Safety Risk Assessment: Medication Errors Essay Sample For College

Introduction

Medical errors are among the most common causes of iatrogenic negative outcomes in the healthcare sector (Ahmed et al., 2019). Medical errors occur when a medical officer incorrectly diagnoses or treats a disease, syndrome, behavior, injury, infection, or some ailments. Ahmed et al. (2019) further add that medical errors occur due to failure to accomplish the set objectives or when a wrong plan is used to achieve an objective. Medical errors lead to an increase in infection or death of individual patients when not recognized at an earlier stage by the doctor. The errors can occur in all healthcare settings like hospitals, surgery centers, medical offices, nursing homes, patients’ homes, and pharmacies (Kalra, 2014). As such, healthcare providers must become more careful when delivering medical services to mitigate the chances of medical errors occurrence.

To mitigate the occurrence of medical errors, there is a need to first understand its causes. This report aims to enlighten nurse managers on how to reduce the number of medical errors made by new employees concerning medication. First, the report discusses the most frequent causes and incidence rate of medication errors at a medical facility. Further, the report presents a plan for identifying and implementing a plan to reduce medical errors as well as to measure the plan’s outcome. Furthermore, a rationale for minimizing errors is provided. Lastly, actions that nurses should take to help with medical errors reduction are highlighted.

Frequent Causes and Incidence rate of Medication Errors in the Medical Facility

Improper dosing has become the major and frequent cause of medical errors. It occurs when the doctor issues less or higher amounts of drugs to a patient making the patient’s sickness escalate (Rodziewicz et al., 2021). Improper dosing also occurs when the patient is hospitalized, and at the same time, the medical prescription is in the process. Another cause of the medical error is the prescription error which occurs when the doctor prescribes the wrong medication without considering the allergic reaction and the interaction with other drugs. Furthermore, poor communication between doctors has led to increased medical errors (Farzi et al., 2017). Doctors tend to assume that their fellow can pick the medication plans from where they left without giving them clear guidelines. It also occurs when poor coordination of medical orders flows from the management to the general staff (Farzi et al., 2017). Lack of appropriate communication test results has become an issue where the doctor wits for the lab result to proceed with the treatment plans.

Patient mix-ups have led to the emergence of errors in the hospital setting (Mosedale & Blackie, 2021). Hospitals lack enough medical facilities, leading to the mixing of the patients resulting in difficulties in identifying the patients regardless of organized health records. The doctors, therefore, are confused about issuing medications intended for someone else illness to another patient leading to the development of dire consequences. Also, treatment of the patient as a group escalates the frequency of making medical errors by medical practitioners. Furthermore, technical failures and inadequate policies have led to increased medical errors in the medical field. The medical devices may fail or disintegrate into pieces, risking the patient’s life.

The incidence rate of medical errors has increased in percentage regardless of a country’s level of income. In the US, medical errors are the leading cause of death, with roughly 25,000 deaths annually. On the other hand, medical errors in Middle Eastern nations range between 11% and 90% (Wondmieneh et al., 2020). The authors further revealed that medical errors are associated with significant health costs. The cost of medical errors is approximated to be US$42 billion annually. Such a significant number indicates an increased incidence of medical errors.

A Plan to Reduce the Medication Errors

To reduce medication errors, a proper plan must be identified and implemented, and their outcome measured. The identification of an effective plan to reduce medication errors involves testing the validity of the health care to evaluate success signs, progress, or the determination of challenges for improvement needs. Through continuous assessment, more causes of medical errors will be identified and best plans to deal with these causes devised. On the other hand, implementation involves integrating the knowledge from learning by adjusting goals to improve the conditions. It also involves changing methods of medication by formulating interventions (Bailie et al., 2017). To ensure Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI), medical officers should evaluate the progress of the plan. For instance, medical officers can assess the number of patients who lose their lives as a result of medical errors and determine the progress of the implemented plan to see if it is effective or not. If the plan is not effective, it can be amended to ensure it is as effective as possible. Moreover, measuring the plan to reduce the medical error involves identifying the opportunity and planning for the immediate encounters hence preventing the escalation of deteriorating medical conditions (Bailie et al., 2017). Medical officers can identify any opportunities of the implemented plan and utilize them to enhance the reduction of medical errors.

