Self-Evaluation Report Final Free Essay

The only reason I registered in this course was to have a better grasp of the various project management strategies and concepts. In addition, I sought to learn new strategies and abilities for efficiently managing projects. My learning goals were to improve my customer service abilities, learn how to successfully handle cash and transactions, and improve my communication and interpersonal skills. Learn how to utilize restaurant technology successfully, and get a deeper grasp of the menu and food preparation process. Improve time management abilities, learn how to handle customer complaints and provide genuine feedback, and improve both leadership and management skills to help with staff training and scheduling.

Enhance Your Customer Service Skills

Customer service is the process of providing consumers with support and help both before and after they buy a product or service. In a restaurant, having outstanding customer service abilities is essential since one deals with a variety of personalities (Santos 13). To accomplish this goal, I enrolled in a brief customer service training course, which greatly improved both my client communication and general customer service abilities. These were highly supported by learning vital and varied customer service behaviors such as being patient and nice with customers, attentively and actively listening to customer demands, and gracefully managing customer difficulties. A few difficulties developed, such as managing consumer expectations and effectively resolving customer problems and issues. With this customer service skills training, it is critical to put oneself in the shoes of the client in order to properly support them in anything they desire.

Learn how to successfully handle cash and transactions.

The technique of successfully handling cash and transactions in a restaurant environment is critical to avoiding any kind of discrepancy. It was critical for me to master different methods of handling financial stages and procedures, such as safe and secure cash storage (Alvares et al 6). To accomplish this goal, I learnt how to count cash swiftly and precisely. In addition, towards the conclusion of my shift, I learnt how to operate the cash register and balance cash. I also learnt how to utilize a point of scale system from an online educator, which made the transaction process simpler by minimizing mistakes and enhancing accuracy. During the fulfillment of this goal, I was confronted with the difficulty of fraud and human mistakes, since large volumes of cash transactions during peak hours made precise cash counting difficult. I also learnt how important it is to teach personnel on different cash handling skills as well as fraud detection strategies.

Improve your communication and interpersonal abilities.

Communication and interpersonal skills are defined as the capacity to transmit and share thoughts and information with people flawlessly. When working with clients at a restaurant, one must have outstanding and efficient communication skills (Wolters et al 27). This goal was attained through learning how to react effectively to consumers and carefully listen to their problems and inquiries. I also learnt how to properly connect with my coworkers and consumers. In addition, I learnt numerous dispute resolution techniques as well as how to deal with loud and challenging clients. The most difficult obstacle I encountered throughout this procedure was the linguistic barrier. Some consumers were from other nations, and it was difficult to understand them when placing purchases or making inquiries. Among the other difficulties encountered was speaking efficiently and clearly in a fast-paced setting, particularly during peak hours. In the hotel industry, I learned that strong communication and interpersonal skills are critical for achieving client happiness and retention.

Improve your comprehension of the menu and the food preparation process.

Knowing the components and cooking procedures of each dish may be used to get a better knowledge of the restaurant menu and food preparation process (Suarez et al 2). I accomplished this goal via apprenticeship, in which I regularly watched experienced personnel and reviewed the menu on a regular basis to foster familiarity. Understanding the menu and the food production process allows one to readily respond clients and provide suitable meal suggestions and feedback. The most difficult aspect of this procedure was learning how to prepare the various foreign cuisines that I was unfamiliar with. Another difficulty was the cultural variations in the cuisine, particularly in foreign dishes. I discovered that understanding the menu as well as the food processes might aid in the creation of new meal combinations and the overall quality of food. To address the difficulty of knowing various cuisines and ingredients, management should also conduct cross-staff training.

Learn how to utilize restaurant technology efficiently.

