Ru486 Research Paper Messenger The Term Free Writing Sample

Ru-486 Essay, Research Paper


The term angel derives from a Grecian interlingual rendition of the Hebrew word mal ’ akh, which foremost meant “ Shadow side of God, ” and now means courier ( Jeremiah 59 ) . Angels as an article of religion have become an unshakeable portion of our society. One in every 10 popular vocals involves angels in some manner ( Freeman 2 ) . They appear in pictures and in museums as sculptures. Our civilization is filled with angels that appear on vesture, cards, or as keepsakes, and jewellery. It would be sensible to presume that one might happen the most information about angels in the Christian Bible. However, the bible lone references three angels by name and really contains really small information about these existences. Almost all of the information we have about beatific properties comes from the three great Chronicles of Enoch. In these histories Enoch describes his journey to the 10 Heavens where he saw angels in Eden ’ s penal and punishment country, penalizing evildoers. His position was that snake pit existed in little pockets that were distributed throughout heaven. This position was non consistent with the ulterior Church that believed heaven and hell were two separate topographic points. Because of this, St. Jerome declared these texts apocryphal ( Godwin 9 ) . However, a batch of stuff from these histories appears in the New Testament. Though much of what we know presently about what angels are and what they do is based on misconception and myth, the concern of this paper is with the genus Angelus Occidentalis. This is the term used to depict a figure of beatific species and sub-species in Judaism, Islam, and Christianity ( Godwin 7 ) . The term angel describes non merely the benevolent forces of Eden but besides the malevolent forces of snake pit. When Lucifer fell from heaven a supposed one tierce of the angels sided and fell with him. One 3rd remained in Eden, and one third were impersonal ( Godwin 149 ) . The focal point of this paper will be on the angels of Eden who make up the heavenly hierarchy and the fallen angles of snake pit.

The creative activity of the beatific hierarchy is attributed to Pseudo-Dionysius. St Ambrose is responsible for the classs of angels which were taken from traditions whose beginnings are lost in clip ( Bloom 59 ) . There are three hierarchies, each with three orders. The Upper Triad: Seraphim, Cherubim, and Thrones. The Middle Triad: Dominations, Virtues, and Powers. The Lowest Three: Principalities, Archangels, and Angels ( Guiley 17 ) .

The Upper Triad: The first three seems to be centered around a cardinal nucleus of pureness and visible radiation, closest to God. It is merely in the 3rd choir, the last choir of the three that affair begins to look.

The First Choir – Seraphim: These angels are the highest of God ’ s beatific order. Their names mean “ firing 1s ” ( Lang 49 ) . The lone reference of Seraphs in the Bible is Isa 6:2. They circle the throne of God intoning in Hebrew the Trisagion “ Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh, ” which is “ Holy, Holy, Holy is the Lord of Hosts, the whole Earth is full of His Glory ” ( Godwin 25 ) . The Seraphim are identified with the snake or firedrake. They are in direct Communion with God and are of such pure idea and visible radiation, they resonate with “ the fire of love ” ( Guiley 17 ) . They are known as the “ ardent winging snakes of lightning, ” who “ howl like king of beastss ” ( Godwin 25 ) . When these angels appeared to the prophesier Isaiah, he described them as flaring angels above the throne of God: “ Each had six wings: two

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covered the face, two covered the pess and two were used for winging ” ( Lang 49 ) . It is said that the archangel Michael was a Seraph. The Seraphim head is said to be either Metatron or Lucifer ; others are said to be Kemuel, Nathanael, and Gabriel ( Bloom 61 ) . Their ultimate end is in steering those below to God ( Guiley 17 ) .

The Second Choir – Cherubim: The Hebrew word for cherub was kerub intending “ one who intercedes ” or “ knowledge. ” Cherubs are frequently depicted as pudgy, cunning babe angels. But in the bible they are depicted as amazing, awful animals. John of Patmos says they have six wings and opened eyes all over there organic structures ( Bloom 60 ) . Although originally they are described as holding four wings and four caputs, sometimes with eyes that cover their organic structures ( Lang 51 ) . The Christian Bishop of Heraclea, Theodorus, says the Cherubim are “ Animals that might terrorize Adam from the entryway of Eden ( Godwin 28 ) . Gabriel and Raphael are two of the most outstanding cherubim ( Bloom 60 ) .