The Rationale for Reducing the Errors

There are many reasons why medical errors should be reduced. One major reason for reducing medical errors is to reduce the number of deaths resulting from such errors. Kavanagh et al. (2017) reveal that over 200,000 patients in US hospitals die every year due to medical errors. Another reason for reducing medical errors is to lower the cost associated with these errors. Rodziewicz et al. (2021) reveal that preventable medical errors contribute significantly towards increased health costs, such as higher health insurance costs. Lastly, nurses need to reduce medical errors to enhance patient safety. According to Wondmieneh et al. (2020), medical errors pose severe health consequences to patients.

Nurses’ Actions to Reduce Medical Errors

One way through which nurses cab reduce medical errors is by acting professionally. According to Salar et al. (2020), acting professionally include reading drug labels, acquiring continuous professional development, and striving to prevent medication errors. Also, nurses can reduce medical errors by keeping high-risk medications separate (Salar et al., 2020). Nurses need to keep high-risk medications separately since these medicines have a very high potential of causing patient harm or even death when used erroneously.

References

Kalra, J. (2004). Medical errors: an introduction to concepts. Clinical biochemistry37(12), 1043-1051.

Pierluissi, E., Fischer, M. A., Campbell, A. R., & Landefeld, C. S. (2003). Discussion of medical errors in morbidity and mortality conferences. Jama290(21), 2838-2842. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/197762

Chiozza, M. L., & Ponzetti, C. (2009). FMEA: a model for reducing medical errors. Clinica chimica acta404(1), 75-78. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0009898109001466

Bailie, R., Bailie, J., Larkins, S., & Broughton, E. (2017). Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI)—advancing Understanding of design, application, impact, and Evaluation of CQI approaches. Frontiers in Public Health5, 306. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00306/full

Zineldin, M., Zineldin, J., & Vasicheva, V. (2014). Approaches for reducing medical errors and increasing patient safety: TRM, quality, and 5 Qs method. The TQM Journal. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/TQM-03-2012-0029/full/html

Williams, D. J. (2007). Medication errors. Journal-Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh37(4), 343. https://www.rcpe.ac.uk/sites/default/files/williams_1.pdf

Mental Disorders: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Essay Sample For College

Introduction

A mental illness is characterized by abnormal patterns of behavior or thinking that result in considerable emotional suffering or impairment of daily life. Mental illness is on the rise, posing a serious threat to people’s health and having far-reaching social, human rights, and economic ramifications worldwide. The majority of young teens and adults have mental illnesses across the world. This disorder has prevented the affected individuals from pursuing their life goals and objectives. On the other hand, families have been drained financially when combating the treatment of this disorder. There are many mental illnesses, each with a unique set of symptoms. However, abnormal ideas, feelings, perceptions, and relationships with others are common characteristics of these individuals. Therefore, this study will explain mental disorders, their causes, signs, symptoms, and eventually their treatment and diagnosis.

Types of Mental Illness

According to American Psychiatric Association (2013), mental illness occurs in different forms in individuals. This illness includes the following; depression, Schizophrenia, other psychoses, and developmental disorders, including autism. Individuals who suffer from these types of illnesses depend on the family’s historical medical background, while others suffer due to being infected. In each mental illness type, a more illustration of the causes, prevention, and even treatment is well explained.

Depression

It can be linked with a low mood and a loss of interest in activities in the affected individuals. Sadness, lack of interest or pleasure in life, feelings of guilt or low self-worth, interrupted sleep or food, weariness, and poor concentration are all symptoms of depression. In the world, depression is the most frequent mental illness and a leading cause of physical and mental health problems. According to WHO (2019), depression affects 264 million individuals worldwide, where women are disproportionately affected. With depression, various bodily complaints may not make any sense and have no known medical reason. Depression can linger for a long time or frequently return, making it difficult for the sufferer to normally perform at work or school or deal with daily life stresses. Serious depression may lead to thoughts of self-harm or death by suicide.