Restaurant technology refers to the many tools and systems that may be used to efficiently enhance all restaurant procedures and activities. Restaurant technology includes anything from inventory management and kitchen display systems to customer relationship management. Learning how to utilize these tools is essential for seamless operations and making work simpler. With effective instruction from management and aid from my coworkers, I learnt how to utilize numerous restaurant technologies. Understanding and learning restaurant technology was also simplified since software in goods and equipment, such as the kitchen display system, provided lessons (Mata et al 7). Another method I used was to observe experienced people in order to rapidly understand how to operate the equipment and systems. The most common difficulty encountered when utilizing diverse office technologies was system problems and system failure. During busy hours, the systems sometimes crashed or glitched, disrupting the restaurant’s seamless functioning. During this process, I discovered that frequent staff training and peer assistance might help to ease the process of understanding restaurant technology.

Time management skills are defined as the ability to efficiently manage personal time as well as prioritize responsibilities. Time management abilities are essential in a restaurant environment to help with work distribution and meeting order deadlines. I improved my time management abilities by studying efficient communication and correctly assessing areas in operations where time is wasted. I have discovered that good work delegation may significantly improve time management. The use of technology, such as timers and scheduling software, may greatly aid personnel in achieving deadlines, particularly during food preparation (Back et al 759). The difficulties encountered in achieving this goal were unexpected surges in consumer traffic and a scarcity or low personnel turnover. Unexpected system breakdowns or problems can waste a significant amount of time. During this time, I discovered that being adaptable and fast to change would considerably enhance my time management.

Learn how to deal with consumer complaints and provide feedback.

In a restaurant, customer service entails listening to the client’s requirements or demands and providing them with superior services. Handling clients and providing feedback entails paying close attention to them, assisting them in making decisions, and giving ideas. I learned how to treat clients respectfully and professionally via different training sessions on active listening and customer service skills through online tutorials (Fallowfield et al 1594). Another efficient and successful method I learnt to deal with clients was via on-the-job training provided by management. Observing the experienced workers, as well as obtaining input from other employees and managers, were beneficial. Dealing with unpleasant and boisterous consumers was difficult throughout this process. Furthermore, the language barrier proved to be an issue, but I was able to overcome it by using internet translation tools. It is beneficial for staff to foster a healthy work environment and promote collaboration in order to make dealing with consumers simpler.

Improving leadership and management abilities.

The process of expressing talents such as motivation and inspiration in order to attain corporate objectives is known as leadership and management skill development. Effective communication, problem-solving, and delegating are other important abilities. To reach my goal of gaining leadership abilities, I attended a leadership conference over one weekend as well as online training sessions. Reading a few articles and books also helped me improve my leadership abilities (Grover 179). I also gained some leadership abilities by practicing with my coworkers and receiving feedback from both my supervisor and them. During this time, I had to deal with high-pressure circumstances, particularly during peak hours. While learning this leadership skill growth method, I discovered that successful leadership requires both flexibility and a desire to always improve.


As a cashier at a restaurant, I had the chance to hone a variety of management abilities, ranging from leadership to time management. I learnt the value of numerous abilities, such as excellent communication and delegation of duties within a team. I also learnt how to manage my time by prioritizing different disciplines. Throughout this process, I expanded my understanding of restaurant technology and how to leverage technological tools to make my job simpler. In addition, I’ve learned to cultivate a good attitude toward work and to increase my ability to manage various scenarios that may emerge in the workplace. Furthermore, I have learned to be a better team player and have increased my understanding of the value of doing diverse jobs as part of a team. In general, my experience as a cashier has been beneficial since it has provided me with a variety of abilities that I can utilize in a variety of situations.

To summarize, working as a cashier has taught me a lot about collaboration, the significance of efficient communication, and customer service skills. During my time as a cashier, I’ve seen that I’m adept at communicating effectively with both customers and coworkers. I also learned that I am adept at precisely organizing monetary transactions. My disadvantages as a cashier were unfamiliarity with the menu and the food preparation procedure. Nonetheless, by developing both leadership and management abilities via this training, I have gained professional growth and a significant boost in my overall effectiveness as a cashier.


Alvarez Sainz, María, Ana M. Ferrero, and Arantza Ugidos. “Time management: skills to learn and put into practice.” Education+ Training 61.5 (2019): 635-648.

