Role Of Nursing In Urogynecology Essay Sample For College

Urogynecology is one of the emerging subspeciality nurse practitioners’ (NP’s) roles focusing on the treatment and prevention of the fecal and urinary incontinence also referred to as dual incontinence. The specialty also focuses on the pelvic floor disorders (PFDs) and bladder pain, and vaginal prolapse. Currently, there is an increasing demand for NPs with expertise and knowledge in urogynecology. The demand for these services is expected to grow significantly in future considering the current shortage of physicians trained to handle such conditions, the expansive prevalence of these conditions, and the gradually ageing population prompting a higher disease burden. Based on the 2021 report of the U.S. Census Bureau, the demand for urogynecology services is anticipated to rise by 35% by 2030 (Brown et al., 2022). There is a specialist deficit in the U.S. despite the AMA’s (American Nurses Association) projection showing a substantial increase in physicians, urologists, female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgeons, and gynecologists (Cera, 2021). The current patient/physician ration is projected to remain steady at the current level. The role of nurses in urogynecology is vital in the effort to address pelvic floor dysfunctions.

Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy

The dysfunction of pelvic floor is a common health issue for women; hence, its prevalence is significantly high not only in the United States but also across the world. According to Tuli (2021), 25% of women manifest symptomatic gynecological problems in their lifetime. This means that the issues of the pelvic floor muscle functions and dysfunctions, and other related morbidities affecting the women’s quality of life have escalated significantly (Tuli, 2021). Also known as physiotherapy, physical therapy focuses on human functionality and movement. Therefore, pelvic floor physical therapy bases its interventions on thorough assessment of the symptoms as well as the specific functions of the pelvic floor muscle.

Working in conjunction with physiotherapists and/or doctors, nurses undertake an active role in assessing the pelvic floor muscle dysfunctions as well as the pain and weaknesses associated with the pelvic floor. As affirmed by Cera (2021), for instance, Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) are coming in the forefront to provide critical services such as assessment of the pelvic floor operations and providing non-surgical treatment for any abnormalities. Nurses undertake evidence-based rehabilitation of the pelvic floor to remedy physical and cognitive impairments resulting from distorted pelvic floor functionality caused by urinary infections (Quallich & Lajiness, 2022). Pelvic muscles may be affected adversely by pregnancy, surgery, drugs, childbirth, estrogen deficiency, or even accidents that distort their working efficiency. Hence, symptoms that could be enhanced with pelvic floor exercises include urinary problems like urinary incontinence and frequency, painful urination and difficulties in fully emptying the bladder (Lo et al., 2022); bowel problems such as bowel incontinence and painful bowel movements, as well as unexplained pain in the pelvic, genital and rectal areas.

To address such symptoms, nurses, with the guidance of expert therapists, focus on multiple physical therapy techniques or procedures. They include external physical therapy procedures such as joint mobilization, nerve release, deep tissue massage, trigger point therapy, and skin rolling, and internal physical therapy methods that involve sliding a finger or a special device inside the vagina to perform a trigger point therapy. Carried out by a nurse practitioner or doctor instead of a physical therapist, trigger point therapy is executed by applying pressure on a definite spot. Besides, nurses can also do it by injecting anesthesia into specific trigger points. An early initiation of the physiotherapy and pelvic floor rehabilitation procedures are deemed vital in enhancing the health of women (McKibben, 2016). Overall, the provision of care to individuals with urinary incontinence and bowel problems is becoming a primary nursing responsibility for continence nursing specialists.

Pediatric Nursing Care

Advanced practice nurses and/or registered nursing practitioners who pursue training in pediatric specialty also play an important role in urogynecology. Whereas pediatric nurses work in pediatric departments within hospitals and clinics, as well as in private pediatric practices, they also work with women during pregnancy during which they advise them about the effective ways to diminish mother-to-child transmission of infections associated with urinary incontinence (Kok et al., 2021). Notably, infants are highly susceptible to infections arising from vaginal yeast infections which are common among pregnant women. Also, children are more susceptible to such infections because of their weakened immunity. This is because of their devastating impact on the health of the infant. Pediatric nurses will assess the behavior of the infant checking on the signs and symptoms that the mother and the child may not be able to understand. Because of their advanced understanding of childhood development and issues that affect babies and toddlers, registered pediatric nurses are able to collaborate with the parents in administering age-appropriate medications and treatments (Quallich, 2021). More importantly, they are able to identify incontinence-related problems in newborns and address them swiftly.

Bladder Training

Nurses undertake bladder training, an important behavioral therapy aimed at treating urinary incontinence. The primary goal of this intervention is increasing the fluids that the bladder can hold and the time it takes to empty these fluids. Bladder training is done by scheduling periods to use the lavatory and controlling the overwhelming urge to urinate. Nurses undertaking bladder training prepares a fixed voiding schedule depending on the health of the patient (Gupta & Rane, 2021). Urge suppression techniques are used to address deterioration in bladder health as a result of infections, old age, or side effects associated with pregnancy, menopause, and the process of giving birth. Bladder problems are becoming a common phenomenon in United States. According to a 2021 report by the America’s CDC (Centers for the Disease Control and Prevention), for instance, 60% of the people in the U.S. are affected by bladder-related infections in their lifetime (Verma et al., 2021). More so, the CDC reports that urinary catheters account for around 80% of the overall catheter-related infections in the U.S. (Verma et al., 2021). Therefore, this makes bladder training an emergent role for nursing practitioners today.


