment to change management. In some instances, management might decide to effect change without assessing the impact of such a move on employees. Dumas & Beinecke (2018) assert that change management decisions made without considering employees’ feelings, opinions, and expectations can result in significant resistance. Change management should be a holistic process whose decisions are people-driven and where feedback is shared openly. The most straightforward strategy to avoid internal resistance is to value all employees’ feelings, opinions, and aspirations. Managers must establish mechanisms that prevent internal resentment by prioritizing employee engagement when planning change management strategies.

Change management risks failure if planned and implemented without effective communication strategies. Organizations run with ineffective communication strategies face the most significant risk of failure of change management (Stouten et al., 2018). The common assumption among ineffective leaders is that employees will adjust automatically and quickly embrace the new development. This assumption overlooks the significance of human resources in change management and increases the chances of employee resentment to change. Simply formulating and introducing change management strategies is not sufficient; management needs to involve employees in planning strategies. In addition, management should communicate clearly to employees why change is necessary and the benefits expected from it.

Lack of employee involvement is a significant barrier to the success of change management. Human resources are the most critical organizational resources in the modern workplace environment. Modern employees are educated, exposed, and highly empowered; they demand more significant involvement in organizational decisions. A change management strategy formulated without adequately involving employees faces possible resentment or rejection by employees. Change management is a holistic process that should prioritize employee involvement from planning to implementation. Organizational change can stoke fear, anxiety, and uncertainty in employees. According to Neves et al. (2018), executive management must communicate regularly to employees and give them assurances and guarantees about their roles and job security in the new development. Inadequate communication from top management is a recipe for resentment from employees. In addition, adequate involvement of employees in change management planning and implementation fosters a work culture that encourages collaboration and cooperation. A participatory work culture characterized by collaborations and teamwork boosts job morale and motivation and promotes creativity and innovation.

5.0 Recommendations

Change management is a critical process in organizational management. As the company plans to implement change, this report recommends three types of change that it should consider. The management can make informed decisions after acquiring knowledge about the three types of change.

5.0.1 Developmental Change

Developmental change is concerned with improving current processes and procedures. Common examples of this kind of change include; updating the payroll system, repositioning the marketing strategies, or improving cash reporting and banking procedures (Dumas & Beinecke, 2018). This kind of change is considered the most basic and can plan for and institute other kinds of change. When planning and implementing developmental change, it is critical to keep employees informed of the planned changes and explain the expected benefits from the planned change.

Since developmental change is concerned with improving current processes and procedures, the company should provide employees with the skills to implement the changes. Employees are likely to experience less difficulty implementing the changes if adequately trained beforehand. In addition, when planning developmental change, executive management should assure employees about their commitment to protecting employees from any adverse impact of the proposed changes (Neves et al., 2018).

5.0.2 Transitional Change

This kind of change is concerned with steering an organization away from its current state to a new development focused on offering a particular solution. Transitional change is much more challenging to implement compared to developmental change (Stouten et al., 2018). The most common examples of transitional change include mergers and acquisitions, implementing new technology, or creating new products or services. When dismantling the current system to give way to new systems, the transition period can be a harrowing experience for employees. To achieve employees’ buy-in during this process, it is vital to communicate clearly about the expected impact and benefits of implementing the changes.

Technological changes are always characterized by fear of job loss; therefore, the management should provide sufficient assurance to employees about their job security. For this kind of change to be effective, staff participation in planning and implementation should be encouraged. In addition, it is critical to communicate to employees the mechanisms the company is implementing to train them on the new systems and support them through the entire change process.

5.0.3 Transformational Change

Transformational change involves radical or disruptive changes that significantly alter organizational operations or corporate culture. This kind of change might involve introducing entirely new products or services. Transformational change is usually occasioned by radical or unexpected changes in the business environment. Considering their extreme nature, transformational change can evoke deep fears among employees about job security or the practicability of the planned changes (Neves et al., 2018). Examples of transformational change include; revolutionary technologies, fundamental changes to the production process, significant organizational strategic goals, and corporate culture changes.

Transformational changes are those you make to completely reshape your business strategy and processes, often resulting in a shift in work culture. These changes may be a response to extreme or unexpected market changes. Transformational change can produce fear, doubt, and insecurity in staff and must be very well managed (Stouten et al., 2018). This kind of change usually combines both developmental and transitional change. When planning and implementing transformational change, executive management should formulate a clear strategy that states the strategic goals they are formulating. In addition, the management should provide a practical rationale for the planned changes. Transformational change is a complex process that should be implemented through elaborate and systematic strategies. Like other kinds of change, the top management should ensure they involve employees in all phases of the change management process.

6.0 Conclusion

This report sought to explore change management and provide three pieces of advice regarding the impending change management process. Change management is a systematic process that seeks to formulate and implement strategies to influence and control change (Stouten et al., 2018). Uncertainties and unpredictable changes characterize the current business environment. The volatile nature of the current business environment necessitates organizations to be prepared for change management. When implemented effectively, change management is critical in enabling an organization to withstand sudden changes in the business environment. Implementation of change management involves detailed steps that are highly dependent on each other.