The Third Choir – Thrones: Thrones are mentioned merely one time in the bible in Colossians 1:16. Pseudo-Dionysius supplied the remainder of the information. He wrote that thrones “ transport God ” they support the Godhead will ( Lang 306 ) . They appear to be God ’ s chariots. They are described as great “ wheels ” or “ many-eyed ones. ” The swayer of this order is thought to be Raphael. It is at this point in the hierarchy that “ Heaven meets Earth and takes on substance of the flesh ” and here begins the possibility of corruptness ( Godwin 31 ) .

The Middle Triad: The in-between three is when affair with its corruptness raises tenseness between mutual oppositions of good and bad, and affair and psyche. The orders in this three seem to endeavor for a balance and to accommodate such antonyms, “ and all are prone to the hazard of corruptness in making so ” ( Jeremiah 107 ) .

The Fourth Choir – Dominions: Are the oldest of original angels ( Bloom 61 ) . They are merely mentioned one time in the bible in Paul ’ s missive to the Colossians. However, Paul supplied no information about them. What we know comes once more from writer Pseudo-Dionysius. He describes rules as angels of freedom, act uponing earthly authoritiess to uphold God. He claimed besides that they regulate beatific responsibilities ( Lang 307 ) . The swayers are said to be Zadkiel, Hashmal, Yahriel, and Muriel ( Godwin 32 ) .

The Fifth Choir – Virtues: Known as the “ Brilliant or Shining Ones ” , Virtues are the guardian angels Jesus negotiations about in Matthew 18:10. They were the two angels who appeared in the Ascension of Christ as his bodyguards. Two virtuousnesss besides acted as accoucheuses in the birth of Cain ( Godwin 32 ) . They work miracles on Earth. They provide worlds with bravery when it is needed most. They are frequently associated with heroes and those who fight for the will of God ( Bloom 61 ) . The swayers of this order are said to be Micha-el, Gabri-el, Rapha-el, Bari-el, Tarhish, and before the rebellion, Satan-el ( Godwin 32 ) .

The Sixth Choir – Powers: Duibtsuys says that “ Powers ” means “ good ordered and precise

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passage of what has been received from God ” ( Guiley 18 ) . Powers assist psyches go forthing the organic structure who get lost in the stellar plane. They appear to move like a guard patrol who keep a changeless expression out for devils who try to take over this universe. Powers find their true career in equilibrating antonyms. Their swayer is said to be Cama-el who himself is said to be one of the seven angels who stand in the presence of God, but he is besides identified as the Duke of snake pit. “ He is commander of 144,000 angels of Punishment, Vengeance, and Death. Whether these are in the service of God or the Devil remains unsure ” ( Godwin 32-33 ) .

The Lowest Three: The 3rd three is the 1 most closely located to our material existence. This might explicate why all three orders are the most vulnerable to corruptness. Besides this may explicate why the angels from this three are so good known to us, because they are the most like us ( Jeremiah 110 ) .

The Seventh Choir – Principalities: Principalities are said to be the defenders of faith ( Lang 308 ) . It is said they besides watch over leaders of states, authorities functionaries, or states themselves ( Bloom 61 ) . It is unsure who the swayer of this order is. Two possibilities are Ana-el and Hami-el.

The Eighth Choir – Archangel: The Magnificent Seven consists of Gabriel, Michael, Rapha-el, and Uri-el. There is a difference about who the other three are. They are chosen from Metatron, Remi-el, Sari-el, Ana-el, Ragu-el, and Razi-el ( Lang 308 ) . ” Dionysius tells that archangels are ‘ Messengers of Divine Decrees ’ they are considered the most of import intercessionaries be

tween God and humans” ( Godwin 36 ) . The archangels are able to command the hosts of Heaven in their changeless conflicts with the boies of darkness ( Guiley 19 ) . Michael and Gabriel, the lone female archangel, are the lone two archangels mentioned in the old testament by name ( Godwin 36 ) . Most of what we know about angels comes from the history worlds have about the Archangels. There is so much information about the archangels that a separate research paper about them entirely would be required to explicate more of what I have come to larn about each of the Archangels.

The Ninth Choir – Angels: These angels are sometimes besides known as the guardian angels mentioned in Psalms 91:11 ( Guiley 18 ) . These angels are couriers who arrive bearing God ’ s decree ( Bloom 61 ) . These angels are the closest to us and furthest off from God. It is said that they were all created on the 2nd twenty-four hours of creative activity and are immortal ( Godwin 68 ) .