As previously mentioned, urinary incontinence is a distressing problem that makes one experience involuntary urine leakages. According to Caliskan et al. (2019), urinary incontinence affects 25% and 40% of premenopausal and postmenopausal women respectively. Nurses undertake micturition and continence aimed at creating a balance between the detrusor muscle activity and urethral closure (Paterson et al., 2017). It is important to underscore the fact that in a normal health situation, urethral closure often exceeds bladder pressure. This makes it possible to maintain urine in the bladder. The bladder and proximal urethra are both held within the pelvis. In cases where the bladder pressure rises beyond normal levels, medical attention should be sought (Bavendam et al., 2016). A corrective surgical procedure may also be sought depending on the magnitude of the problem and wishes of the patient. Nurses may conduct assessments after the patient raises complaints relating to pelvic pains and even refer them to urology specialists for further attention. It is important that a careful examination and history is undertaken to establish any issues triggering incontinence (Rantell, 2017). For instance, there could be tumors blocking the urinary tract. The issue may also arise from sensations, poor reflexes, and stool implication. These are common problems evident among pregnant women and lactating mothers who are in the journey of recovery after giving birth.

Role in Diet and Management of Postpartum Patients

Nursing practitioners play an important role of guiding pregnant or new mothers on appropriate nutrition or dietary intake. Pregnant or recently delivered women require proper nutrition to restore their health and address essential dietary requirements of the mother and child. Such interventions occur mostly in inpatient settings. However, following the current advancements in health care technology, mothers and their breastfeeding infants may receive homecare through online interactions with the nurses (Geissbuhler et al., 2020). Nurses may also collaborate with the nearest daycare centers and other community setting to provide the necessary care to the mothers and their newborns. Parents suffering dual incontinence require special nutrition to remedy bacterial and fungal infections. It is hence in the best interest of the women’s health that the intervention of a nurse is sought to ensure bacterial and fungal infections are treated. In a nutshell, diet is a key factor in the recovery of people suffering from Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs).

Besides facing dietary problems, mothers also face numerous other complications after delivery. They might experience significant maternal physiological changes on their way to returning to non-pregnant state. Nurses undertake the medical issues and physiological needs arising during this particular period. However, it is important that nurses are sensitive to the cultural differences surrounding childbirth so as to advise on certain restricted activities and give direction on the consumption of particular foods. According to Tamanini et al. (2022), between 25% and 50% of women experience postpartum issues such as shivering; hence, the need for proper nursing care. Sometimes unprecedented body temperatures are experienced following labor. More so, fetal-maternal bleeding, administration of drugs such as misoprostol, and bacteremia containment could be addressed adequately with proper nursing care in place (O’Dell et al, 2016). Vaginal soreness could also be an issue of concern as extensive tears experienced during birth could take some time before they completely heal. Nurses could provide vital care to reduce this discomfort and alleviate ensuing infections. According to Lajiness & Quallich, (2016), nurses should perform routine tests to establish the cause of different vital signs witnessed in both the mother and child after birth. More often emergencies occur after birth and mothers could develop feelings of inadequacy and anxiety. Hence, they must remain calm during such changing circumstances and accord mothers the requisite assistance.

Performing Nerve Stimulation Acupuncture

Nerve stimulation acupuncture is widely used to treat different disorders of internal organs. The process involves the stimulation of an acupuncture point commonly referred to as acupoint. The primary goal of doing this is to relieve pain and discomfort by refurbishing the flow or qi, a critical force that influences the energy channel to different parts of the body (Geissbuehler et al., 2021). Nerve stimulation acupuncture is done by inserting needles into the pressure points of the patient’s body to stimulate the nervous system. In effect, the body releases its natural sedatives called endorphins into the brain, spine, and muscles; thus, altering how the body responds to pain. In a nutshell, acupuncture is widely used in pain management and addressing the broader symptoms of urinary incontinence. Therefore, besides relieving chronic pain in the bladder, nerve stimulation acupuncture also arouses blood flow; hence, restoring the bladder’s damaged nerves.

Nurses can effectively perform nerve stimulation acupuncture because they have an extensive understanding of the automatic nervous system. Hence, apart from using the procedure to treat different overactive bladder symptoms, nursing practitioners also apply it to effect the somatic and autonomic nervous systems. This is especially conducted in the lumbosacral region which is actively involved in micturition.

Management of Prolapse and Pessary Fitting

A nurse may undertake a uterine prolapse assessment after childbirth or any other related medical procedure. According to Langston et al. (2017), the primary goal of doing this is to ensure the uterus does not slip to dangerous levels into the vagina. The pelvic exam is necessary in testing the strength of the pelvic muscles (Doumouchtsis et al., 2022). It follows that if severe incontinence is detected, the nurse may recommend further tests regarding the impact of uterine prolapse (Hayward, 2022). The ultimate goal of this procedure is to ensure the quality of life is enhanced and patients do not suffer unprecedented pain during pregnancy and after child birth.

Nurses in conjunction with multidisciplinary teams may also undertake pessary treatment on the affected people. Essentially, pessary fitting is done to reduce urogenital bother indications that adversely life quality (Langston et al., 2017). The stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are serious health issues affecting millions of people across the world. It hence follows that a pessary is used as a supporting device providing a non-surgical remedy to the symptoms associated with these disorders (Tuli, 2021). Pessaries are commonly used among the women suffering from POP. According to Pereira et al. (2020), pessaries are used by 98% of urogynecologists and 86% of gynecologists in avoiding dysfunction. Upon recovery, pessaries are removed and patients can conduct urogenital functions without necessarily having to get such artificial support.

Promotion of Primary Care to Address Diverse Women Needs

The role of nurse practitioners extends the breadth and depth of skills and knowledge adequate to offer primary care that addresses the distinct needs of women. Nurses’ education encompasses complicated and normal obstetrical care such as prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum, complicated and normal gynecological conditions, and fatal well-being (Zeiger et al., 2021). More so, there is emphasis on the fertility, use of contraception, sexual, and reproductive health of both men and women. In a nutshell, the primary content of this awareness includes primary care promotion and meeting of common women’s healthcare needs throughout their lifespan. Such issues range from the heart disease, menopause, genitourinary complains, and osteoporosis as exemplars (Fisher et al., 2022). Further focus is put on creating awareness to the needs of the adolescents undergoing significant body changes during puberty. The ultimate goal is to ensure they understand their daily healthcare needs to differentiate between normal and abnormal changes as well as the psychosocial and physical determinants of healthy ageing (Quallich, 2017).

