Self-Assessment Speaking WTC Anxiety Language Learning Free Essay

Taras (2001) reported that the active participation of learners and teachers‟ experience will increase the process of self-assessment. In this study he used different types of assessments in a variety of subject areas in higher education in Britain. He stated that three key elements were very important in enhancing students ability to use self-assessment. First, the teacher should use summative assessment, second the teacher should inform students to identify their errors as a feedback before self-assessment.

The students should also receive their grades after self-assessment. In another study Brantmeir (2005a, 2005b, 2006) reported that the levels of selfassessment positively correlated with the level of enjoyment. The study also showed that selfassessment and enjoyment affected significantly the written recall, but in the case of multiplechoice questions the effect was low. The survey led to the hypothesis that selfassessment could be accurate as placement criterion. Carton (1993) argued that self-assessment was an important part of learning process. He mentioned that using questionnaires helped learners reflect on their learning. He also presented an approach that helped learners to be aware of their own cognitive processes. Other researches, such as Blatchford (1997), have shown that there is a significant relationship between self-assessment and achievement in both English/reading and mathematics. He reported that students‟ evaluation of their own ability was very crucial in their progress. He investigated the accuracy of self-assessment from 7 to 16 years old students and the effect of two factors on students‟ improvements over time: first school 28 subject, and second social comparison group ( the children at the same age or the students of the same class.

McDonald and Boud (2003) found that when students assessed their own learning, their achievements promoted to a high extent. They reported that training high school students on self-assessment could improve their performance. Teacher’s also trained in how students should use self-assessment skills. Experimental group received training in self-assessment while control group did not. So self-assessment training is believed to have a significant impact on students performance. Higgins, Hartley, and Skelton (2001) have reported that for development of selfregulation in learners both teachers‟ and learners‟ feedback on the learning process are needed and the ability of giving feedback must be promoted in both. Some studies have indicated that there was a high correlation between students, and teacher assessment, while other studies have reported low correlation between them.

A study by Matsano (2009) showed the relationship of self- and peer-assessments work and teacher assessments in university writing classes. It was concluded that self-assessment might have limited utility as a part of formal assessment. On the other hand peerassessment had a useful role in writing classes. Dlaska and Krekeler (2008) studied the reliability of self-assessment in pronunciation skills. They tried to understand the cause of difficulties. Participants were 46 German advanced learners who evaluated their own pronunciation of speech sounds against sounds produced by native speakers. In 85% of the cases the assessments of the raters and the selfassessment were the same. But the learners only identified half of inaccurate pronunciation of speech sounds which the raters believed to be wrong. The 29 results showed that even experienced L2 students might find it difficult to evaluate their articulation correctly. Some studies demonstrated that self-assessment is reliable. For example, Bachman and Palmer (1996) realized that some multilingual and multicultural members of the adult learners of English as a foreign language in the US could evaluate themselves reliably for their communicative language abilities. Alfallay (2004) studied the role of some selected psychological and personality traits of the learners of English as a foreign language in the accuracy of the self- and peerassessments.

Some of the traits, for example, were motivation types, anxiety, selfesteem, improvement and motivational intensity. Participants were 78 students of English as a foreign language. They took part in thirteen-week oral presentation tasks. In this period they were asked to evaluate their own performance and their peers . The findings showed that those students who had positive traits were more accurate than those who had its negative side. But students with high classroom anxiety were the exception. This study also demonstrated that long period of practice and adequate feedback had a positive effect on self-assessments. The results also showed that students with low self-esteem were the most accurate in assessment, while learners with instrumental motivation were the least accurate. He also realized that those learners with integrative motivation did more accurately than those with instrumental motivation in evaluating themselves. He also mentioned that language proficiency influenced on the correctness of self-assessment.

Students with high proficiency were more accurate than those with lower proficiency. High proficiency students underestimated their abilities, while low proficiency students overestimated them. 30 The study of Pierce, Swain, and Hart (1993) relied on school aged learners who were French immersion in Canada. Students assessed themselves based on two factors: first evaluated themselves to compare with native speakers, second reflected on the difficulty that they countered with everyday tasks in French. Then participants were examined for four skills based on a proficiency test. The results of self-assessment were compared with the test. The findings showed that self-assessment was not a reliable indicator of proficiency. However many of the students had little or no access to native speakers or target language outside the classroom. It would be difficult for them imagine how they would perform. Fallows and Balasubramanyan (2001) found that training and multiple ratings had many benefits. They also concluded that motivation had a significant role in the accuracy of selfassessment. Huang (2011) investigated the link between assessment and self-regulation.