Lucifer is said to hold fallen through bubris which is a combination of lechery and pride ( Lang 73 ) . It is said that one tierce of the angels in Eden fell along with him ( Godwin 149 ) . A supposed nine ten percents of angels from the order Watchers which the bishop of Paris in the 13thcentury believed were a distinguishable, separate ten percent order fell due to crave. They were the angels that were said to hold lusted after the girls of Cain and produced elephantine progeny ( Lang 73 ) . It is said that the higher the original place in Eden the deeper the angels fell ( Jeremiah 203 ) . Here

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is a sum-up of some of the angels from the nine orders in Eden who fell.

The Seven Princes of Hell: Baal-beryth: The ex-prince of the cherubim. Now Master of all Infernal Ceremonies. Dumah: Angel of “ Silence of Death. ” He is said to hold been the defender of Egypt during the Hebrew flight from Egypt. Sariel: Claimed to be an archangel of Eden but governments agree he spends a batch of clip in snake pit. He was expelled from Eden for learning the Canaanite priestesses the tides and classs of the Moon. Mephistopheles: “ He who hates the light ” or the “ fallacious ” destroyer. Once an archangel he has sometimes stood in for Satan in the Holy Presence. He is said to hold faultless manners, a smooth lingua, and a philosophic position of things, tinged with sorrow. Rofocale: Prime Minister of the Infernal Region. He has control over the wealth of the universe. Meririm: Prince of the Power of Air, a rubric he portions with Lucifer. Rahab: “ The Violent One. ” Early in creative activity the Almighty ordered Rahab to divide the Waterss. Rahab refused so God destroyed him. He was someway resurrected because he appeared once more when assisting the Egyptian Pharaoh stop the Hebrews from traversing the Red Sea. Once once more God destroyed him. And it is said that he was once more resurrected and is the Angel of Insolence and Pride.

Angels of Punishment: Dumah: ( from above ) . Ksiel: “ Rigid one of God ” who punishes the states with a whip of fire. Lahatiel: “ The Flaming One ” who presides over the Gatess of decease. Shaftiel: Lord of the Shadow of Death and justice of God. Makkiel: “ Plague of God. ” Chitriel: “ Rod of God. ” Puriel: “ Fiery and Pitiless Angel of God ” who is said to examine and torture psyches.

Arch-She-demons: Astarte: “ Venus in the Morning, ” “ The Morning Star of Heaven, ” and “ Queen of the Stars. ” She was transformed by Christians into the male Duke of Hell, Astaroth. Proserpine: “ Queen of the she-demons. ” Barhelo: Daughter of the female aeon, Pistis-Sophia. Her offense is unknown. Leviathan: The coiled pandemonium she-dragon. Leviathan is subsequently masculinized by medieval authors going “ king ” over all of the kids of pride. Manifests as the crocodile or crooked serpent.

Satan ’ s brides: Agrat-Mahlaht and Eisheth Zenunim: Angels of Prostitution. Lilth: the supposed first married woman of Adam. She is said to hold been excessively much for Adam. She would non hold sex with him in missional place. She was bored of him and alternatively took up the company of devils. She is said to be Satan ’ s favourite. Naamah: “ Pleasurable, ” the most sexual of Satan ’ s four married womans. She is said to be the sister of Tubal-Cain and Noah.

Arch-Demons or Archangels of Hell: Adrameleck: “ King of Fire ” who is bearded, eagle- winged, and lion-bodied. Carnivean: Once a Prince of Powers. Was one of devils cited as holding possessed the organic structure of Sister Seraphica of Loudon. Python: “ Prince of the lying spirits. ” Sut: Devil of Flies. Kesef: An angel of wrath who attacked Moses at Horeb. It was Kesef who was imprisoned by Aaron. Moloch: Once known as a Caananite God. It was to this God that tribes offered their first born boies in the fires of his shrine. Dubbiel:

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Once the guardian angel of Persia. Mammon: The prince of Tempters. Appears to be the Satan of Avarice and Greed. Rimmon: The “ roarer. ” Once an archangel of Eden who commanded lightning and storms.