Proactive Participation in Urogynecology MDT Meetings

Management plans are vital when treating urinary incontinence. Urogynecology multidisciplinary meetings (MDT) are vital before embarking on invasive urinary incontinence treatments (Norton et al., 2017). Nurses are part of the multidisciplinary clinical teams and their presence in MDT meetings is of critical importance. It is during these meetings that the care team discusses different patients’ conditions and proposes the most effective remedies for the same (Bretschneider et al., 2016). This is done in compliance with the provisions of the evidence-based and patient-centered care concepts. It is important that MDT meetings take into consideration of the preferences, views, and circumstances of the patients as much as possible (Soysal et al., 2022). This should correspond to the care plan that is the most appropriate depending on the patient’s condition. Notably, MDT discussions should give rise to a comprehensive treatment plan for every patient’s condition discussed. Nurses act as custodians of these plans because they ensure the plans are followed to the letter and the patient adheres to the proposed practices and medications to hasten the recovery process.

In summary, the role of nurses in urogynecology are numerous and diverse. The rise in demand for nursing services in urogynecology is triggered by the ever-rising issues and dynamics in women’s health. Complexities continue to rise as issues of rectal dysfunction, urinary tract malfunctioning, and loss of pelvic structure support continues to intensify. Pelvic disorders are on many occasions embarrassing. If left untreated for a long time, they could trigger greater medical complications. Some symptoms such as urine or feces leakages and vaginal budges do not constitute a normal aging process. People experiencing such symptoms should see an urogynecologist for assessment and advice.


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Selective Incapacitation Report Essay Example For College


Selective incapacitation is when certain crimes are targeted heavily than others, while lesser offenses get more lenient violations. An example would be to have murderers incarcerated for a longer time in maximum security while giving those guilty of drug possession of a minimum amount lesser sentences and even putting them in county jail. This idea sounds excellent on paper but does have its issues. It is a practice that must be exercised with caution as the practice could likely be abused for racist purposes. This model can also lead to horrible unintended consequences.

Literature Review

Duwe explains in his article how sex offenders commit the same offense again. Two different tools were used to complete the study. The first was a screening tool used in the state to gauge the recidivism rate within four years. The other instrument used was Integration of Survival with Quality of Life software. For this following software, it was to look at the recidivism rate for a longer term of up to five decades.

These methods concluded that nine percent of 105 offenders would commit a similar offense in just four years. Now, looking with a longer-term lens, the researchers concluded that 28 percent would commit another offense within their lifetime. This may look trivial, but sex offenders were used in this study; this is a highly heinous crime for what it is. Therefore, it is fair to say that selective incapacitation must be harsher on these types of offenders. Or, at the very least, be extremely careful of who is being released.

New urban studies and social science publications were established during this period, and conceptual forerunners may be seen in the 1990s when proactive police ideologies and community problem-solving tactics were applied entirely. In response to Herman Goldstein’s 1979 research on problem-oriented, rather than event-oriented, police tactics, proactive policing strategies were created in partnership with local law enforcement agencies, grant sources, and social service providers (Turney & Wakefield, 2019). Early advocates of problem-oriented policing, such as George Kelling, James Q. Wilson, and Goldstein, met, examined each other’s work, and advocated unique, though coinciding, practical regulating techniques for addressing gang violence, drug, and disorder violence.

Sex Offenders

A study done in Minnesota concluded that out of 105 sex lawbreakers, nine percent would re-offend in four years. The results also concluded that 28 percent of the sex offenders would commit this crime in their life past the four-year mark (Duwe, 2014). Sex offenses are incredibly severe crimes that have an impact on many people. Therefore, it can be said that these types of offenders should not have lighter offenses. This is where the selective part of the practice comes into play; because selective incapacitation analyzes the criminal and offense done, sex offenders will be seen as a danger to the public. High-risk sex offenders such as those who solicit sex from minors online should have the harshest sentencing under this practice as they are a massive danger to society and children in specific. However, sex crimes need to be looked at on a case-by-case basis. Sometimes, the offender is not dangerous but obtained a statutory rape charge because they were dating an age gap of one year, and the “victim’s” parents did not like the individual. Unfortunately, cases like this happen, and sometimes the charged must label being as sex offenders for their entire lives.

Drug Users

In addition, those guilty in possession of drugs should receive lesser sentences. Note: find a source to back this one up. However, drug offenders should be looked at under a more sensitive lens. If they are caught with illicit substances with the intention of distribution, then the law should not be lenient on them as they are pushing the plague of drug addiction in society. Those caught in possession with smaller amounts and with simple intents to do said drugs should receive more leniency with sentencing.

According to research, drug users should be treated as those with a disorderly condition (Fattore & Diana, 2016). Rather than send likely and potential drug addicts to prison where they will not learn anything, they should be sent to a drug rehab facility. They should be selected not to be incapacitated but rather focus on the rehabilitative aspect of the justice system. Although, it can also be argued that drugs can lead to violent crime; therefore, drug offenders should not be exempt from harsh sentencing. This is still a moot point as the whole point of selective incapacitation is crime prevention. If the offense were severe and involved drugs, of course, they would be given a harsh sentence. However, if they were caught with illicit substances, there is still time to cure them of their vice and, as a beneficial consequence, prevent the violent crimes drug addiction would cause. Though if the first drug offense puts them in prison for a lengthy amount of time, this would encourage them to engage in the cycle of recidivism. This is a result of the easy access to drugs in prison.