Hence he examined two types of assessments, the more closed convergent assessment (CA) and the more open-ended divergent assessment (DA). He studied the effect o.f these two types of assessment on learners differently in terms of motivation and learning strategy. Participants were 105 college freshmen in Taiwan. They were selected in intact groups. They had the same instructor for one listening and two speaking classes. Each students experienced two types of assessment, a more traditional test (CA) and a group performance assessment (DA). After the assessments, students reported their task-specific motivation and learning strategies. Findings showed that students who performed CA were received high scores. Zimmerman (2008) explored the relationship between self-regulation and motivation. He believed that self-regulated learning (SRL) was considered as active processes which 31 helped students to acquire academic skills, such as setting goals, selecting and using strategies, and monitoring their effectiveness rather than impersonal forces that happens to students. In another study conducted by Kostons, van Gog, and Paas (2012) , the impact of training self-assessment and task-selection skills on self-regulated learning was investigated.

The study consisted of two experiments: In experiments 1, the hypotheses was examined and confirmed that observing a human model engaging in self-assessment, task selection, or both could be effective for secondary education students‟ acquisition of self-assessment and taskselection skills. Experiment 2 investigated and confirmed the hypothesis that secondary education students‟ acquisition of self-assessment and taskselection skills, either through examples or through practice, could improve the efficacy of self-regulated learning. Their first conclusion was that self-assessment and task-selection skills were highly instrumental in self-regulated learning and training such skills could significantly enhance the degree of knowledge that students could acquire from selfregulated learning in which they have freedom over the selection of their learning tasks. Another example of success of self-assessment was reported by Blanche (1990) where in the ability of adult learners of French as a foreign language who assessed their own speaking ability. He found that the accuracy of self-assessment is impressive. It is believed that self-assessment can influence receptive skills of EFL learners. In a study, Shahrakipour (2014) investigated wether self-assessment had the same effect on intermediate and beginner language learners. The participants were 120 Iranian language learners, selected through convenience sampling. The researcher grouped the learners into intermediate and beginner language learners. The experimental group received treatment in which they assessed themselves regularly. All groups received post-test and the data were analysed through ANCOVA. The results indicated that self-assessment had a powerful 32 effect on learners‟ receptive skills. Although self-assessment was more effective on reading skill in contrast with listening ability. The intermediate group also improved their abilities more in comparison with the beginner group. The impact of self- and peer-assessment in writing on the self-regulated learning of a sample of Iranian EFL students was studied by Fathi, Yousefi, and Sedighravesh (2017). To accomplish the purpose of the Study, a sample of 69 intermediate Iranian EFL students were selected. The students enrolled in a writing course which lasted for 12 weeks.

The sample of the study were students of three intact classes. They were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Self- and peer-assessment practices were carried out in the two experimental groups. The findings of the study revealed that the implementation of self- and peer-assessment in the writing course significantly related to the enhancement of EFL learners‟ self-regulation. From the pedagogical point of view, it can be recommended that the teachers pay more serious attention to alternative assessment including more selfand peerassessment practices in their language teaching methodology. It is also more useful if policymakers, textbook designers and material developers persuade to use them in their developed EFL materials and textbooks. Recently assessment moves away from a measurement model towards one of the learner empowerment one for lifelong learning. Hooshangi, Yousefi and Mahmoudi (2014) studied the effect of self assessment on Javanroodian foreign language learners‟ oral performance ability. An important clue that manifests the link between assessment and quality of learning is that of consequential validity. The assessment program included training, practice, video taping, feedback, assessment and discussion. 20 EFL learners participated in the study. They were divided into experimental and control groups based on the result of English oral performance pre-test.

The treatment was self-assessment checklists which consisted of the organization of the presentation, content, linguistic 33 factors ( vocabulary, grammatical patterns and pronunciation). As a matter of fact, the checklists were organized based on interviewing participants and their teachers and then concerning the results and reviewing available checklists in the literature. The data was collected for experimental group, assessing their oral performances in 6 sessions and teacher‟s evaluation of their performances. The research evidence suggested that selfassessment contributed to higher students achievements and participating in selfassessment process had positive effect on learners‟ oral performance ability. The results of the study are valuable in the Iranian context, with its long tradition of teacher-centered classes toward a more learner-centered educational system with more autonomous learners. Bing(2016) explored the effects of self-assessment on EFL students‟ writing. The subjects of the study full-time second year undergraduate non-English majors in a higher vocational college in Shandong province. A total number of 36 students were involved in the study. The instruments of the research included writing assignment, analytic scoring rubric, questionnaires and interviews. The results gained through quantitative and qualitative methods, suggested that self-assessment was an effective strategy. It could improve overall writing performance, especially in terms of content, organization and mechanics of their writing. However, for the category of content and vocabulary no significant difference of students‟ perceptions prior to and after the practice of selfassessment was found.

