Self-Esteem In The Adolescence Period Sample Essay


According to Kail and Cavanaugh (2004), self-esteem can be explained to mean the general perception of an individual. He went ahead to explain that it is the way an individual views him or herself in the eyes of society. Self-esteem has to do with the level of satisfaction or achievements of a person. Self-esteem is divided into high self-esteem, medium, and low self-esteem.

The level of an individual’s self-esteem determines what a person is likely to accomplish in a given project.

High achievers are associated with high self-esteem while low achievers are associated with low self-esteem.

Despite the low achievements by people with low self-esteem, they also suffer from de4pression and dissatisfaction in life.

Development and factors influencing self-esteem

Erikson’s tried to explain the development of human psychology and came up with eight stages from birth to adulthood. All the stages play a major role in the development of self-esteem. If the challenges in any of those stages are not well coped with at the right time, they are likely to affect an individual in later life. Those stages are: hope, will, purpose, competence, fidelity, love, care, and wisdom.

The stage of competence is the stage of school-going when the children develop the sense of Industry versus Inferiority. It is between seven and twelve years. In this stage, the children are concerned with the degree of perfection. They develop an understanding of things and are curious to learn the new idea. Risk-taking is also another trait characterized at this stage such as climbing trees, bike riding among others. This prepares them for their future roles. When the children at this age fail to produce the expected results, they suffer from inferiority as they tend to feel incompetent.

This feeling of inferiority may lead to rebelliousness as a way of expressing their frustrations (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2004). If they are not encouraged by their seniors on their efforts they also develop a sense of incompetence and this affects their aggressiveness of trying new things even in the future. It develops into a lack of confidence hence low self-esteem. Those children, who are constantly encouraged even when they do not produce the desired results, normally develop a sense of industriousness and confidence in trying even the very complex projects, thus raising their self-esteem because they feel they are capable of handling situations on their own. Fidelity stages set in from thirteen to nineteen years.

It is the stage of Identity versus Role Confusion (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2004). During this stage, the adolescent is normally concerned with the way other people feel about them and especially their peers. They also develop a sexual identity in the latter stages of their adolescence. They are trying to identify with adults and may end up having mixed ideas as to what they are expected to do as well as coping with the strange changes taking place in their bodies. They also develop a sense of identity and are given an opportunity they can explore and experiment with what the adults do. They develop loyalties without basis to it. In this stage, the adolescents suffer a lot because their self-esteem is so much determined by what they think their peers feel about them. In case they feel not appreciated they suffer low self-esteem.

Measures to low self-esteem and very high self-esteem

Low self-esteem leads to an individual who never takes the initiative to handle many situations. Those individuals normally have a low opinion of themselves; suffer loneliness, depressions and may end up committing suicide due to the fact that they feel left out and unimportant in society. On the other side, those with very high esteem may end up being frustrated because they normally have very high expectations which may not be achievable.


To conclude we can therefore say that the school-going age and the adolescence stage usually contribute a great deal in building the esteem of an individual and in determining who a person will become in future. It is therefore important to do all that is expected at those two stages so as to mold a balanced individual and ensure a productive society.


Kail, R. V., & Cavanaugh J. C. (2004). Human development: A life-span view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

The “Night” Novel By Wiesel Review

Wiesel’s intention in writing the novel ‘Night’ was to give a testimony of the horrors that took place during the Holocaust; consequently, the themes from the book reflect these intentions.

Themes in the night

When Elie was a young boy, he grew up in a sheltered environment where he assumed that there was little evil in the world. Furthermore, he was such an idealist and had so much hope in the future. However, after experiencing the pain and troubles of the Hitler regime, it became clear that the world was not that hopeful after all. Elie came to see the stark reality of power and death upon people’s behavior. For instance, in his block, one of the heads commented that “Here, there are no fathers, no brothers, no friends” (Wiesel, p. 115). The speaker was trying to dissuade Elie from caring too much for his ailing father because at that point, he was going to be a burden to Elie. He further emphasized how the bowl of soup and bread that his father was taking could have been given to Elie. This exchange made Elie realize how impersonal and selfish people could become even to the point of ignoring their close family members. His eyes were open to the harsh reality of the world. There are several other instances in the book that reveal how Elie changed from being a naive little boy to a realistic and even bitter individual; like “Bite your lip little brother… keep your anger and hatred for another day” (Wiesel, p. 51). The underlying theme in these scenarios was therefore a loss of innocence.

Another strong theme in the novel is the importance of faith. It addresses how human beings tend to question their beliefs in the wake of turmoil. One person next to Elie in the camp commented “He’s the only one who’s kept his promises, all his promises to the Jewish people” (Wiesel, p.  87). At that time the latter individual was talking about Hitler and how he believed that Hitler was the only being that could be counted on. This person had lost faith in his God because he had left them alone in their suffering. Even Elie himself comments that “Never shall I forget those moments which murdered my God and turned my dreams to dust” (Wiesel, p. 32) To Elie, the cruelty he went through and witnessed was enough to shake his entire spiritual foundation.

One cannot talk about themes without addressing the element of Hatred recurring throughout the novel. The Jews were placed in concentration camps because of the hatred that the Nazis felt towards them. This immense hatred is what justified all the inhumane acts of torture that they inflicted upon the Jews. The latter were thrown in fire pits, hanged, starved, killed, maimed and subjected to all sorts of hideous acts. However, it also got into the minds of the victims themselves because they also began hating their instigators.