Parents and medical doctors can prevent depression in children and adults through various methods, including education, counseling, and other forms of social support in the wake of physical and sexual abuse. In addition, there are successful treatments. Doctors can achieve treatment for mild to moderate depression through talking therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychotherapy. In the treatment of moderate to severe depression, antidepressants can be quite helpful. To effectively manage depression, psychosocial components must be addressed, including identifying stressors such as financial challenges and workplace difficulties, sources of support such as family members and friends, and detecting depressive symptoms. In addition, social networks and social activities must be maintained or re-activated to survive.

Developmental disorders, including autism

Mahajan (2021) explains that many different types of developmental disorders, including autism, fall under the umbrella term “developmental disorder.” Most developmental disorders begin in childhood, but they often last into adulthood, impairing or delaying the maturation of functions associated with the central nervous system. Many mental disorders have periods of remissions and relapses, but these tend to have a more consistent course. A person with an intellectual disability has a wide range of developmental disabilities, including problems with cognitive functioning and social skills. A lack of intelligence makes it more difficult to cope with the challenges of daily living.

It is common for people with pervasive developmental disorders like autism to have a limited range of hobbies and activities that are distinctive to them and done repeatedly. Infancy and the early years of life are common places for onset developmental problems. In addition, many people who suffer from these conditions have some degree of intellectual impairment.

For those with developmental disabilities, family participation is critical. To provide the best possible care, it’s crucial to know what causes people both misery and well-being and which circumstances are most favorable to learning. It helps avoid excessive stress by establishing regular hours for eating and sleeping and other activities such as learning and spending time with others. People with developmental disorders must have regular access to health care services regardless of age or stage in life.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a long-term neuropsychiatric disorder influenced by both a person’s underlying genetic makeup and their immediate surroundings. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2019), an estimated 20 million people worldwide have schizophrenia, a debilitating mental illness which has affected large group of people especially the young age. It is important to note that psychoses such as Schizophrenia can impact a person’s thoughts, perceptions of the world around them, feelings, language, and behavior. Symptoms of psychosis include hallucinations, delusions, and the inability to distinguish between what one perceives and is experiencing. People with this illness may have difficulty doing their daily tasks, including working or studying. Because of the stigma associated with mental illness, people may not get the care they need. Furthermore, those who have psychosis are particularly vulnerable to human rights abuses such as long-term institutionalization.

Cockerham (2020) asserts that early adulthood is the most common period for Schizophrenia to develop. Medications and psychosocial support are effective in treating patients. People who have mental illness can reclaim their lives and become fully integrated members of society if they receive the proper care and assistance. Supported living, supported housing, and supported employment can help persons with serious mental disorders, including Schizophrenia, achieve various rehabilitation goals because they often struggle to find or keep a place to live and work.

Medication of Mental Illness

Since there is no specific medical treatment of mental illness, the administration of antidepressants by medical doctors are used to treat a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, and others. Depression and other mental health issues can be alleviated with the use of these medications. Antidepressants don’t have an addictive or habit-forming effect. Moreover, treatment for schizophrenia and other psychotic diseases often involves the use of antipsychotic medications. Bipolar illnesses and depression can both be helped with antipsychotic drugs, which can be used alone or in combination with antidepressants. Other forms of medical treatments such as administration of dozes are specifically meant to reduce the impact of the illness for a short time. Therefore, a variety of psychotherapies exist, each with a unique strategy for enhancing an individual’s mental health. Long-term therapy may be necessary in some circumstances, although it is possible that a few months of therapy will be sufficient in most cases. It can be done one-on-one, in a small group, or even with close friends and family.