The practice of self-assessment had a positive influence on students‟ perception of their writing skills in organization, language use, and mechanics. Students personally believed that their writing skills especially in terms of organization, language use, and mechanics were better after using of self-assessment. Therefore a higher writing confidence was created among the students. Generally students gained a positive attitude towards the use of reversion in their writing. So as a kind of formative assessment, self-assessment can be a powerful and guiding factor in the learning and teaching process. 34 Learners‟ participation in self-assessment is of vital importance. It makes students selfaware of their work, motivating further revision. Since students get familiar with the criteria in assessing writing, they may use these criteria to revise their work.

Cold Case Sexual Assault

It is on a frequent basis that sexual assault cases turn into cold cases because the investigators are incapable of properly figuring out who the suspect is, while many years are passed by. It is also very important to mention the fact that it is not always the fault of the investigators. There are also many times that technology is not updated enough in order to solve the case. The DNA profiling technology was not as advanced in the past as it is now. Whenever years go by without a case being solved, it will become considered a cold case. Technology not being advanced enough to solve the cases has been a problem for a very long time. Not to mention that even today, with the advancements of technology, there are still cases being left cold.

There was one specific case that had stood out that had happened on November 4, 1992, and it had occurred in Virginia Beach. A woman from Virginia Beach had been walking home after work when a man named Robert Lee Lane passed by her on a bike. He made a remark and stated that she had looked sexy. According to Reese (2017), the woman had ignored him, Lane had then taken her from behind and the woman ended up with a knife up to her neck. The perpetrator had led the woman to a park that was close and had forced her onto a picnic table where he had sexually assaulted her while still holding the knife to her. The woman had begun to scream for her husband and at that time, Lane had run off. Once Lane ran away, the woman was able to finally run away, and she went home to call the police. A SANE, which is a Sexual Assault Nurse Examination had been done, where they had found seminal fluid, which had been held in custody by the Virginia Beach Police Department. The case had gone cold because they were unable to identify the assailant. The reason behind this was because these few decades earlier, technology was not as advance as it is now.

Because of this lack of technology, the case had gone cold and stayed cold for over 20 years. After the investigation, the only real evidence that had been recovered was the seminal fluid that had come from the SANE test that was performed on the victim. Witnesses were not present, no articles of clothing had been found, or any other form of evidence, which could have been something like fingernail scrapings from the victim. Only the seminal fluid which did not give them much to go on at that time. It is not exactly certain as to how exactly the investigators had analyzed the evidence, but it does seem certain that the lack of technology advancements from the early 90’s had played a huge part in this. When the Virginia Beach Police Department submitted the seminal fluid, the department of forensic science had gotten back a positive match. The DNA had matched Robert Lee Lane. Lane had already been serving a life sentence along with 220 years because of another rape case that had occurred in 2002, and after this case had been solved, he had entered a plea agreement in Virginia Beach Circuit Court. He had been charged with rape and abduction, with the intent to defile. Judge James C. Lewis from circuit court had issued him a 50-year sentence on top of his previous sentence. When Lane had been convicted from the 2002 case, he was charged with rape and abduction, two counts of abduction with the intent to defile, three counts of rape, and also carjacking. Lane did have prior convictions, and these were indecent liberties, 2 counts of burglary, grand larceny, and possession of cocaine.