Cities, neighborhoods, and community centers have been in the forefront of crime reduction efforts on city streets, neighborhood blocks, and community centers for many years now. At the municipal and state levels, they partnered with national law enforcement researchers and academics to develop grant-funded community-based crime reduction programs as well as patrol experiments that were implemented (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). A specific police district was controlled by individual officers and unit commanders, who worked together to organize the clergy, social service providers, civic and corporate groups that operated in that particular police district. In metropolitan areas, communities of color have faced an increase in targeted surveillance and violence, while authorities have used community-based and service-oriented law enforcement strategies, as well as proactive preventative measures, to combat crime.

In the 1970s, as part of a more liberal approach to law and order, police officers and other law enforcement officials were encouraged to try out novel concepts such as community policing and police-community task forces with “respectable” communities and local partners. In the 1970s, nonprofit organizations such as the Police Foundation and PERF were founded as a consequence of financing from both public and private sources (Turney & Wakefield, 2019). These groups were founded as clearinghouses and training facilities for both local and international law enforcement personnel. The American Bar Foundation Survey on the Administration of Criminal Justice was undertaken in the early 1950s by well-known legal scholars and urban sociologists affiliated with the Foundation. The study relied on unprecedented field research and testing in major US cities as well as smaller local police departments.

A Racist System

Furthermore, this incapacitation model could be abused for racist purposes. According to research, African Americans are more likely to be sent to incarceration than Whites (Berk et al., 2020). As a result of the “rough on crime” agenda since the last quarter of the 20th century, 2.2 million have been incarcerated (Berk et al., 2020). When the math is done, it can be estimated that half of this number consists of African Americans. To add on, they must also deal with the harsh conditions of the American prison system. The violent atmosphere, the easy access to drugs and how likely it is to be addicted, and the guards’ abuses are all negative aspects to be avoided, so there certainly needs to be reform there. However, a point could be made that the severe offenders should be selected to these conditions to deter them and others from committing crimes in the first place.

To explain racial inequities in American elite’s criminal justice (including elected officials and academics) and associations aggressively encouraged the hierarchical assumption that Black Americans are essentially more “criminal” than others, whether due to genetics or culture. However, fundamental, hierarchy-eliminating racial equality gained popularity among the general people throughout time. Many white Americans felt that segregated public transportation should be maintained. Those white people should be given preferential treatment in the job market over black people in early U.S. national surveys on racial attitudes conducted in the 1940s (Turney & Wakefield, 2019). A few decades later, white Americans were so unanimous in their support for equal access to public transit and employment that identical questions in the following surveys were eliminated. Consequently, the rise in egalitarian racial attitudes tends to signal a move away from support for a more hierarchical, racially stratified society.

At the same time, the number of incarcerated ethnic minorities, most notably African Americans, started to rise. Inmates in U.S. jails and prisons surged from around 300,000 in 1970 to more than 2 million less than 30 years later (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). The number of African-Americans in prison climbed by 27 between 1983 and 2000 when mass incarceration was at its peak in the United States (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). A legal system founded on the systemic effect of racism is untenable in this new age of racial equality. Other reasons for our current racially stratified criminal justice systems are now necessary to account for systematic racial inequalities in criminal justice outcomes.

Logistical Problem

Another problem with selective incapacitation is it has no practical way to focus on the individual, only seeing things from a macro perspective (Monteiro & Frost, 2015). A way to remedy this would be to see something on a case-by-case basis on sentencing with psychological testing. Granted, this will cost extra, yet this is the price to pay to reform American society whatever sentences do not work, as seen by the recidivism rate. As there is no effective rehabilitation system for convicts, they have nowhere else to turn to aside from what they already know- crime.

To add on, the harsh sentences are handed out generally to every offender no matter what crime was done. This does not make any sense whatsoever if the goal is to combat crime yet also encourage minor offenders to commit more crimes simultaneously. Rather than target extreme dangers to society, the justice system seeks to punish all offenders; this, in turn, brings about unintended consequences with recidivists stuck in a cycle- unable to get a job, so they must rely on crime to feed themselves possibly their loved ones. It is a vicious system that is set up for failure (Monteiro & Frost, 2015). A possible reason is that this is done to allow access for borderline free labor with the American prison system. At the very least, these issues can be minimized by a large margin. Furthermore, minor offenders should also be paired up with a trade program to help them prepare to adjust back to society.


The prison system in Norway thrives more than in the United States. Norway also has lower recidivism rates than the U.S. (Sterbenz, 2014). They are more focused on treating what caused the criminal to do said crime rather than punishing them. The punishment is that they lose their freedom until their sentence is finished. A prisoner noted that prisoners would act how they are treated, i.e., if they are treated like animals, they will act as such (Sterbenz, 2014). It is common knowledge that the American prison system is unfavorable towards those convicted of crimes. Perchance a modifier with selective incapacitation would be that certain offenders receive special treatment depending on their offense. That is the point of selective incapacitation, to begin with.

The Goals of Selective Incapacitation

Given the intercounty variation in our identification approach, this part examines the pre- change disparities between high- and low-incarceration counties. Counties are divided into thirds based on their imprisonment rates before Realignment, and each is provided some basic descriptive information. The disparities between these three groups are remarkable, with average speeds of 234, 402, and 612 county citizens incarcerated in a state prison per 100,000 county population (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). Furthermore, these countries are distinct on several other levels. Poverty grows linearly in counties with low imprisonment rates. Before the Realignment, counties with high imprisonment rates had high violent and property crime rates.

According to one research, individuals in high-incarceration counties had a more unfavorable opinion of recent sentence changes, showing significant ideological divisions between the locations. According to a chart in this article, Proposition 36, a proposed amendment to California’s three-strike statute, had the most support from Californians in 2012. Provision for Scheme 36 is substantially inferior in high-incarceration regions, where the typical age is 70.2 percent, 65.2 percent, and 62.4 percent, respectively, in the top third, middle, and the bottom counties (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016).