Conclusion

Mental illness has far reached consequences to the affected individuals. An example of mental illness such as depression can alter individuals’ normal activities and thoughts. Evidence from medical researchers states that depression is the most frequent mental illness and a leading cause of physical and mental health problems in the twenty-first century. Different scholars echo that depression can be prevented in children and adults through various methods, including education, counseling, and other forms of social support in the wake of physical and sexual abuse. In addition, there are successful treatments. On the same note, Schizophrenia is another serious mental illness that has affected the world, with the majority of the population being young children and adolescents. Treatment of this illness can be achieved through patients’ and family efforts in following the medical practitioners’ rules and guidelines. Lastly, according to medical doctors, developmental disorders have many negative effects on the individual’s brain operational activities. Therefore, many people who suffer from these conditions have some degree of intellectual impairment.

References

American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. pp. 101–05. ISBN 978-0-89042-555-8.

Cockerham, W. C. (2020). Types of mental disorders. Sociology of Mental Disorder, 30-54. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003001836-2

Mahajan, S. (2021). Mental disorders- Types of mental disorders- Guide to deal with a mental disorder.

World Health Organization (2019). Mental Disorders. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-disorders

Mental Health Disorders And Substance Abuse Among Teenagers In Nova Scotia Essay Example

Executive Summary

Substance abuse is among the leading causes of mental health disorders among the teenagers in Nova Scotia. Even though many teenagers who try alcohol or drugs do not experience addictions, there is still a sizable number; the bulk of them have vexed alcohol, and some have tried illegal drugs. As a result of these behaviors, they develop dangerous levels of alcohol consumption. They also take medications to the point that they are addicted. According to recent school surveys, more than half of teenagers in Canada’s middle and high schools have admitted to using drugs at some point in their lives. The paper analyzes drug disorders and their effects on mental health among teenagers. Some of the identified causes include peer pressure and a hostile family environment. Some of the solutions include School-based health clinics that have grown into a standard answer to managing the health requirements of teenagers and adolescents. The government should work in collaboration with the community leaders to enhance educational programs on the effects of drug abuse. Treatment and therapy are recommended for teens before addiction, which helps identify underlying disorders.

Introduction

“Many adolescents and teenagers have tried drugs and alcohol. Surveys have reported that by the end of high school, 80% of students have tried alcohol, 49% have tried marijuana, and 29% have used a street drug other than marijuana” (Johnston et al., 2021, p. 2). Even though many teenagers who try alcohol or drugs do not experience addictions, there is still a sizable number; the bulk of them have tried alcohol, and some have tried illegal drugs. Some of them have dangerous stages of liquor consumption and have taken medications to the point that they are initiating issues in their lives. Alcohol and drug use is a reason for worry since it has been related to many harms such as early erotic action, hopping or plummeting out of school, hostility, and violence. When individuals begin using drugs at a new age, they are more likely to become addicted later.

One sort of alcohol and substance usage is when a teenager uses drugs and alcohol on occasions without acquiring physical tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, social and emotional issues. This indicates that the teenager utilizes drugs but at amounts that are not harmful and detectable. Secondly is drug addiction and alcoholism. Consuming alcohol or other drugs to the extent that it causes health, social, or emotional difficulties (Brousseau, 2020, p. 416). Circumstances in which the teenager utilizes drugs and products to the degree where their everyday functions and ability to behave appropriately in the pre-drug and substance use stage are disrupted. Third, there is substance dependence that the adolescent’s body becomes physiologically reliant on the drug. When a teenager has to take a substance to avoid withdrawal symptoms, they are considered dependent.

“In 2012, a total of 2.8 million Canadians aged 15 and older, or 10.1%, reported symptoms consistent with at least one of the following mental or substance use disorders: major depressive episode, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and abuse of or dependence on alcohol, cannabis or other drugs” (Campion, 2019, p. 25). Morbidities were more common than mood disorders during a person’s life. Mental disorders are problems that cause significant discomfort or incapacity, behavioral or cognitive dysfunction, or the possibility of a hazardous or undesirable result, such as anguish, pain, disability, or death. In Nova Scotia, the prevalence of adolescent mental illness has skyrocketed. Substance addiction has become ingrained in society, particularly among teens aged 14 to 19. Substance misuse, which is impacted by social stress factors such as emotional, sexual, and physical abuse, is the leading cause of adolescent mental illness.