It would make sense to say that if they did not improve the DNA technology, there are a whole lot of cases that would have become cold cases, whether they are homicide cases, or even sexual assault cases. A lot of the cases that were once cold from between 1970 to 1990, could more than likely be solved now, just by using the evidence that had be found from the first investigation. According to Vidaki, Daniel, and Court (2013), items such as underwear the victim had been wearing during the sexual assault, or a condom, or fingerprints left by the assailant, can definitely be reanalyzed and this would help to determine whose DNA had been left behind. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) also plays a huge role in helping to solve cold cases. CODIS was originally created to help investigate sexual assault cases that had gone cold. According to the National Institute of Justice (2010), with the assistance of CODIS, many cold cases would be able to finally be solve and it would not matter how much time had passed since the incident. When it comes to CODIS, the results would be considered more reliable when there is more than just one piece of evidence. When it came to the Robert Lee Lane case, the only available evidence that had been found was the fluid from the Sexual Assault Nurse Exam, it seems pretty unlikely that CODIS was the only program used to match the DNA from the fluid to Lane.

DNA profiling is normally established whenever there needs to be a sexual assault kit done. Whenever the profile of that DNA is created, the profile would then be added to the DNA database for National Crime. Luckily for the investigators, the 2002 case had placed Lane’s DNA into the database making it more likely that the seminal fluid would have a match. If it was not for the 2002 case, the case from 1992 would have more than likely been left cold. The biggest problem is that if a person’s DNA is not already in the system from a previous crime scene, then the case would have to stay cold until the DNA could be linked to a different case. When looking further into CODIS and DNA profiling, even though technology is advancing every day, there are still some drawbacks of the systems. CODIS is a very strong tool for the law enforcement officers to use all over the nation, and every day it gets stronger because of the data that is being added to it. Since there have been so many offenders that were convicted and lots of backlogs of the forensic framework, the law enforcement departments from the city and the states are still working on building their DNA databases.

It should also be mentioned that beings the backlogs are that big, there may be many convicted offender samples that had sat in the database untouched for years without being analyzed. When it comes to the forensic casework backlogs, there are many labs that end up being forced to prioritize their crime scene samples based on the very serious crimes and the not so serious crimes. According to the Department of Justice (2002), since October of 1999, there have been more than 180,000 sexual assault kits that were still not processed all over the country. Another very important explanation as to why cold cases are unable to be solved, whether technology is advanced or not, would be the statutes of limitation. There are many different kinds of offenses and each of these offenses have specific time limits as to when a criminal charge must be filed. It should be remembered that most of the older cases are already outside of these time limits, since they had happened decades ago. The main reason behind a statute of limitation is that as time moves forward, the reliability of the evidence greatly reduces as well. Certain types of evidence lose their credibility such as eyewitnesses, and the reason behind this is because their testimony will more than likely be entirely different decades after the case in comparison to when the crime had first occurred. If this is not the case, they could also have completely forgotten everything that had occurred, and they may cause the investigators to run into a dead end without any possibility of conviction.

Ritter (2011), made a great point when it comes to the sexual assault cases that had gone many years unprocessed. Ritter explains that these kits sitting unprocessed basically lead to a domino effect and explains what kinds of questions would be asked by certain jurisdictions. These questions may be things like: Where will the resources come from whenever there are requests about follow-up investigations or DNA analysis, especially in law enforcement agencies and crime labs that have very little room when it comes to funding? What will a law enforcement department do if a matter comes up where a DNA profile comes up, but the DNA is not already in the crime scene database or CODIS? Does it seem like there be a warrant issued for this John Doe? Lastly, let’s say an investigation does end up finding a person that could be a suspect, how will the overly tired prosecutors take on the extra work with this caseload?

The National Academic Press (1996) states that DNA profiling is definitely supported by empirical studies. It is important to realize the many different key cases from the United States, and other oversea countries such as Australia, that had occurred anywhere from 2003 and 2014 and they had been solved using this particular technology. As it is well known already, DNA will be different for every individual. No two living organisms has the same DNA. This even includes identical twins. Because of this, it is highly probable that profiling DNA has a strong possibility of identifying criminals for arrests and prosecutions. According to Wivell (2017), the technology also stands with the Daubert Standards. The Daubert Standard is a rule that is employed by court judges that is basically based on reasoning that is considered scientifically valid and that works out properly to the very specific facts that are being reviewed.

The technology of DNA profiling has been tested many times and has held up. It had also been peer reviewed and reviewed by publications and had also been known to have a very low potential error rate. This DNA profiling technology had been tested to an extreme amount and it had been constantly accepted across the whole scientific community. Not to mention that it has specific rules that assist in controlling its own operation. To make it simple, DNA forensics assist to provide different techniques that are reliable in criminal investigations. Cases that had gone cold that have to do with sexual assaults are capable of using DNA profiling technology. Even though identifying a suspect does not always lead to a prosecution, it is still good for assisting with other cases that need to be solved.