Back, Anthony, James A. Tulsky, and Robert M. Arnold. “Communication skills in the age of COVID-19.” Annals of internal medicine 172.11 (2020): 759-760.

Fallowfield, Lesley, and V. Jenkins. “Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care.” European Journal of Cancer 35.11 (1999): 1592-1597.

Grover, Susan M. “Shaping effective communication skills and therapeutic relationships at work: The foundation of collaboration.” Aaohn journal 53.4 (2005): 177-182.

Mata, Ádala Nayana de Sousa, et al. “Training in communication skills for self-efficacy of health professionals: a systematic review.” Human Resources for Health 19.1 (2021): 1-9.

Santos, Gilberto, et al. “New needed quality management skills for quality managers 4.0.” Sustainability 13.11 (2021): 6149.

Suárez, Gonzalo, Sungchul Jung, and Robert W. Lindeman. “Evaluating virtual human role-players for the practice and development of leadership skills.” Frontiers in Virtual Reality 2 (2021): 658561.

Wolters, Christopher A., and Anna C. Brady. “College students’ time management: A self-regulated learning perspective.” Educational Psychology Review (2020): 1-33.

Self-Injurious Behavior In Children With Autism Free Writing Sample


Children with ASD often engage in self-destructive behavior (SIB). According to recent study, 20% to 50% of kids with ASD also experience SIB, which is one of the most prevalent and severe behavioral problems (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). For people with ASD and their families, SIB may have devastating effects, lead to social isolation, and reduce quality of life. Therefore, it is important to comprehend, prevent, and treat SIB in kids with ASD. SIB caused by autism has several causes and risk factors. Neurochemical imbalances and genetic factors may have a role. SIB may also result from traumatic or stressful circumstances. SIB may be a result of communication and emotional management problems. Children with ASD who are SIB-engaged may receive a variety of therapies (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). Behavioral treatments that are widely used include functional analysis and positive reinforcement. Antipsychotic medications might be beneficial. Some kids’ SIB may be decreased by music therapy and sensory integration. Their effectiveness varies. To locate the finest ones, further study is thus required. It has significant ramifications for both research and practice. SIB is complicated and variable in children with ASD, necessitating a more comprehensive strategy. 2009 (Kuhn & Triggs). Evidence-based therapies tailored to each child’s needs and improved communication between parents, educators, and healthcare professionals should be part of the plan. To identify the causes of SIB and create more efficient preventative and therapeutic measures, additional investigation is required. Autism-related self-injury will be covered in this capstone essay. The study of SIB literature and treatments aims to advance knowledge and provide useful suggestions for further study and use. By creating SIB treatments, the paper aims to improve the lives of autistic children and their families. Children with autism are increasingly being identified as engaging in self-harm. One of the most prevalent and severe behavioral problems, SIB affects 20%–50% of children with ASD (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). Family members and caregivers may experience stress, mental pain, and even bodily injury as a result of the child’s conduct. Consequently, a lot of autistic kids suffer with self-harm. The best SIB treatments need more investigation. To address this behavior, parents, schools, and healthcare professionals must collaborate. We can enhance therapies and the quality of life for autistic children and their families by better understanding SIB in these kids. As a result, the study includes a concise assessment of six research on self-harming behavior in autistic children.

Summary Review

When an initial functional analysis identifies automatic reinforcement as the maintenance variable for self-injurious behavior (SIB) in autistic children, Kuhn and Triggs (2009) examine social factors. Automatic reinforcement was shown to be the sustaining variable for three autistic children taking part in SIB in the first functional study. Whether social factors support SIB was the subject of a second investigation (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). The social analysis advised the therapist to commend the child for appropriate conduct. According to the study’s findings (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009), the social component decreased SIB for all three participants. Even while automatic reinforcement is the key factor that keeps SIB in place, social factors also play a role. The article clarifies SIB in autistic children and highlights the need for a comprehensive strategy to comprehend and handle it (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). The research has an emphasis on several functional analyses and explores the role of social factors in SIB maintenance (Kuhn & Triggs, 2009). Thus, for children with autism, this may improve SIB outcomes.