Because of prison overcrowding, politicians have been forced to be more discriminating in picking criminals. Selective incapacitation advocates target and imprison a small number of violent criminals who commit a substantial number of crimes to minimize crime.

More research is needed to determine the study’s validity in choosing habitual offenders. The selection method and the data necessary to use might raise legal and philosophical concerns. Some of these problems have been raised in the context of expected future crimes rather than convictions and the potential that selection tools may be flawed by design or information input. Legally and philosophically, using a selection tool to achieve selective incapacity may be justified provided the selection is legal and the punishment imposed does not exceed the maximum duration authorized for the underlying crime. A mechanically operated instrument should never be utilized.

Recent changes in Selective Incapacitation

According to the annual-over-annual alteration prototypes for violent crime, a decrease in jail has hurt crime rates. Without accounting for county or month static effects, a statistically noteworthy estimation of 0.034 ferocious misconducts per 100,000 people averted each month may be constructed for every one-person upsurge in the jail imprisonment rate. As a result, the impact is decreased by roughly half when monthly fixed effects are included in the specification for this estimate. The 0.04 crime avoided per 100,000 estimate is somewhat higher but statistically significant when county-fixed variables are incorporated into the model (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). After correcting month and county fixed effects, the final specification shows a positive but statistically insignificant relationship.

The difference-in-difference categorization models show more minor variance in county imprisonment rates influencing county violent crime rates. Specific coefficients are not anticipated to be positive, and they are statistically insignificant in four of the five specifications. Only when we account for county fixed variables, and the local prison detention rate change does the coefficient have the anticipated sign and become statistically significant. However, when state-level trends are included in the specification, the coefficient is reduced to zero.

Mass Criminalization

Surveillance of persons of color is common, particularly of the poor and disadvantaged ethnic groups such as Blacks, Latinos, and Native Americans. The influence of police monitoring on crime rates and minority cynicism has received much attention in sociology and criminology. Being stopped, questioned, assaulted, and detained by police has become the norm in many Black communities. Ordinary uncomfortable police encounters are likely inexplicable to white citizens of prosperous regions.

From arrest through conviction and jail, the criminal justice system is riddled with racial and socioeconomic inequities. According to the most conservative estimates, direct discrimination, which is unaccounted for by lawful issues such as the nature of the offense or immoral record, accounts for a large share of these discrepancies (Lofstrom & Raphael, 2016). Racism, both implicit and explicit, is likely to have a role among judges and prosecutors.

Reducing prosecution authority and raising funding for public defense counsel are only a few of the many adjustments that are required. In addition to the piecemeal changes that have already been achieved, we must continue to consider reform and the role of the courts in the elimination of the police and prisons. Activists and philosophers such as Dorothy Roberts, Ruth Wilson Gilmore, and Angela Y. Davis talk of abolition. Instead of using police and prisons to tackle social problems and inequality, they push for a more just society. Investments in health care, education, and food security should be prioritized.

In New York, organizations such as the Center for Court Innovation are experimenting with alternatives to conventional criminal courts. These programs, founded on restorative justice ideas, aim to reach a mutually beneficial resolution between the injured party and the perpetrator. It is possible to abolish prisons and police forces via the courts. Suppose activists and elected officials fight to modify the institutional norms of the courts. In that case, they may result in people being freed from jail and resisting harsh police activities rather than accepting them.

Collective Incapacitation

There has been a lapse in the collective consciousness. It is essential that when someone commits a specific crime, they be treated uniformly to safeguard society as a whole. Consider the consequences of minimum wage regulations to understand collective incapacity better. A mandatory minimum prison term of a particular time is required for certain offenses (Rucker & Richeson, 2021). These punishments are imposed regardless of the defendant’s previous history or current circumstances (mitigating factors). Concerns about the degradation of justice due to judges’ inability to customize punishments to the individual and cases of their crimes make this kind of incapacity critical to examine more. In addition, collective incompetence contributes to jail overcrowding and expensive taxes and diverts funds away from other deterrence, enforcement, and rehabilitation tactics.

Furthermore, there is a great deal of controversy about the effect of mass incarceration on low-income areas. Mass imprisonment, according to some, has the effect of reducing crime by removing local predators and separating them from the rest of society. Many people, including those who believe that removing large numbers of young males from the community causes job market collapse, a lack of family unity, and strain on the community when men recently released from prison are reintegrated, believe that the benefits of “incapacity” are outweighed by “the deterioration of the very fabric of communities (Rucker & Richeson, 2021).” This disparity is noteworthy because it demonstrates that many black males are imprisoned compared to their white counterparts.


Over the past decade, there has been a surge in the study of incapacitation tactics to decrease crime. There are numerous estimations of potential crime decreases, each based on the researcher’s assumptions. During the 1970s and 1980s, collective incapacitation techniques in sentencing processes avoided between ten and thirty percent of prospective crimes (Rucker & Richeson, 2021). While expanding the use of imprisonment may help deter future crimes, measures such as mandatory minimum terms would result in a significant rise in the prison population. Convicted criminals who commit serious crimes will be targeted for jail under selective incapacitation tactics. It is difficult to identify these high-rate violent offenders using official criminal history data. If early research is adopted, selective incapacitation might reduce adult robberies by 5 to 10% while increasing the jail population (Rucker & Richeson, 2021). In light of current research and understanding of severe criminal conduct, the future of selective incapacitation is examined.