References

  1. Department of Justice. (2002). Using DNA to solve cold cases. NIJ Special report.
  2. National Research Council (US) Committee on DNA Forensic Science: An Update. (1996, January 01). The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK232610/
  3. Reese, B. (2017). Two decades later, DNA match spurs guilty plea in Virginia Beach rape case. WAVY News. Retrieved from http://www.wavy.com/news/two-decades-later-dna-match-spurs-guilty-plea-in-va-beach-rape-case/1078246779
  4. Ritter, N. (2011). Solving the problem of untested evidence in sexual assaults. NIJ Journal, 267, 18-20.
  5. Vidaki, A., Daniel, B., & Court, D. S. (2013). Forensic DNA methylation profiling—Potential opportunities and challenges. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 7(5), 499-507.
  6. What is CODIS? (2010, July 16). Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/journals/266/pages/backlogs-codis.aspx

Male Sexual Assault Essay

Throughout history, “male sexual assault has been shrouded in secrecy and stigma” (AASAS) . “Sexual assault can take many different forms and be defined in different ways, but one thing remains the same : it’s never the victims fault”(RAINN). Contrary to popular beliefs anyone regardless of age , ethnicity, gender or socioeconomic class can be a victim of sexual assault. However , male victims are having a difficult time coping with being victimized , primarily because their masculinity is being question ,the action of a man being raped is not seen “manly or macho”(AASAS) and because of social definitions. And in several cases, many man have reported were sexually aroused. “Male sexual assault has been regarded as an aberration of institutional life where the sex object of choice is unavailable” (Mezey) . “ Our culture values invulnerability and denial of pain as essential qualities of “manliness”(NASAS). If the issue of male sexual assault is not address immediately , we will have a high rate of depression , suicide , and mental illness which in return attacks the way we function as a society. The following research question reads as follows : How has the sexual assault of men effect their views of sexual assault? (How are they coping with sexual assault ) . However , the hypothesis will prove that male victims of sexual assault are encountering difficulties coping with being victimized. Both variable are as followed : male (independent ) and coping methods (dependent). The significance of this research proposal is to bring light to the controversial topics of males as sexual assault victims and their coping methods . In addition to highlight the negative role society has on male victims.

Literature Review

We are living in a society where the “social definition of gender” (Weiss 287) has more relevance over “the definition of rape itself” (Weiss 287). Sadly, “the assumptions that men, by nature, need and want sex, and because of persistent cultural scripts regarding (hetero)sexuality that cast men as sexual initiators and women as gatekeepers responsible for restraint, men’s incidents may seldom be acknowledge as “real” crimes” (Weiss 287). According to Karen G. Weiss author of Male Sexual Victimization: Examining Men’s Experience of Rape and Sexual Assault explore the victimization of male in the United States. In this thorough article she talks about the “social definition of sexual violence and masculinity” (276), while “examining male sexual assault experience” (286) and “the shame of Sexual victimization (291). Weiss goes on to explain how “social definition of sexual violence and masculinity” (276) can have a negative effect on the victim and their coping methods. She states that “men who are victimized by rape or sexual assault contradict hegemonic definitions of male sexuality that require men to be sexually potent, dominate, and in control” (277). Furthermore she examples that if a man uses the word NO his masculinity is question, whereas if a women says NO society stands behind her choice. Regardless of gender no one, male or female should be ashamed of being a victim of sexual assault. However, because of social definition and social norms male victims of sexual assault are looked down upon, their masculinity (strength) is question and the question of if their a real man is raised. Throughout this article she share several stories of male victims who were “date rape” (Weiss 287) by individuals close to them. Weiss states that “In addition, while there are certainly incidents of men being sexually coerced by male dates and intimate partners, the vast majority of date rape described in men’s narrative are attributed to girlfriends, ex-girlfriends, or female friends” (287). Many man will continue to be ashamed of being victimzed because “they fear being disbelieved, ridiculed, shamed, accused of weakness, ignored or, in the case of heterosexual men, being perceived as gay” (AASAS).