The type of disorder experienced by an individual depends on the substance they abuse. Some teenagers experience mental illness and drug abuse problems thus experience a co-occurring condition. A bad home environment, family strife, and parental sadness can also contribute to adolescent mental illness and drug addiction (Guessoum et al., 2020, p. 15). The affected teenagers may have challenges at school or work which can be identified by frequently missing school or poor performance. Also, the Teenage may experience physical health issues and changes in behavior such as weight loss or gain, red eyes, and exaggerated behavior. Additionally, they may show neglected appearance, such as disinterest in grooming and looks.

Discussion of Findings

Causes of substance use and mental health disorders among teenagers

“Mental disorders or illnesses generally refer to clinically significant patterns of behavioral or emotional function that are associated with some level of distress, suffering (even to the point of pain and death), or impairment in one or more functional areas (e.g., school, work, social, and family interactions)” (Strudwick et al. 2021, p. 43). There are numerous types of mental illnesses. They differ significantly in terms of sickness course and pattern, kind and intensity of signs generated, and amount of impairment encountered. An individual may experience either one bout of disease or several incidents of disease detached by extended episodes of wellness. Some mental illnesses are episodic or cyclical, while others are more permanent, with prolonged or often repeated attacks. Persons suffering from chronic diseases typically require long-term therapy and care. Substance use and abuse contribute to mental health issues when an individual, particularly a teenager, becomes a regular user, regardless of motive.

Bodily and mental illnesses

Drug use problems are frequently associated with various other bodily and mental illnesses. “Studies have consistently shown the high co-occurrence and the elevated risk of mental disorders in individuals with substance use disorders” (Dauber et al. 2018, p. 69). The tendency of substance use develops either through peer groups or inside the family due to the elders engaging in one or more forms of substance usage. Some of the youngsters addicted to substances had a family or friend addicted to drugs or alcohol. This is because family plays a vital role in forming a teenager’s character and mentality.

Influence from family and close relatives

Furthermore, teens take a lot from their families and close relatives. If they stray from the appropriate morals, they may become absorbed in drug use and abuse, which may lead to mental health problems on their part, obstructing and harming their performance and productivity at school. This has a significant impact on their impacts and conduct in their later years (Strudwick et al. 2021, p. 45). As a result, a bad home environment might create situations in which kids steal behavior that may lead to substance dependence.

Peer pressure

According to Lokhandeet al. (2018), “Most common reason given by the study participants for the initiation of the substance use (tobacco + alcohol) was the peer pressure followed by curiosity, as an experimentation & experience, to feel good and mimicking the actors in the movies” (Lokhandeet al. 2018, p. 2312). Teenagers may desire to imitate their personal favorite since they are exposed to excessive viewing, especially in the digital era. This is due to their perception of the behavior’s goodness. This they may do in private even without their parents’ awareness. Peer pressure is a significant component in drug use among most teenagers. This is done to guarantee that they are not apprehended. Teenagers are faced with the urge to conform as a consequence of peer pressure from their teen friends, and anytime their friends use drugs and substances, kids will end up using them to fit in and adapt to the social standing of their friends.

Opposing family environment

Some teens abuse substances as a result of the opposing family environment. Teenagers “with the habit of substance use have a history of substance use by family members or friends” (Zwick et al., 2020, p. 2). This seems to be because teens mirror the surroundings in which they were raised due to their familial background. When a teenager is presented in a home where drug addiction is the norm of the day, they are more likely to adopt negative behaviors that later reflect in their substance abuse, which, when done for an extended period, leads to mental health conditions such as depression and other diseases.

As a result of the social class that a teenager comes from, it affects the teenager’s behavior and character. “Tobacco use is seen more in lower socioeconomic class than the middle, and higher class and no statistical difference was observed for the use of alcohol among various socioeconomic classes”(Lokhandeet al. 2018, p. 2310). This is because teens from low socioeconomic backgrounds are exposed to a direct supply of the drugs and are in straightforward and easy touch with the medications compared to other social groups. This is due to more significant interaction with other kids and others in their surroundings who abuse such substances. As a result, they are susceptible to using the substances as well.