“Dangerous” criminals who conduct a disproportionately significant amount of criminal activity may be identified and hospitalized to keep them from committing other crimes. Furthermore, this approach exaggerates science’s ability to identify “career” criminals while underestimating the importance of institutional racism and societal instability in assuring a continual supply of offenders. While increasing society’s control over traditional criminals, rule changes exacerbate the long-term repercussions of incapacity by disregarding the necessity and desirability of offering non-incarceration options for enhancing offender care (Rucker & Richeson, 2021). In any case, a more favorable balance between incarceration and non-incarceration options is essential. The focus on “street” criminality in the guidelines obscures a lack of accountability for corporate and white-collar misdeeds.


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Duwe, G. (2014). To what extent does civil commitment reduce sexual recidivism? Estimating the selective incapacitation effects in Minnesota. Journal of Criminal Justice, 42(2), 193–202.

Fattore, L., & Diana, M. (2016). Drug addiction: An affective-cognitive disorder in need of a cure. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews65, 341–361.

Lofstrom, M., & Raphael, S. (2016). Crime, the Criminal Justice System, and Socioeconomic Inequality. The Journal of Economic Perspectives30(2), 103–126.

Monteiro, C. E., & Frost, N. A. (2015). Altering trajectories through community-based justice reinvestment. Criminology & Public Policy14(3), 455–463.

Rucker, J. M., & Richeson, J. A. (2021). Toward an understanding of structural racism: Implications for criminal justice. Science374(6565), 286-290.

Sterbenz, C. (2014). Why Norway’s prison system is so successful. Business insider11.

Turney, K., & Wakefield, S. (2019). Criminal Justice Contact and Inequality. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences5(1), 1–23.

Self-Marketing Plan Essay Example


Personal marketing is a crucial activity for a job seeker who is seeking for a new position to join. Higher education at colleges and universities is primarily concerned with instilling knowledge and skills into the brains of students. Following graduation, the student enters the job market to gain the necessary experience for the career in which he or she is interested in pursuing a degree. The student’s resume will be more valuable as a result of his or her work experience, which will be advantageous when high-paying career chances materialize later.

Career goals

Short term goal: graduating from the university with a degree in Human Resource Management

Long term goal: to be a senior successful Human resource manager in China in a period of 5 years.

Career objectives

This approach dictates that goals be time-bound and quantifiable to be considered SMART. To get to the level of senior H.R in China, which is my long-term ambition, within the next five years. The goal is to become a permanent resident of China. Thus, I want to relocate there within the following year. My goal is to achieve 6 points on the PTE or IELTS examinations to be assigned a professional year class during the following year. To stay up to date with changes in my field, I’ll be attending seminars and workshops. I plan to obtain a credential that will elevate my status inside the industry. I intend to sign up for weekend programs that teach students to understand more concepts about HR.


Skills/Qualities/Experience Planned activity.

  • The capacity to change one’s mind
  • Possess effective verbal and written communication abilities
  • Motivation and zeal for one’s work

Positioning statement

A future university graduate with a Bachelor’s degree in H.R hopes to further their knowledge and analytical abilities in a dynamic and realistic work environment. I want to be a senior Human Resource Manager at a well-respected and renowned Chinese company for my professional aspirations. As a result of my time at university, I am a highly driven and well-versed Human Resource (Narayanan, Chintagunta, & Miravete, 2007). While working as a part-time H.R manager in the past, I have gathered some knowledge of the field. A tour guide with more than five years of experience is more qualified for this role since I am fluent in English and Chinese. As an H.R, I believe these two traits will benefit me. The capacity to solve issues, imaginative thinking, judgment, and decision-making skills, as well as a rigorous way of thinking, are only a few of my strong traits. My profession relies on my ability to think critically and communicate my ideas to others. My mother is an H.R manager, so she will help me learn the ins and outs of the profession and serve as a mentor to me. A SWOT analysis was conducted for me to understand my market position better (Hermawati, 2020). My strengths include an adequate degree, some professional experience, multilingual expertise, and a family history of the field. Because I will be operating in a foreign entity without permanent residency status, I lack China ethnic heritage, and I have yet to develop significant experience in the industry.


Product, promotion, price, and location are the four Ps of marketing used in a private placement in a professional path. P’s may be transformed into physical clues, demeanor, preferences, and prowess as outlined above.


Currently, I have two degrees: a bachelor’s degree in tourism and hospitality management and an undergrad degree in H.R from the People’s Republic of China.

General Mental Capability: I am a hard worker, brave, and an impressionable young man with a lot of room for growth in my career. Adventure, psychology, and curiosity have taught me as a former tour guide. Even though my H.R career is still in its inception, I feel I can rise to the position of senior H.R (Narayanan, Chintagunta, & Miravete, 2007).

Physical Cues

I am a 26-year-old man of Chinese descent in terms of my physical characteristics. Due to workplace inequities, I know that my gender might harm my career prospects. I am also mindful that my young age might contribute to prejudice in the workplace, much as my race.

My height is 1.56 m, and my weight is 62 kg. Concerns about weight prejudice in recruiting and selection criteria have me concerned. As an alternative, one’s stature is seen as a symbol of self-worth and a predictor of future success in leadership roles and the workplace. Because I am a man, my attractiveness can positively impact how people evaluate my competence, likeability, management potential, and earning power. Research suggests that other variables such as professional look, hygiene, beardedness, and skin scars send messages to potential and present employers.


As a young person, I have a wide range of personality traits: I am optimistic, accessible, assertive, autonomous, amusing, straight-shooting, and fearless. Personal integrity, identity, and accountability are my core beliefs and principles. Justice, equality, liberty, and national pride are values I hold dear as a socially conscious individual.


I plan to rely heavily on social media channels, including LinkedIn, for my marketing efforts. To get the most out of this website, I need to create a professional-looking CV highlighting my experience, education, and training. Starting with the fundamentals, such as the correct e-mail address, photo, demographic details, and location, I will begin to construct an attractive profile. I intend to create a shape to give the most excellent possible impression of my abilities and qualifications (Lóio, 2021). To achieve this, I will look at the profiles of more than 50 great H.R managers to gain ideas for my own. After that, I’ll start connecting with people in my personal and professional networks, such as my family, school, and professional network. In addition, I want to solicit the support and endorsements of friends and colleagues by asking them to speak well of my abilities.