In developmental disabilities, such as autism, Hagopian et al. (2015) identify and describe subtypes of self-injurious behavior (SIB) perpetuated by automatic reinforcement. The research (Hagopian et al., 2015) examined the literature on SIB and automatic reinforcement as well as data from 14 developmentally impaired persons who utilized SIB. The scientists identified three SIB subtypes that are sustained by automatic reinforcement: sensory, escape, and automatic positive reinforcement. Hand flapping and head pounding are examples of sensory SIB. Acts like beating oneself up to evade an obligation are examples of escape SIB. Pulling on one’s hair or picking at one’s skin are two instances of SIB. According to the study’s findings (Hagopian et al., 2015), the topography, frequency, and treatment responsiveness of the several automatic reinforcement-maintained SIB subtypes varied. In comparison to other groups, individuals with developmental challenges had a higher prevalence of sensory SIB and a worse response to therapy. The findings sheds light on the complex automatic reinforcement-maintained SIB in developmental disorders (Hagopian et al., 2015). To clarify its functions and methods, the authors divide automatic reinforcement-maintained SIB into subtypes. As a result, this information may be used to develop more effective SIB subtype-specific medicines.

The noncontingent delivery of random reinforcers to treat self-injurious behavior (SIB) in developmental disabilities, notably autism, is the subject of a 1997 research by Fischer et al. In order to treat four developmentally impaired people who were involved in SIB, Fischer et al. (1997) used non-contingent supply of requested goods and activities. In all four cases, the noncontingent administration of random reinforcers greatly decreased SIB. By providing alternative reinforcement, this strategy may reduce SIB motivation, according to researchers. The research (Fischer et al., 1997) underlines the need of functional analysis in determining SIB-maintaining factors prior to making an intervention decision. It’s possible that noncontingent distribution of random reinforcers won’t help those whose SIB is maintained by other factors, such as a desire to avoid obligations or attention. The research provides information on how to treat SIB in individuals with developmental disabilities using noncontingent arbitrary reinforcers (Fischer et al., 1997). According to Fischer et al. (1997), this approach would be a good addition to SIB therapy, but larger samples and additional demographic data are required to prove its effectiveness.

In their 2003 report, Kurtz et al. reviewed functional assessments and treatments for 30 young children with developmental disabilities, including autism, who engaged in self-injurious behavior (SIB). To determine SIB-maintaining factors and evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention, a multi-element technique was used. Functional evaluations, automated reinforcement, escape from demands-maintained SIB, and social reinforcement all support this. The authors claim that recognizing the sustaining properties of SIB therapy is necessary for their success (Kurtz et al., 2003). Testing was done on response blocking, noncontingent reinforcement, and differential reward of alternative behavior. Most people who received interventions had a reduction in SIB, albeit the most successful ones varied by keeping some factors constant. According to the authors (Kurtz et al., 2003), young children with developmental challenges need individualized, function-based SIB interventions. Functional analyses may potentially reveal the root causes of SIB and direct the selection of interventions. The research aids in diagnosing and treating SIB in young kids who are experiencing developmental issues (Kurtz et al., 2003). The results highlight the need for child-specific treatment modalities and suggest that function-based interventions may lessen SIB.

The adverse effects of extinction in the treatment of self-harming behavior (SIB) in developmental disorders, such as autism, are studied by Lerman et al. in 1999. Extinction is a common tactic for decreasing behavior by getting rid of its reinforcing effects. The research looked at how aggression and bursting might lead to extinction (Lerman et al., 1999). Bursting is a brief increase in the frequency or intensity of conduct, while aggression is any physical or verbal action intended to cause harm to another. According to the research, SIB extinction therapies led to an increase in bursting and aggression. Aggression was 80%, and bursting was 94%. According to the authors (Lerman et al., 1999), these adverse effects may make SIB extinction therapy less effective. According to Lerman et al. (1999), the research also looked at the intensity, bursting, and antagonism of SIBs. In those with severe SIB, bursts and hostile behavior during extinction therapy were more common. The research (Lerman et al., 1999) emphasizes the detrimental consequences of extinction on SIB therapy for developmental disabilities. Their usage may be limited by burst and aggression during extinction therapy. In order to develop SIB therapies with fewer side effects, the authors advise conducting a larger trial.