Throughout history it is evident that society does not view male and female victims of sexual assault the same. As stated before anyone regards of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomical status can be victims of sexual assault. “Male sexual assault has been shrouded in secrecy and stigma” (RAINN) because “our culture values invulnerability and denial of pain as essential qualities of “manliness” (NASAS). According to G. Mezey and M. King authors’ of The effect of sexual assault on men: a survey of 22 victims identifies victims’ long-term reactions of the assault and their reaction following the assault. Mezey and King categorized male victims’ long-term reactions into two principal groups such as Psychological and Behavioral. According to the survey of 22 men, 5 men recorded that they all suffered from an “increased sense of vulnerability, (5) security precautions and (5) increased anger / irritability” (Mezey 207). While 11 men suffered from both “sexual dysfunction and rape- related phobias” (Mezey 207). Whereas, six men suffered from “conflicted sexual orientation, seven reported having “loss of self-respect / damaged self- image” (Mezey 207). And eight men surveyed that they suffered from “emotional distancing” (Mezey 207).

As you can see male victims of sexual suffered tremendously, it became very difficult for them to “form close trusting relationships” (Mezey 207). Many where not able to perform sexual , which lead to many “men questioning their sexual orientation or its relevance to the assault” (Mezey 207). Afterwards, many male victims experience “a wide range of distressing and disabling symptoms often experienced for years afterwards” (Mezey 207). However, Mezey and King indicated that “two victims had attempted suicide subsequently and one committed suicide two years after the assault” (207). Due to the overwhelming pressure surround their assault several men surveyed that participated in the consumption of “alcohol, prescribed drugs” (Mezey 207). Many male victims of sexual assault fail to report this Haynes crime because of the “stigma, fear of rejection or disbelief they anticipated” (Mezey 207). Whereas Mezey and King, believe that “failure to report to the police is an even more greater problem for male victims of sexual assault than for women… they also need to be aware that male victims exist” (208). As many articles such as this continue to unfold, you will be more enlighten on the severity and importance of how male sexual assault victims cope with being victimized and how society focusing them to remind quiet.

Methodology

The following paper will identify and explain Research Approach, Research Design, Data Collection Methods and Sampling Methods. It will also highlight key elements of Sample Methods such as Study Population, Sampling Frame and Sample Strategy. Furthermore, this paper will provide justifications for choosing various strategies and how they are compatible with the research question / objectives. In addition to describe what methods are used to minimize measurement errors and enhancing the reliability and validity of data collection instrument.

The Research Approach that I will be using to construct my research paper is Cross-sectional studies. Although, this form of study is time consuming and costly it provides me with accurate information that helps me minimize inaccurate responses. After choosing my Research Approach I am now able to identify my Research Design as Descriptive Studies. This form of study answers the question of how a phenomenon occurs, in addition to identifying a correlation between both variable. Descriptive study is an in-depth form of study that provides us with descriptive information about the participant’s feelings and experiences. The Study Population that I will be focusing on is men and my Sampling Frame is male victims of sexual assault. The Sample Strategy would be Simple Random sampling because it provides all the participants a fair chance of being a part of the research study. The Sample Method is a very important method in constructing a research paper because it helps you narrow down your population in addition to helping you stay on topic and making sure your research paper flow according.

Last but not least, the Data Collection Method that I will be using for my research paper is a Questionnaire. Although there are advantages and disadvantages of a questionnaire this method can be held in various location and times. However, a face to face questionnaire is much easier and effective because it provides us with the opportunity to take notes on the participant’s behavior. In order to minimize measurement errors, I must avoid asking questions that are not related to my research and asking leading questions. In addition to avoid my own personal biases and prejudices. All of my question must be clear and concise. To enhance reliability and validity I must make sure that I am truly measuring what needs to measure (ex. Agree, disagree, etc.). In addition to making sure that my research paper meets all scientific requirements. It is evident that there is a correlation between the strategies provides and the research question / objective. Each strategy helps me prove the validity of my research paper by allowing me to choose which methods/ study works best with constructing my research paper.

After reading the following paper you will be able to identify and explain the research topic, problem statement, research question, hypothesis in addition to distinguishing both independent / dependent variables along with identifying the significance of the research. Furthermore, you will be able to see the correlation between the hypothesis and literature review. In addition to highlighting different aspect of Methodology to help you identify the Research Approach, Research Design, Data Collection Methods and Sampling Methods.

You will also be able to highlight key elements of Sample Methods such as Study Population, Sampling Frame and Sample Strategy. In addition to identifying justifications for choosing various strategies and how they are compatible with the research question / objectives. In addition to what methods are used to minimize measurement errors and enhancing the reliability and validity of data collection instrument. Furthermore, you will walk away with more knowledge about male victims of sexual assault, along with information on how society social definition are not helping the healing purpose for male victims.

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