Dukes of Hell: Agares: Appears as an old adult male on a crocodile and transporting on his arm a Accipiter gentilis. Aniquiel: Named as the snake in the Garden of Paradise. Ashmedai: An ex- Cherubim he is considered reasonably harmless. He is thought to be more of a philosopher so evil. Asmodeus: “ Being of Judgement. ” Astaroth: Evergreen state once the female Astarte. Balam: Once belonging to the order of Dominations. He is now a devil with the caput of a adult male, random-access memory, bull, and the tail of a snake. Byleth: Once a Prince of Powers. Belphegor: Once a Prince of the order of Principalities. Known as the guardian devil of Paris. Furcalor: Once of the order of Thrones, he is known as the great killer of work forces. Isis: Was an Egyptian Mother Goddesses. The mediaeval church deemed Isis a devil. Kakabel: Once an beatific prince who was an astrologist and uranologist. Salmael: Once of the order of Angels. Haroth: Once of the order of Angels he fell in love with a mortal adult female, Zorba and revealed the concealed name of God to her. Forneus: Once of the order of Thrones he causes love in his enemies. Raym: Once of the order of Thrones. Lahash: Once led 184 liquors to halt the supplications of Moses from making God. For this he received 70 blows of fire and was expelled from Eden as penalty. Gazarniel: An angel of fire who chose to come in snake pit voluntarily. It is said that he has formed an confederation with Lahash.

However beautiful and amazing angels might foremost look, there decidedly seems to be a complexness of organisation and unknowable enigmas that may take an extended sum of clip to understand. And so there are ever the constructs that reveal the restrictions to which our human heads can non make. In researching the long established thoughts about angels that have been a portion of Judaism and Christianity since they began, the religious universe no longer seems black and white. Alternatively there is an full Grey country unfastened to be explored. It is said one tierce of the angels are impersonal, and angels in the lower three are really susceptible to corruptness and many autumn due to crave. Fallen angels punish evildoers in snake pit. Are they making God ’ s work or Satan ’ s? This gray country is another topic wholly but in researching the complexness of the religious universe some inquiries have been answered, but many have been formed. In the Old Testament before the Christian belief that there is a individual separate force for immorality and one good God. God was responsible for creative activity and devastation, God encompassed both black and white. In Isaiah 45:7 God says “ I form the Light and make Darkness ; I make Peace and make evil. ”


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Bloom, Harold. Omens of Millenium. New York: Riverhead, 1996.

Freeman, Eileen Elias. Touched by Angels. New York: Warner, 1993.

Godwin, Malcolm. Angels: An Endangered Species. New York:

Simon and Schuster, 1990.

Guiley, Rosemary Ellen. An Encyclopedia of Angels. New York:

Facts on File, 1996.

Jeremiah, David. What The Bible Says About Angels. Sisters:

Multnomah, 1996.

Lang, J. Stephen. 1,001 Things You Always Wanted to Know About

Angels, Demons, and the Afterlife. Nashville: Thomas Nelson,


Computer Technology: Intrusion Prevention System

Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) is a proactive security technology that offers network-level protection. It serves as the initial defense against malware. Merely relying on a firewall is insufficient for safeguarding a network. To mitigate potential risks and attacks, an organization requires additional protection. By scrutinizing all network traffic permitted by the firewall, an Intrusion Prevention System provides an extra layer of security. Initially, Intrusion Prevention Systems primarily focused on safeguarding against operating system threats, denial of service, and distributed denial of service attacks.

In the past, threats primarily targeted vulnerabilities in operating systems and services. However, with improved resilience, these components are now less susceptible. Yet, as web browsers and plug-ins play a larger role in online activities on PCs, users heavily depend on them to access websites and services. This change has created new chances for hackers to exploit flaws in applications. As a result, attacks increasingly concentrate on web browsers, document viewers, media players, and similar applications.

Some websites do not have enough security measures, making them easy targets for attacks when users visit. These attacks can lead to the downloading of malware onto legitimate web pages. Users can get infected by being tricked into visiting malicious sites through scams, fake emails from sources they know, or messages on social media platforms. These examples show how easily users are led to dangerous sites. To protect against these threats, an Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) has the intelligence to keep the system safe from vulnerabilities.

The Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) not only scans all network traffic, but also provides specific browser protection. Before implementing an IPS, it is crucial to determine the target of protection, which typically includes an organization’s applications and servers. However, the network administrator should also consider safeguarding desktops, routers, switches, mail servers, DNS servers, and other connected devices. When deploying an IPS for the first time, it is important to manage expectations and avoid overly aggressive planning.

It is advisable to focus on perimeter and external services, such as FTP, email, and Web services. The most crucial services and resources should be prioritized, as relying solely on a firewall for protection is not practical or sufficient. Once you have identified what needs to be protected, you can then consider the potential threats you want to safeguard against. While an organization might have some form of defense against Trojan and worm attacks, they may lack protection for critical processes like application attacks or insider attacks, which pose internal threats.