A case study on the identification and functional analysis of antecedent behavior to treat self-injurious behavior (SIB) in a kid with autism is presented by Dracobly & Smith (2012). The authors advise identifying and treating behavioral behaviors that might lead to SIB. A 5-year-old autistic boy who headbutted and hurt himself was the subject of research (Dracobly & Smith, 2012). The child’s SIB was maintained through automatic reinforcement, according to functional analysis. SIB was preceded by stereotyped hand flapping and pacing. As a result, they were recognized and addressed in the research (Dracobly & Smith, 2012). To address antecedent behaviors and lessen SIB, the authors used DRA and response blocking. DRA urged kids to grasp toys rather than headbang. Response blocking literally stopped the kid from hitting his head, preventing injury. According to the study’s findings (Dracobly & Smith, 2012), the treatment plan improved appropriate behavior while reducing SIB. The authors stress the importance of addressing antecedent behaviors in SIB therapy and suggest that this approach could be effective for others who have similar inclinations. The article clarifies SIB and preceding behaviors in autism. In order to address antecedent behaviors and lessen SIB, the case study places an emphasis on functional analyses and evidence-based interventions including DRA and response blocking (Dracobly & Smith, 2012). According to the authors, this method could have an effect on SIB therapy for developmental disabilities.

Summary of the Research Study

Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is challenging to address in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The evaluation’s sources include the etiology, risk factors, functional analyses, and treatment options for SIB. Kuhn & Triggs 2009 investigated the social factors that influence SIB in children with ASD after initial functional analysis revealed that SIB is maintained by automatic reinforcement. Even when it is thought that behavior is being reinforced automatically, social factors like attention and financial possessions may have an impact. The automatic reinforcement-maintained SIB subtypes were studied by Hagopian et al. in 2015. They highlighted the significance of subtype identification for successful treatment and identified four subtypes: sensory, repetitive, ritualistic, and destructive. Fischer et al.’s 1997 study looked at employing non-contingent arbitrary reinforcers to treat SIB. In certain instances, this strategy minimized SIB. They advise combining it with other treatments, however. Functional analyses and SIB therapy were studied by Kurtz et al. (2003) in young ASD youngsters. The escape and attention-seeking functions of SIB were effectively addressed using function-based therapy. Extinction is a common SIB therapy. Lerman et al. (1999) assessed its detrimental consequences. The extinction makes people more aggressive and exhibit other unhelpful behaviors. It has to be properly implemented and monitored as a result. SIB therapy from precursor behavior identification and functional analysis was studied by Lerman et al. in 2012. They emphasized the need of applying a range of therapy modalities and recognizing antecedent behaviors that may signal SIB. These publications suggest a multifaceted strategy for treating SIB in children with ASD. After determining the purpose of the behavior, non-contingent reinforcement, extinction, and function-based interventions should be taken into consideration. To minimize side effects and optimize benefits, these medicines must be properly applied and monitored.