One last recurring theme in the novel is silence. This book illustrates how dangerous silence can be because the victims in the book were well aware of the evils around them in the early stages but the chose not to speak out against them. For instance when Elie’s father noticed Nazi imposition in their lives he said “The yellow star? Oh well, what of it? You don’t die of it?” (Wiesel, p. 20). In other words, he was keeping silent. The latter group never spoke when they were banned from public places, they remained silent when isolated in ghettos and eventually they faced their death in concentration camps. They should have been bold enough to stage a revolt in those early stages but they never did. In conclusion, the themes of hatred, silence, faith and loss of innocence in the book are all tied to the existence of Holocaust and the effects that it brought onto the people of Nazi Germany.

Work cited

Wiesel, Eli. Night. NY: Hill and Wang, 1960

The Story Of Civil Rights Movements In America

The Montgomery Bus Bycott

The story of civil rights movements in America can be traced back to the Montgomery bus boycott that was instigated by Rosa Parks’s refusal to relinquish her seat to the white extremists. This was the chance that Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. used to become in the limelight of the civil right movements. A series of struggles had been following that case until he was assassinated by some killer who fired Martin Luther King later in 1968. King death resulted in the mixed feelings of shock, grief and rage among his many accomplices and even further threatened to bring the movement struggles down to its knees. However, the announcement made by Martin Luther King’s brother stated that the strike of the Memphis sanitation workers was to show a landmark victory in few days after his leader’s death. In the following years, the movement saw a shift to the next phase that presented a new and more complicated terrain of struggles focused on the reforms it had already implemented and the constant hurdles it was facing.

The Civil Right Legislation

The civil right legislation of the mid 1960s served as a good ground for the development of the real struggles for achieving equality in jobs, politics, education, and military. Moreover, the movement did not take advantage of the civil right act of 1964 to open public accommodations like bus stations and lunch counters but it also made the first large scale progress that led to halting the job segregation. The movement held onto the power provided by Title VII of the Civil Right Act; it mobilized hundreds of workers in a protest that aimed at bringing to an end the chains of segregation and discrimination. On the other hand, the unions took upon themselves to improve the environments in the existing work places, inspired by the Memphis sanitation workers. Here, the African women worked alongside their male counterparts and were aware of the fact that men gained a higher pay and had more chances for promotion. So, they began struggle against their discrimination.

Segregation in Schools

With regard to school segregation, Title IV of the Civil Right Act and many other court victories served as a significant advancement to change this long-standing obstacle. In the same line, the voting rights Act of 1965 presented African Americans a great chance to take part in the electoral politics. The South had the greatest impact on this new development, following the partnership created between the enfranchised black voters and the liberal and moderate whites. Consequently, more African Americans were elected; that was a case that had never been seen since the reconstruction period. For example, in the west and north cities of the USA, the African American communities gained a great representation as they had never had before. Furthermore, approximately 43 African American candidates won mayoral positions in 1973. This number increased to almost 160 black candidates in the year that followed.

This new era of the civil right movements saw the freedom struggle shift from the streets to other institutional spheres. Civil right movements infiltrated the institutions of higher learning. The African American students fought for the creation of financial aid policies and study programs that would incorporate them. The civil right quest further touched the American Military workforce that saw an affirmative action adopted to employ African Americans, thus violating the equity in that arm of public service.

In face of the realities of the 1960s, civil right movement took a new direction as it confronted a new concern and forged new coalitions. This newly developed stage of struggle also worked to create alliances that would be more active and efficient in solving the issues of other groups facing similar problems of inequality and discrimination. For instance, Jews and blacks worked hand in hand with Latinos and Asian Americans in campaigns for fundamental equal treatment and better welfare. In the 1970s, campuses worked to realize “Third World Coalition” that sought to gain shared demands for ethnic studies program and open admission. For instance, feminist and mainstream civil rights groups supported each other in lawsuits that were meant to open institutions for all and further end the discriminatory employment. Among the many activist groupings allied to the movement, there was the Black and Puerto Rican Activist. The group worked together with white feminists to bring to an end the practice of sterilization abuse, from which the black women suffered. Furthermore, this group sought far-reaching reproductive rights, like child and maternal health care. Contrary to mainstream male–led civil rights groups, the white women and progressive Catholics served as stronger allies to the poor black women.


Later, homosexuals in America were inspired by the civil right movements to fight for impartiality and fairness they had not had yet. This came with the rise of the gay right activists who in turn stirred up the gay right opponents to fight for the enactment of the gay right laws. Today, this has become a major and controversial legal battle taking a centre stage in the many debates. The proponents argued that as any other citizen in the country, they deserved equal treatment in the society; they arguments were backed by the civil right movements’ struggles for equity.

At the bottom of this, movements got the communal development and self-determination based on the legislative victories of the 1960s. Following this, tremendous intellectual and cultural creativity sparked. The black arts’ movement created rebirth in literature, music, theater and dance. Black history took a central role is a dynamic field of America history and was led by such scholars like John Hope Franklin (1915 – 2009). For instance, afro hair style became a fashion along with the African–made dress styles like the kente and dashiki cloth. All across the cities in the USA, community planners began to work deriving their funds from Great Society programs. This mainly targeted at the alleviation of poverty and hopelessness while generating resources and power to stir up community advancement.

In conclusion, it is worth noting that despite the gains of the 1960s, the civil right advocates agree that desegregation had not taken a complete turn that would have worked to change the lives of the black Americans. This was even furthered by the big differences arising amongst them with regard to the future advancement of the black struggle. The many efforts to fight for the civil right realized in the later years of 1970 and in the 1980s only served to uphold the previous victories and strengthen the enforcement programs. In the present day, the African American civil right movement has managed to transform American democracy significantly. There have been many controversies over the affirmative programs and compensatory remedies for the past deep-rooted patterns of segregation. Debates that are more fundamental are the main agenda in the world today as they focus on the limitations of individual rights, the part played by the government in this issue and alternative concept of social justice.

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