Stimulant in social context

Another source of substance abuse is using a stimulant in social contexts, which leads to repeated use, leading to substance abuse. Opioids, which are prescription medications provided to unwell people, are the most often misused narcotics. The person may subsequently return them to a friend or colleague. When this occurs, the consumer is not prescribed, and their use may become regular and abusive in cases when the drug’s indications are not apparent in the specific individual (Esmaeelzadeh, 2018, p. 546). The drug determines the danger of addiction in issue and the frequency with which it is accessed and used. Individuals who use opioid medicines, for example, are more likely to get addicted than those who use non-steroidal medications. The individual may begin with a minimal dose and progress to the point where they require high amounts of the drug, resulting in addiction and misuse.

Solutions to teenage substance abuse and mental health disorders

Puberty is the time of exploration, which raises the risk of poor sexual health, tobacco, drug abuse, and mental distress, including suicide conduct. This demographic is sometimes challenging to access with suitable promotion and preventative interventions. School-based health clinics have grown into a standard answer to managing the health requirements of teenagers and adolescents. School-based health clinics are intended to overcome the barriers and change their access to essential services, particularly those connected to drug use and misuse and the consequences on mental health (Kim et al., 2019, p. 128). This includes teens’ perceptions of a lack of disclosure in the traditional care structure and a seeming lack of respect for their independence and health-related choices. Such health clinics can provide both preventative and acute treatment and mental health services, and information on the impact of element use on a teen’s mental health.

Since teenagers and adolescents are exposed to some effects and peer pressure, these health centers can provide the teenagers with services such as nursing assessment and referral, contraception and condoms, counseling, and other services by physicians. “On first visits to the SBHCs, students are screened for a range of risk behaviors using an intake questionnaire provided by the SBHC receptionist and reviewed by the SBHC nurse to guide intervention” (Kim et al., 2019, p. 130). This would enhance teens’ care and trust in the healthcare system, and they will think that their needs are prioritized and significant, which will encourage their care-seeking habits. The government should strengthen educational initiatives that inform the teenagers about the dangers of drug misuse. In addition, teenagers should get treatment and counseling to assist in discovering underlying issues. This is critical in ensuring that teens are aware of these difficulties, the consequent influences on their bodily and mental health, and the long-term implications on their output and the growth of their families and society in general.

The increased understanding of the dangers of tobacco and alcohol use with age is essential for ensuring that teens minimize their attempts to use drugs and, as a result, the prevalence of mental health issues. Most shared measure advocated is monitoring tobacco by enhancing measures to ban the tobacco products charted by ban promotions, health education, and strict laws. More than half of the survey subjects hoped that no one used cigarettes in their midst. Just a minority of the respondents sought to limit drug usage among relatives (Lokhande et al. 2018, p. 2315). This will be an effective method in ensuring that parents and relatives act as role models in modeling good behavior to the teenagers who learn majorly and extensively through imitations of their immediate environment.

In collaboration with community leaders, the government should enhance educational programs that educate teenagers on the effects of drug abuse. Treatment and therapy are recommended for teens before addiction, which helps identify underlying disorders. The government should enhance policies that restrict drugs to teenagers. This will ensure that those teenagers who have substance abuse disorders and addiction are given an opportunity for rehabilitation and educated on identifying the potential causes and dangers and their ability to cope in the environment where they are exposed (Esmaeelzadeh, 2018, p. 549). This will help reduce the burden of substance abuse and mental illnesses among the teenagers who, when addicted, results in a load in society both in their workplace and family life.

Regulations must be devised for using some of the most often misused substances, such as opioid medicines, which are also authorized pharmaceuticals. This is due to the adverse consequences that occur in cases of misuse, regardless of the frequency and indication at initial usage. It is critical that stores selling these items be licensed and checked regularly to guarantee that they comply with the law (Lokhande et al. 2018, p. 2317). Laws must be enacted in cases of negligence and abuse of authority. Physicians who prescribe these treatments should be aware of their adverse effects and avoid using them if there are alternatives that might function better, especially outside of the hospital environment.