In conclusion, self-harm associated with autism is a challenging problem. Numerous factors and continued behavior might be harmful to the person and their family. The design of a SIB intervention seems to need the functional behavior assessment (FBA). Additionally, non-contingent reinforcement, differential rewarding of alternative behavior, and training in functional communication are all supported by the most recent studies in SIB therapy for autism. However, more research is required to comprehend SIB mechanisms and develop more potent treatments. Additionally, it’s critical to take into account moral dilemmas and negative outcomes such SIB bursts caused by extinction. In order to address self-injurious behavior in autistic children, healthcare professionals, educational institutions, and families must collaborate. Children with autism often engage in self-destructive behavior, which need prompt treatment. As a result, it has drawn increasing attention recently. The capstone study discovered that self-harming behavior associated with autism is complex and involves environmental, biological, and psychological factors. These studies also emphasized the significance of functional behavior assessment (FBA) in understanding the function of behavior and designing effective treatments. Functional communication training, non-contingent reward, and differential reinforcement of alternative conduct have all been shown to lessen self-harm in individuals with autism. However, SIB therapy for autism must be customized to meet the requirements of each patient. The development and use of medicines must be done in an ethical manner due to adverse effects including extinction-induced bursts of SIB. Families, educators, and healthcare professionals must collaborate. Treatment of self-injurious behavior in autistic children necessitates a multidisciplinary strategy that takes the person’s needs and autonomy into account. As a result, SIB in kids with autism is a complicated problem that calls for in-depth knowledge of the causes, the requirements of the person, and evidence-based remedies. Functional behavior evaluation, SIB in autism, and the effectiveness of various interventions have all been made clear by the study. To further understand SIB mechanisms and develop treatments, more research is nonetheless required.


Dracobly, J. D., & Smith, R. G. (2012). Progressing from identification and functional analysis of precursor behavior to treating self‐injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45(2), 361–374.

Fischer, S. M., Iwata, B. A., & Mazaleski, J. L. (1997). Noncontingent delivery of arbitrary reinforcers as a treatment for self‐injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(2), 239-249.

Hagopian, L. P., Rooker, G. W., & Zarcone, J. R. (2015). Delineating subtypes of self‐injurious behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 48(3), 523-543.

Kuhn, S. A. C., & Triggs, M. (2009). Analysis of social variables when an initial functional analysis indicates automatic reinforcement as the maintaining variable for self‐injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42(3), 679–683.

Kurtz, P. F., Chin, M. D., Huete, J. M., Tarbox, R. S., O’Connor, J. T., Paclawskyj, T. R., & Rush, K. S. (2003). Functional analysis and treatment of self‐injurious behavior in young children: A summary of 30 cases. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 36(2), 205–219.

Lerman, D. C., Iwata, B. A., & Wallace, M. D. (1999). Side effects of extinction: Prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self‐injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32(1), 1–8.

Services Of Primary Health Care Centers Essay Example

Patients get excellent care at primary healthcare centers (PHC). Patient satisfaction with PHC services is used to assess healthcare quality. This review of the literature examines PHC patients’ satisfaction with personnel, electronic, and general services, as well as the variables that influence their satisfaction. Patients’ satisfaction with PHC is influenced by the quality of healthcare services. Patients who get high-quality care are happy. The attitudes of healthcare workers, waiting times, accessibility, cost, and facility cleanliness all have an impact on patients’ pleasure. Manpower services also have an impact on PHC patient satisfaction. Patients appreciate caring, polite, and attentive healthcare providers. Patients prefer healthcare workers that are well-trained and knowledgeable.

Patient Satisfaction Influencing FactorsGender, age, marital status, education, and work position may all have an impact on PHC patient satisfaction. Hemadeh et al. (2019) discovered no gender differences in primary healthcare patient satisfaction in Lebanon. Albahrani et al. (2022) discovered that female primary care patients in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia, were happier. Wali et al. (2020) discovered that electronic medical records were preferred by older Western Region Saudi Arabian patients. According to Almezaal et al. (2021), older people in Riyadh’s second health cluster were more satisfied with primary care. During the COVID-19 epidemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Alharbi et al. (2021) discovered no significant relationship between age and virtual clinic patient satisfaction.PHC patient satisfaction has been researched in connection to demographics. Salgado et al. (2020) observed that gender, age, and educational level all had a significant impact on community pharmacy service satisfaction. Beks et al. (2020) emphasized the need of recognizing the cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds of Indigenous people while developing mobile PHC clinics. According to Kendall et al. (2020), stigma, discrimination, and marginalization restrict drug users from seeking PHC services. These findings show that demographic factors have a role in PHC patient satisfaction.