Additionally, I’ve come to see the value of joining LinkedIn groups and subscribing to the company news feeds of companies where I’d like to work. I plan to rely heavily on social media channels, including LinkedIn, for my marketing efforts. To get the most out of the site, I’ll begin by creating a résumé that showcases my talents, competence, and education. Starting with the fundamentals, such as the correct e-mail address, photo, demographic details, and location, I will begin to construct an attractive profile (Gumbs, 1999). I intend to create a shape to give the most excellent possible impression of my abilities and qualifications. To achieve this, I’ll look at the profiles of more successful H.R manager to gain ideas for my own. Connecting with people I know and trust is the next step in building my brand. Requesting endorsements and suggestions from others is also something I plan to do. Additionally, I’ve come to see the value of joining LinkedIn groups and subscribing to the company news feeds of companies where I’d like to work.

Evaluation and contingencies

International students face several legal hurdles in the process. So, I estimate that it will take me around 18 months to land the position I desire. I’ll need the means to keep tabs on the progress of my job hunt because I’ll be sending out a lot of resumes. This is why I’m making an excel file to keep track of all the places I’ve applied to and how they are responding (Brennan, Felekis, & Goldring, 2003). I’ll include the firms that have contacted me for an interview, as well as those that haven’t contacted me. I will look into keeping tabs on how well my job hunt is going. To keep track of all the places I’ve applied to, I will build an Excel spreadsheet. I’ll list the firms I’ve been interviewed by and those I haven’t. Getting a job will be a lot easier after I figure out what exactly is standing in my way. I’m going to brush up on my email and phone skills to better follow up on job applications.

As a foreigner, I may have to wait longer to work as an H.R manager in China. As a result, I set a time limit of three years before switching up my approach to job hunting. I’ll look at ways to monitor my job search’s progress. To keep track of all the places I’ve applied to, I will make an excel spreadsheet. I’ll list the firms I’ve been interviewed by and those I haven’t. Getting a job will be a lot easier after I figure out what exactly is standing in my way. I’ll look at ways to monitor my job search’s progress (Czaplicki et al.,2020). This is why I’m making an excel file to keep track of all the places I’ve applied to and how they are responding. I’ll list the firms I’ve been interviewed by and those I haven’t. Getting a job will be a lot easier after I figure out what exactly is standing in my way. In addition, I plan to enhance my graduate-level abilities by gaining new knowledge and working on a variety of projects. I’ll be able to see my strengths and weaknesses in a new light due to the qualities.

SWOT analysis


When competing for job openings and chances in the job market, a recent college graduate might draw on a variety of strengths. When a company is looking to fill an open position or make an offer, a new employee has the relevant education and experience. For a person to graduate from college and be eligible to apply for a job, they must have completed four years of university education. Four years of training is a considerable amount of time, and it provides ample opportunity for students to acquire the knowledge and abilities required for the types of professions that are directly connected to their training (Zhu, 2020). For this reason, a recent college grad is the best candidate for a job opening since he or if she has the necessary education and experience.

Second, a recent university grad brings an eagerness to study and a thirst for knowledge to the table. Candidates who have just graduated from college or university have better morals than those who graduated many years ago. Fear and worry about the outside world is a major factor in this trait’s development. According to a student’s perspective, real life is more difficult than the academic and educational environment, and so they are more willing to comply with an employer’s standards in order to avoid the difficulties of life in general (Calzada, 2020). Disciplinary applicants are widely sought after by companies, who see them as very promising employees who merit the trust of their bosses. Naivety and dread of the repercussions of the real world are a graduate trainee’s best asset.

Another factor contributing to their strong drive to make money is their significant budgetary deficits associated with the material objects they wish to obtain. To put it another way, they’re more eager to work for money because they’ve just graduated from college, and so have less negotiating leverage when it comes to higher wages than those who have been in the workforce for some time.


Fresh graduates have the toughest challenge in today’s employment market because of the high level of competition. As a means of gaining more information and securing a better employment position, many students pursue advanced degrees such as masters, doctorates, and other certificate programs. With no prior work experience to bolster their credentials, recent grads face an uphill battle in the job market. In today’s society, education appears to have taken a new direction. People used to attend to colleges and universities to better their intellectual capacity till a few decades ago. Among the learned, there was no fierce rivalry because everyone liked applying their knowledge to a specific field of specialty, and employers rewarded promotions merit based in an employee’s contributions to the workplace.

However, today’s world appears to have adopted a different course of action. For the vast majority of people, education is not only a means of gaining wisdom and information, but it is also a means of gaining work advantages like raises and bonuses. The majority of people are now pursuing higher education in order to improve their prospects for advancement and raises at their current workplaces as a result of this unusual situation. The result is a rise in college conspiracies as educational institutions aim to expand student enrollment for financial gain, but not for the sake of providing high-quality education (Membiela-Pollán, Martinez-Fernandez, & Juanatey-Boga, 2019). There’s a growing trend among companies to need master’s degree as a condition of employment, which is a dramatic shift from the last few decades when degrees were seen as a necessity for employment.

Secondly, new grads lack the experience that many businesses are looking for when it comes to finding a new job. Some career possibilities need highly qualified people, which discourages recent grads from applying. Such a practice humiliates recent grads, but it benefits companies by providing them with access to highly competent workers. Tertiary education does not adequately prepare students for high-skilled jobs, preventing them from competing for them. The absence of financial resources is a common problem among recent college grads. Many students dream of starting their own enterprises after they leave college, but they are unable to do so because of a lack of funds. As a result, they are unable to provide employment chances unless they first look for work to earn the money needed to establish their own businesses.