Recommendation of one of the solution

Since teenagers and adolescents are exposed to some effects and peer pressure, these health centers can provide the teenagers with services such as nursing assessment and referral, contraception and condoms, counseling, and other services by physicians. “On first visits to the SBHCs, students are screened for a range of risk behaviors using an intake questionnaire provided by the SBHC receptionist and reviewed by the SBHC nurse to guide intervention” (Kim et al., 2019, p. 131). This would enhance teens’ care and trust in the healthcare system, and they will think that their needs are prioritized and significant, which will encourage their care-seeking habits. The government should strengthen educational initiatives that inform the teenagers about the dangers of drug misuse. In addition, teenagers should get treatment and counseling to discover underlying issues. This is critical in ensuring that people are aware of these difficulties, the consequent influences on their physical and mental health, and the long-term implications on their output and the growth of their families and society in general.

“One of the advantages of SBHCs is providing opportunities for screening for risk behaviors in adolescents and teenagers” (Brousseau et al., 2020, p. 415). This is because both the sexes are at risk of substance use during this stage of development, which results in consequences such as engaging in early sex. When there is sensitization to the usage of the services, teenagers will become aware and knowledgeable as to why the services are provided to them and that the staff is suited to handle them. Hence, they can reach them anytime at their convenience and discuss their matters and their problems. This will enhance their chances of recovery and acceptance from using substances through periodic reviews and visits to the health centers.

Regulations for using some of the most often misused substances, such as opioid medicines, which are also authorized pharmaceuticals, must be devised. This is due to the adverse consequences that occur in cases of misuse, regardless of the frequency and indication at initial usage. It is critical that stores selling these items be licensed and checked regularly to guarantee that they comply with the law (Esmaeelzadeh, 2018, p. 545). Laws must be enacted in cases of negligence and abuse of authority. Physicians who prescribe these treatments should be aware of their adverse effects and avoid using them if there are alternatives that might function better, especially outside of the hospital environment.

Conclusion

In collaboration with community leaders, the government should enhance educational programs that educate teenagers on the effects of drug abuse. Treatment and therapy are recommended for teens before addiction, which helps identify underlying disorders. The government should enhance policies that restrict drugs to teenagers. This will ensure that those teenagers who have substance abuse disorders and addiction are given an opportunity for rehabilitation and educated on identifying the potential causes and dangers and their ability to cope in the environment where they are exposed (Guessoum et al., 2020, p. 19). This will help reduce the burden of substance abuse and mental illnesses among the teenagers who, when addicted, results in a load in society both in their workplace and family life.

REFERENCES

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Brousseau, N. M. (2020). Self-perceptions and benefit finding among adolescents with substance use disorders and their caregivers: A qualitative analysis guided by social identity theory of cessation maintenance. Journal of Drug Issues, 410-423.

Campion, J. (2019). Public mental health: evidence practice and commissioning. . Royal Society for Public Health., 22-27.

Dauber, H. B.-G. (2018). Co-occurring mental disorders in substance abuse treatment: The current health care situation in Germany. nternational journal of mental health and addiction, 66-80.

Esmaeelzadeh, S. M. (2018). Examining the association and directionality between mental health disorders and substance use among adolescents and young adults in the US and Canada—a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of clinical medicine, 543-547.

Guessoum, S. B. (2020). Adolescent psychiatric disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. . Psychiatry research, 11-23.

Johnston, L. D. (2021). Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2020: Overview, Key Findings on Adolescent Drug Use. Institute for Social Research., 1-3.

Kim, S. K. (2019). Sex differences in the association between cyberbullying victimization and mental health, substance use, and suicidal ideation in adolescents. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 126-135.

Lokhande, G. S. (2018). Study of substance use in teenage students in Miraj Town: a cross sectional descriptive study. . International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health, 2308-2319.

Strudwick, G. M. (2021). Development of a Resource Guide to Support the Engagement of Mental Health Providers and Patients With Digital Health Tools: Multimethod study. Journal of medical Internet research, 25-77.

Zwick, J. A. (2020). Stigma: how it affects the substance use disorder patient. . Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, 1-4.