Patients’ Satisfaction with PHC Manpower ServicesPatients’ satisfaction with PHC personnel, including doctors, nurses, receptionists, and management, also influences healthcare quality. Patients’ satisfaction with practitioners’ communication skills, efficiency, number and duration of consultations, and patient contacts are all key considerations. According to Almezaal et al. (2021), people in Riyadh’s second health cluster were satisfied with the availability and accessibility of primary healthcare professionals. Alharbi et al. (2021) observed that patients were dissatisfied with virtual consultation time during the COVID-19 epidemic. Wali et al. (2020) observed that patients in Saudi Arabia’s Western Region were pleased with the speed with which healthcare professionals used electronic medical records. The satisfaction of PHC patients with provider quality and efficiency is critical to the success of the healthcare system. Because patients demand prompt and sufficient treatment, the availability and accessibility of healthcare practitioners is critical to patient satisfaction. According to Almezaal et al. (2021), primary healthcare patients in Riyadh’s second health cluster were satisfied with provider availability and accessibility. This shows that the healthcare workers at these clinics are attending to the needs of the patients.Physicians, nurses, receptionists, and management at PHC clinics may have an impact on patient satisfaction. According to Halcomb et al. (2020), during the COVID-19 outbreak, primary healthcare nurses had inadequate PPE, a lack of training, and an increased workload, which hampered their treatment. Liu et al. (2021) revealed that patients’ experiences with Chinese community health centers were influenced by institutional primary healthcare services, such as practitioner availability and competence. According to these findings, good communication, training, and staff improve PHC patient satisfaction.

Patients’ Satisfaction with PHC Electronic ServicesElectronic appointment scheduling, referral, and PHC services (prescriptions, test results, and so on) are becoming mandatory. Patient satisfaction may speed up service. According to Al Salem et al. (2020), Saudi primary healthcare patients were pleased with electronic services. Wali et al. (2020) found that electronic medical records pleased Western Saudi Arabian patients. Patients’ satisfaction with electronic services is determined by their familiarity with technology and the availability of the center. Because of advances in healthcare technology, PHC now demands electronic services. There is also appointment scheduling, referral, and medical information, such as test results and prescriptions. Satisfaction with electronic services may have an impact on healthcare speed and efficiency.Electronic services like as appointment booking, referral, and medical record access may have an impact on patients’ satisfaction with PHC services. According to Liu et al. (2021), online appointment booking and prescription renewal were favorably connected with patients’ experiences with Chinese community health centers. Salgado et al. (2020) also emphasized the need of leveraging digital health technologies such as telemedicine and medication adherence apps to boost patients’ access to and engagement with community pharmacy services. According to these studies, electronic services may enhance the timeliness, accessibility, and quality of PHC services while also increasing patient satisfaction.

Patients’ General Satisfaction with PHC ServicesPatient satisfaction is used to assess the quality of PHC. Albahrani et al. (2022) revealed that basic healthcare satisfied patients in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. According to Hemadeh et al. (2019), Lebanese patients were satisfied with basic healthcare. However, the quality of healthcare practitioners, the availability of services, and the structure and management of the center may all have an impact on patients’ satisfaction with PHC services. Patient satisfaction determines the quality of PHC. It reflects patients’ opinions on the center’s services.The overall satisfaction of PHC patients is critical. Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States preferred mobile PHC clinics because of their accessibility, cultural sensitivity, and continuity of care, according to Beks et al. (2020). According to Liu et al. (2021), patients’ satisfaction with Chinese community health centers was positively associated to their perception of institutional primary healthcare services. These findings suggest that improving PHC services and matching patients’ needs and expectations may boost patient satisfaction.Many factors influence PHC patients’ satisfaction. Healthcare professionals are really important. Patients’ happiness with center services may be strongly influenced by doctors, nurses, and other staff members. Patients want their physicians to be informed, kind, and attentive. The satisfaction of PHC patients may also be impacted by service availability. Patients expect rapid assistance. The construction and management of the center may also have an impact on the pleasure of PHC patients. Patients expect a well-run hospital with clear communication and quick access to services. Patients anticipate that the facility will have enough medical equipment and resources to provide great treatment. Hemadeh et al. (2019) discovered that patients’ satisfaction with basic healthcare in Lebanon was influenced by gender, age, education, and chronic disease status. Females and chronic disease patients were less happy than younger and better-educated people. Chronic patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, were less satisfied with PHC services than non-chronic patients, according to Almezaal et al. (2021). Patient satisfaction was also increased as a result of health education.