In order to have a successful IPS deployment, it is essential to define the specific threats that need to be protected against. Having a thorough understanding of the potential threats that could harm your environment is crucial for determining the deployment requirements. Exploits, spyware, and malware often fall into certain classifications, which can infiltrate an organization’s system. Properly categorizing these threats allows them to be effectively addressed as a whole, rather than individually. Furthermore, threats often exhibit similar behavior patterns in terms of their actions, infections, and spreading mechanisms.

In order to ensure a successful deployment of an IPS, the administrator must dedicate time to customize it for the organization’s specific environment. The placement of sensors plays a crucial role in maximizing their effectiveness. Any vulnerable areas within the organization’s infrastructure or applications should be considered. Typically, IPS devices are positioned behind firewalls and WAN routers, in front of server farms, or at other network access points.

The provided IPS architecture demonstrates protection at various points, including internet access, desktops accessing application servers, database servers, email servers, and DNS servers. These areas commonly require an additional layer of security. By utilizing different sensors, the network administrator can fine-tune the IPS to prevent attacks, manage network traffic, and receive alerts when a threat or attack occurs, allowing for appropriate action to be taken.

In summary, a successful IPS design and deployment necessitates comprehending the organization’s real-time threat protection requirements, identifying optimal placement points for the IPS deployment, investing time in correctly fine-tuning the system, and conducting an evaluation of the overall system usage. The goal is to ensure optimal protection for the company’s system and minimize vulnerability to threats and attacks. Incorporating an IPS with other protective devices and software can effectively reduce the organization’s vulnerabilities.

Analysis Of Variance

The dependent variables are Cognitive (COG), Affective (AFFECT) and Behavioral (BEHAVE). 2 Why is a one-way between-subject NOVA appropriate to use for this research design? HINT: Consider the number of Avis and the number of DVD for your answer. Here the number of independent variable is 1 but the numbers of dependent variables are more than 1 so when the number of dependent is more than 1, the appropriate technique is one-way between-subjects NOVA 3 Did you find any errors that the researcher made when setting up the SPAS data file (don’t forget to check the variable view)?

If so, what did you find? How did you correct it? HINT: YES! The Measures (for scale of measurement) is wrong for each of the 4 variables! You need to indicate what was wrong and what should be the correct measures. All the four variables are shown as Nominal variable but in actual the COUNTRY should be a nominal variable and Cognitive (COG), Affective (AFFECT) and Behavioral (BEHAVE) should be scale variables. The scale of these variables is changed before the analysis. 4 Perform Initial Data Screening. What did you find regarding missing values, universal outliers, multivariate outliers, normality? . What should you consider when you find these kinds of outcomes? HINTS: For missing values, see Case Processing Summary Universal outliers: inspect box plots Multivariate outliers: Don’t forget to create the Case ID variable to do this analysis. Then, perform a regression analysis with Classed as the DVD and Country as the IV in order to compute the Inhalations distance measures. Be sure to click Save when you are setting up the regression so the regression scores will be saved to a new variable (automatically named AMAH 1).

Then, Explore AMAH 1 scores, remembering to check the “Outliers” box that is found with Plots. This will give you information about multivariate outliers. Normality: Examine the keenness and kurtosis values for each dependent variable: Examining the histograms Examine the Shapiro-Wills’ results SPAS Output is given below for above question: There is no missing value in the dataset. All 105 records are completed. The same can be seen from Case Processing Summary. From the box plots we can see that there are some outliers in the data for these three dependent variables.

Most of the outliers are presented in the Industrial country as compare to Non- industrial country. The Inhalations Distance showed the outliers in the extreme value tables. It means that there are outliers presented in the data. The data is normally distributed as shown by the histogram. The From the above descriptive statistics of Cognitive variable, we can see that the mean is 7. 98 with standard deviation as 1. 623. The keenness value is -0. 656 which is smaller than O. It means that the distribution is right skewed because most values are concentrated on the left of the mean, with extreme values to the right.

The kurtosis value is -0. 253 which is less than 3. It means that distribution is Plasticity because the arability for extreme values is less than for a normal distribution, and the values are wider spread around the mean. The p-value for Shapiro-Will is 0. 000 which is less than 0. 05; it means that data is not normally distributed. The same result can be obtained from the plot of Histogram. For Affective variable, we can see that the mean is 7. 98 with standard deviation as 2. 308. The keenness value is -1 . 134 which is smaller than O.