Despite its significance, several institutional and external barriers might hamper the implementation of change management. Human resources play the most significant role in the planning and implementing change (Neves et al., 2018). Before implementing change management, organizations should recognize the possible obstacles and implement practical solutions to them. Change management takes various forms; organizations should assess their current state and business needs to determine the most pressing change required.

7.0 References

Al-Ali, A. A., Singh, S. K., Al-Nahyan, M., & Sohal, A. S. (2017). Change management through leadership: the mediating role of organizational culture. International Journal of Organizational Analysis.

Amarantou, V., Kazakopoulou, S., Chatzoudes, D., & Chatzoglou, P. (2018). Resistance to change: an empirical investigation of its antecedents. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Bel, R., Smirnov, V., & Wait, A. (2018). Managing change: Communication, managerial style and change in organizations. Economic Modelling69, 1-12.

Dumas, C., & Beinecke, R. H. (2018). Change leadership in the 21st century. Journal of Organizational Change Management.

Kroll, A., & Pasha, O. (2021). Managing change and mitigating reform cynicism. Public Money & Management41(5), 395-403.

Marshall, S. (2019). Leading and managing strategic change. In Strategic leadership of change in higher education (pp. 22-34). Routledge.

Neves, P., Almeida, P., & Velez, M. J. (2018). Reducing intentions to resist future change: Combined effects of commitment‐based HR practices and ethical leadership. Human Resource Management57(1), 249-261.

Stouten, J., Rousseau, D. M., & De Cremer, D. (2018). Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals12(2), 752-788.

Role Of Politics In South Carolina’s Secession Sample Assignment


South Carolina secession was the first in the line to occur before Abraham Lincoln’s inauguration in 1861. Carolina led a secession from the United States and provided the first battleground for the civil war in April 1861. Also, South Carolina, alongside ten more southern states, separated from the union during the winter of 1860 and 1861.

Roles of politics in South Carolina’s secession

Many South Carolina women saw the events of late 1860 as virtually millenarian, giving their works a feeling of urgency. To avoid being chastised for being too emotional, women hid their feelings in their diaries and letters, using religious references to God’s vengeance to support their claims of impending hardship. According to Pribanic-Smith (2013), scholars say that women used their Christian purity to obtain new legitimacy in the public realm during the Civil War. By combining religion and politics, women could enter the male-dominated world of politics while remaining within the bounds of appropriate womanly conduct.

Southern women were encouraged to engage in political rituals and performed the bulk of the chores around Victorian mourning culture. Thus public, political, and symbolic action was well within their area of appropriateness. Men wore the black mourning bands for months, while women were liable for a year of full mourning, then half-mourning, and finally a reduction in the quantity of black worn. They were required to buy and wear bereavement jewelry, stationery, and apparel (Gordon, 2017). This overt appropriation of Victorian mourning culture, which was frequently a woman’s responsibility, was a politically acceptable form of expression. Elite South Carolinian women were both present and participated in the Democratic National Convention held in Charleston, according to newspaper accounts from spring 1860. They acted as political sawyers by exerting social peer pressure on state delegates who were hesitant to leave the conference. Despite their involvement, women did not dedicate a significant amount of mental energy to understanding political events.

The election of Abraham Lincoln for presidency in 1860 demonstrates the beginning of a series of events that culminated in the civil war in April 1861. Lincoln was the first Republican president, a remarkable accomplishment for a political party that had only been around for a decade. According to DeVelvis, (2020), In 1860, the Republican National Convention was held in Chicago. Lincoln defeated many other contenders, most notably New York’s William H. Seward. Contrary to popular belief, Lincoln was not a backwoods farmer; instead, he was a prominent Illinois lawyer who gained national notoriety during his 1858 Senate race against Stephen A. Douglas.

Lincoln’s win was practically inevitable due to the Democratic Party’s breakdown during its choice of candidate. The front-runner, Illinois’ Stephen A. Douglas, was hated by Democrats in the Deep South. As a consequence, the Democratic National Convention adjourned without electing a presidential nominee. The Democratic Party then nominated its candidates, with Kentucky’s John C. Breckinridge representing the Democratic Party’s Deep South faction and Stephen A (Rogers,2016). Douglas described the Democratic Party’s Northern and border-state coalition. Former Whigs and other groups established the Constitutional Union Party, which chose Tennessee’s John Bell as its presidential candidate.


In 1832 South Carolina enacted an Ordinance of Nullification, which meant to notify the United States government that South Carolina would not accept a high tax. In Lincoln’s instance, the Irish immigrants to the eastern cities and the Southern-born citizens of the northern states were significantly adverse to African Americans and, thus, to emancipation. At the same time, many other Northerners felt fatigued and alienated as the war went on forever.


Pribanic-Smith, E. J. (2013). Conflict in South Carolina’s Partisan Press of 1829. American Journalism30(3), 365-392.

Gordon, D. (Ed.). (2017). Secession, State, and Liberty. Routledge.

DeVelvis, M. (2020). Gendering Secession: Women and Politics in South Carolina, 1859-1861 (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Carolina).

Rogers, S. (2016). Seccession over Dishonor: An Examination of the Role of Southern Honor in Events Precipitating Secession.