Conclusion Finally, this research review will be notably beneficial to Saudi Arabian and other healthcare authorities and management. Better PHC services are required for universal healthcare coverage and improved health outcomes. Policymakers can enhance PHC services, healthcare costs, and patient outcomes by focusing on patient happiness. To enhance service delivery, invest in healthcare practitioner training, PHC center infrastructure, and electronic health systems. Cultural factors, health knowledge, and patient expectations may all have an effect on PHC patient satisfaction. As a result, more research is necessary. Future research might look at how patient satisfaction influences health outcomes as well as the cost-effectiveness of patient satisfaction interventions. This study focuses on patient satisfaction with PHC services and the need to improve PHC center care.


Al Salem, A. A., Puteh, S. E. W., & Aizuddin, A. N. (2020). Comparison of Patient’s Satisfaction Level with the Provided Health Services in Primary Healthcare Centers-PHCCs in Ten Cities-Saudi Arabia. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 12(11), 1411- 1419.

Albahrani, S., Albidy, H., Alomar, N., Mutreb, L. B., Alkhofi, A., Alsaleh, Z., … & Alarbash Sr, A. (2022). Patient satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Cureus, 14(11).

Alharbi, K. G., Aldosari, M. N., Alhassan, A. M., Alshallal, K. A., Altamimi, A. M., & Altulaihi, B. A. (2021). Patient satisfaction with virtual clinic during Coronavirus disease (COVID- 19) pandemic in primary healthcare, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Family & Community Medicine, 28(1), 48.

Almezaal, E. A. M., Elsayed, E. A. H., Javed, N. B., Chandramohan, S., & Mohammed, A. M. (2021). Chronic disease patients’ satisfaction with primary healthcare services provided by the second health cluster in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Journal for Health Sciences, 10(3), 185.

Beks, H., Ewing, G., Charles, J. A., Mitchell, F., Paradies, Y., Clark, R. A., & Versace, V. L. (2020). Mobile primary health care clinics for Indigenous populations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States: a systematic scoping review. International journal for equity in health19(1), 1-21.

Halcomb, E., McInnes, S., Williams, A., Ashley, C., James, S., Fernandez, R., … & Calma, K. (2020). The experiences of primary healthcare nurses during the COVID‐19 pandemic in Australia. Journal of Nursing Scholarship52(5), 553-563.

Hemadeh, R., Hammoud, R., Kdouh, O., Jaber, T., & Ammar, L. (2019). Patient satisfaction with primary healthcare services in Lebanon. The international journal of health planning and management, 34(1), e423-e435.

Kendall, C. E., Boucher, L. M., Donelle, J., Martin, A., Marshall, Z., Boyd, R., … & Bayoumi, A. M. (2020). Engagement in primary health care among marginalized people who use drugs in Ottawa, Canada. BMC Health Services Research20, 1-12.

Liu, R., Shi, L., Meng, Y., He, N., Wu, J., Yan, X., & Hu, R. (2021). The institutional primary healthcare service quality and patients’ experiences in Chinese community health centres: Results from the Greater Bay Area study, China. International journal for equity in health20(1), 1-9.

Salgado, T. M., Rosenthal, M. M., Coe, A. B., Kaefer, T. N., Dixon, D. L., & Farris, K. B. (2020). Primary healthcare policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in the United States. Pharmacy Practice (Granada)18(3).

Wali, R. M., Alqahtani, R. M., Alharazi, S. K., Bukhari, S. A., & Quqandi, S. M. (2020). Patient satisfaction with the implementation of electronic medical Records in the Western Region, Saudi Arabia, 2018. BMC family practice, 21(1), 1-6.