It means that the distribution is right skewed because most values are concentrated on the left of the mean, with extreme values to the right. The kurtosis value is 0. 50 which is less than 3. It means that distribution is Plasticity because the probability for extreme values is less than for a normal distribution, and the values are wider spread around the mean. The p-value for Shapiro-Will is 0. 000 which is less than 0. 05; it means that data is not normally distributed. The same result can be obtained from the plot of Histogram. For Behavioral variable, we can see that the mean is 7. With standard deviation as 2. 28. The keenness value is -0. 919 which is smaller than 0. It means on the left of the mean, with extreme values to the right. The kurtosis value is 0. 24 which is less than 3. It means that distribution is Plasticity because the probability for extreme values is less than for a normal distribution, and the values are wider spread around the mean. The p-value for Sponsorship is 0. 000 which is less than 0. 05; it means that data is not normally distributed. The same result can be obtained from the plot of Histogram. Perform one- way between-subjects NOVA on the data. Before interpreting the results of the NOVA, check outcomes that test other assumptions for this statistic: equality of covariance matrices (see Box’s Test) and sufficient correlation among he DVD (see Barrette’s Test of Specificity). Also check the results of the Eleven’s Test of Equality of Error Variances to evaluate that assumption for the universal Novas that are run and show in the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects output. What have you found about whether the data meet these additional assumptions for the NOVA and follow up Novas?

HINTS: Be sure to read the instructions very carefully in the textbook for what to check to get these results for these tests of assumptions (e. G. , you have to check Residual SSP matrix within Options to get the results of the Barrette’s Test of Specificity). Be sure to review what a statistically significant outcome means for each test: in some cases, it means a violation, but in others it means an assumption is met. SPAS Output for above question is given below: Box’s test of Equality of Covariance Matrices P-value=0. 388 is not significant. There is no violation of assumptions.

The observed covariance matrices of the dependent variables are equal across groups. Barrette’s Test of Specificity p-value = 0. 000 is significant. It means that the residual covariance matrix is not proportional to an identity matrix. There is a violation of the assumption. Eleven’s Test of equality of variances are not significant for Cognitive and Affective but it is significant for Behavioral variable because p-value is smaller than 0. 05 for this group. We can conclude that the error variance of the dependent variable is not equal across groups for Behavioral group.

The “multivariate tests” section simultaneously tests each factor effect on the dependent groups. This is the most important table in this output. Each factor and each covariate has a main effect, as does the intercept. Here these things are tested by four tests. Hotel lining’s Trace is commonly used for two dependent roofs and Wills’ Lambda if there are more than two groups. The significance of the F tests show if that effect is significant as the P-value is less than . 05 in this case. 6 What is the outcome of the multivariate tests (which looks at the effects of the IV on all three DVD at the same time)?

Given results of your tests for homogeneity of variance-covariance matrices for the dependent variables, is it more appropriate to use Wills’ lambda or Pillar’s trace to interpret outcomes, or does it make a difference? Report either the Pillar’s Trace or Wilkins Lambda for your results, as well as the associated value and its statistical significance. Use the following format for notation: Pillar’s Trace OR Wills’ lambda = F(UDF, UDF) 02- . What does this information tell you about the difference between the two countries on the linear combination (the variant) of the dependent variables?

HINT: Here, and ONLY for a one-way NOVA with only two groups for the IV, ate squared and partial ate squared are the same value; you can use the value given for partial ate squared in the SPAS results of the Multivariate Tests to be ate squared, 02, and save the step of hand calculating 02 . ) Since there are three dependent groups so Wills’ Lambda will be used to interpret the outcome of ultimate analysis of variance. The significance of the F tests show if that effect is significant as the P-value is less than . 05 in this case.

Test of between subject effect output gives the universal NOVA effects for factor and interaction (and in MANIOCS each covariate). The significance of F and ate-squared have the same interpretation as in the multivariate analysis above. For instance, all universal effects for all variables are significant here. If the F test establishes that there is an effect on the dependent variable, the researcher then proceeds to determine just which group means differ significantly from others. This helps specify the exact nature of the overall effect determined by the F test.

Pair wise multiple comparison tests test each pair of groups to identify similarities and differences. So from the above analysis all the tests have the p-value is less than 0. 05 for multivariate tests as well as for tests of within subjects so we can say that there is a statistically significant difference between all the countries. There was a statistically significant difference in anxiety based on country, F (3, 101) = 3. 067,p < . 05; Wild's A = 0. 917, partial n2 = . 083. 7 Given the results of the ultivariate tests, is it 0K now to move on to interpret the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Tests?

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