Saving Rufus’s Life In “Kindred” Novel By Butler Sample Paper

Kindred is a fictional novel written by Octavia Butler, which touches upon the topic of the value of human life, referring to the horrifying antebellum South events. The female protagonist Dana suddenly experiences the time-traveling to the past and meets her ancestor Rufus, the antagonist of this story. Dana has to make turning decisions that can change the history of her family. The novel reflects the problem of slavery and racial discrimination through the relationships of the characters. The connection between Dana and Rufus has a paradoxical and complicated nature. Dana is called to the past when Rufus needs her to save his life, physically or morally. Dana suffers a lot because she has no other option but to harm others because of Rufus. However, despite the burden Dana takes, she is right to save Rufus’s life, following the conviction that human life is the most precious value in the world.

Dana, raised in a society where human rights are respected, faces the horrible lives of black slaves during the antebellum South events. The reason why she is called back in time was the death threat to her ancestor Rufus. Dana realizes the kinship with Rufus, and without hesitation, saves the little boy drowning in the river. She is cornered in a paradoxical situation when her existence depends on her interactions with people from the past. The nature of the paradox resembles the grandfather paradox, which also implies the influence of the non-existing person on the past and future. However, there is a possibility that Dana is not trapped in the paradox. Her strong bond with unfamiliar people in the past proves this. Describing Rufus’ house, Dana says that she “… recall feeling relief at seeing the house, feeling that I had come home. And having to stop and correct myself, remind myself that I was in an alien, dangerous place.” (Butler 231). Therefore, Dana is sent back because she wants to understand the people who lived in the terrible years of inequality. Her family objects to their marriage with Kevin because they keep the prejudice about skin color even in modern society. Experiencing the violence, she defeats Rufus as an embodiment of discrimination and slavery. Saving young Rufus, she demonstrates humanness and love to everyone. However, when society’s laws turn him into a powerful monster, she kills him, protecting his soul from deterioration. Butler emphasizes that Dana has never considered Rufus evil and says that “… he wasn’t a monster at all. Just an ordinary man who sometimes did the monstrous things his society said were legal and proper.” (Butler 184). The kinship paradox is probably caused not by the risk of Rufus’s death but by Dana’s desire to understand the nature of the inequality problem and learn more about her roots. By creating this time paradox, Butler addresses the issue of ethics and the power of legislation. People make rules which later control them, and everyone becomes the lifelong slaves of the system. Butler emphasizes that it is essential to remember your history and avoid making ancestors’ mistakes. Dana’s disappeared arm symbolizes the unbreakable bond with the past and the heirs’ responsibility to create a world without inequality and slavery. Thus, the paradox Dana finds herself in results from the mental need to understand a life full of tragedies and survival. Saving Rufus, she stays true to her beliefs and gains a new overview of the course of history and its implications in the modern world.

Therefore, Dana’s decision to save Rufus is the right one because she proclaims human life as a principal value. This decision turns over her life from a time and moral perspective. Understanding their origin, people may change their attitude to life and consider it from the other angle. The ancestor’s mistakes are the essential keys to opening the door to a highly moral life without slavery. The only thing people should do is accept the terrifying past.

Work Cited

Butler, Octavia. Kindred. Doubleday, 1979.

Economic Predictions On Recovery After COVID-19 Pandemic Shock

World trade primed for strong but uneven recovery after COVID-19 pandemic shock – World Trade Organization

The article predicts that the economy will be rapidly recovering from the 2020 Covid-19 pandemic, drastically improving the measurements from the year before. The economic rebound she temporarily improve the speed of trade, slowing down by 4% when 2022 begins (World trade primed for strong but uneven recovery after COVID 19 pandemic shock). While the pandemic will most probably not be as big of a public health issue by then, its effects will still be felt in the global economy by that period.

As a whole, the United States will be expected to recover from the effects of the pandemic, re-establish their influence in foreign and domestic trade. However, it can also be said that the increase in trade will be a temporary effect on the ceasing pandemic, not a full return to form or the establishment of the new norm. Furthermore, the possibility of the virus resurgence poses the threat of another economic collapse.

While the country itself most likely will be able to improve its position throughout the year, each individual area, state, and community will have to experience the hardships of managing the society scarred by the pandemic, leading to regional disparities in trade and economic instability.

In the short-term, managers should anticipate a boom in both supply and demand, as the economy will attempt to recover after a long period of stagnation and decline. Pricing will be expected to decrease, in the face of increasing buying power of the population, and the rising demand for commodities.


World trade primed for strong but uneven recovery after COVID 19 pandemic shock. WTO. (n.d.).

Hayden’s And Roethke’s Poems Comparison

The poem Theodore Roethke is a retrospective look of the poet himself on his childhood and evokes ambiguous emotions. While there are clear indications of somewhat rude behavior, the end lines indicate that the boy was still clinging to him (Roethke, 1942). Thus, the question for discussion is how exactly the author feels about his father and what feelings he has when remembering him?

Most interesting to me is a poem written by Robert Hayden in 1966, “Those Winter Sundays.” This text bears little resemblance to a typical poetic work due to the lack of a precise rhythm that would guide the reader. Thus, it is somewhat difficult to read the work, but you have to re-read it many times, which allows grasping the meaning better. Although the father was a working man and Sunday was his well-deserved day off, he still got up to light the fire and polish the child’s boots (Hayden 1966). However, the sacrifice made was understood by the author only many years later. This poem is of interest to me precisely because of its unusual structure, which conveys the author’s cold, detached and reflective tone.

Two authors, Hayden and Roethke, return to their childhood in their poems, analyzing it now with the existing knowledge, gaining a new perspective on the relationship between the child and the parent. Although the two authors’ situations are incredibly different, they are united by some sadness about the past. Both children did not understand the relationship between their fathers to them. Roethke had mixed feelings, both loving and fearful of his father due to his scraped knuckles and drunken behavior. At the same time, Hayden was indifferent, unaware of the sacrifice his father was making. However, having grown up, both authors understand the true essence of the relationship and what was hidden behind their fathers’ specific actions.


Roethke, T. (1942). My papa’s waltz. Hearst Magazine.

Hayden, R. (1966) Those winter Sundays. Poetry Foundation. Web.

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