In the SWOT analysis timetable for new graduates, there are always new jobs that demand new graduates. Every new graduate’s ultimate goal is to get a job among the many job opportunities that are always available and begin planning for the future from what he or she gets from that job. In the end, it is up to the candidate to select the best possible work opportunity from the list of available job listings. Fresh graduates are well-prepared for a wide range of jobs that fall within their areas of competence. As a result, companies that offer them the chance to work will find that they perform better than older graduates. An employee’s suitability for a job opportunity hinges on his or her ability to acquire knowledge and skills.


Competition in the job market is the greatest threat to a newly minted college grad looking for a job. Due to the large number of highly educated citizens in society, this level of competition has arisen. Fresh graduates, on the other hand, have few employment options, and this feature threatens their prospects of finding work. Fresh graduates are less likely to land a job because they lack the education and experience of those who have been working for a longer period of time.

The lack of experience that most employers demand from job applicants is the second greatest threat to a recent college grad in their search for employment. Immersion to working environments provides applicants with the opportunity to learn about the working environments and conditions in which they will be working (Firmansyah, et al.,2020). As a result, recent college grads are unable to apply for jobs that need previous work experience. Personal marketing plans should include a clear mission statement that serves as both a source of inspiration for the individual and a vehicle for showcasing the individual’s unique marketing abilities to potential employers. When I started working at the firm, my goal statement reads: To follow the company’s policy and rules as stated in the company’s rules and regulations declarations, while providing my best effort in line with my rightful judgments. Additionally, I’m responsible for promoting the firm to the outside world by ensuring that excellent products and services are consistently produced under my direction in order to maximize shareholder wealth and enhance the company’s external reputation.

Marketing mix

As a recent college grad, I’ll have a hard time figuring out how best to promote myself in order to land a job. For this reason, I’m going to advertise myself in fields where my experience, skillsets, and training are in high demand rather than ones where they aren’t, in order to get an advantage over other job seekers. When it comes to my strengths, I am most qualified in areas that I’ve studied in college, and I am certain that I can outperform my closest opponents because of the abilities and information I’ve gained. As a result, I should feel confident applying for jobs in fields where I know I can provide the high-quality services my employer requires.

Consumer goods package and manufacturing industries are two of the most common industries in which I can find employment. With its recent ranking as the industry’s most profitable and competitive consumer packaging firm, Procter & Gamble is my primary target. The firm provides its employees with a generous compensation package and a variety of training options based on their performance. In my heart, I want to work for Procter and Gamble, and I vow to do my best to help the firm grow and prosper. An essential part of job-hunting as a recent college grad is market mix. I’ll focus on the product, pricing, and promotion components of the marketing mix. The product, viz. a degree in industrial chemistry, is my fundamental product that I need to advertise in the employment market (Dubey, 2019). With a degree, it’s easier to land a job, but the training that follows is often considerably different from what a student would receive after graduating from a four-year university.

Personally, I believe that my academic credentials are the sole thing that can offer my knowledge and talents to possible employers in the industrial sector. However, it has the potential to expand if I begin my master’s degree at a university in the near future. This indicates that I intend to pursue my education in order to achieve a competitive advantage in the sector and a position from which I can easily negotiate a high wage.

Secondly, a product has a set price when it is released to the public. Therefore, I established a minimum pay that I am willing to accept from possible companies since I value my academic skills so highly. The following pricing technique was used to come up with the lowest wage amount that I am willing to accept. To get an idea of the total cost of my university degree, I tallied up the number of years of study I’ve done and discovered that I’ve spent a total of over $100,000. I sought for a venue where I could use my degree certificate as supporting documentation to advertise my expertise. Most job listings in the newspapers and ads require at least five years of experience, which I lack, yet I am in desperate need of a job. The posted employment prospects were not enough for me, so I walked into the HR offices of the firms I wanted to work for and sold myself as an asset. It’s a risky move that only a select few recent college grads do.

I feel this notion of getting inside the HR departments of individual firms is a good one. History has shown that one brave individual who entered Thomas Edison’s office, creator of the light bulb, was able to become his partner and worried less about what kind of employment he could acquire at first. He was fortunate enough to seize on an opportunity and join Thomas Edison’s team as a business partner. It is stories like this that spur me on, since I know that the same thing might happen to me if I entered their offices and presented my credentials to possible employers.

Fourth, I investigate how I might use my expertise and experience to promote other people’s products. Using product promotion as a marketing tool is critical because it provides the producer with a direct line of communication with the target audience. It was my goal to showcase my unique set of experiences, expertise, and abilities in such a way that I would stand out from the crowd of other job searchers. I aspired to get involved in humanitarian causes like environmental management and build a network of sponsors who would eventually hire me into their businesses. Regardless of whether or not the position is in my field of expertise, I am confident that one of the two methods of product marketing outlined above will lead to my employment.


My personal marketing strategy’s final and most critical phase is implementation. To ensure that I achieve my goal of finding a job, I have already devised a plan for marketing my talents and expertise. My plan is to join a social community group that focuses on environmental conservation and lobbying against environmental degradation and participate in social work as soon as possible, according to my schedule. Meanwhile, I’ll be going door-to-door in the HR departments of various organizations, as per my second plan.


In conclusion, this research has demonstrated that creating a thorough personalized marketing plan is essential and challenging due to the apparent time and effort. Here, I’ve laid down my short- and long-term professional goals, as well as my skills, shortcomings, possibilities, and limitations. Recruiters and potential employers will note my professional accomplishments if I have a marketing strategy in place. Before designing a plan to acquire a job, you should first draft a mission statement and analyze the existing circumstances. The four P’s (product, location, pricing, and promotion) are the building blocks of a successful marketing strategy. All of this has been detailed in great detail in the report that was just delivered.


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