Sentencing Of Young Offenders In Canada Sample Paper

Introduction

The Canadian juvenile justice system was established to address the unique needs and circumstances of juveniles who conflict with the law. The purpose of the approach is to hold children accountable for their actions while treating the underlying causes of their abnormal behavior. Various interventions and programs, such as community monitoring, diversion, and jail, serve to achieve this objective.

The Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA), implemented in 2003, controls the sentencing of teenage offenders in Canada (Zhang, 2016). The three essential principles of the YCJA that regulate the sentencing of juvenile offenders are rehabilitation, reintegration, and the protection of society. The Act recognizes that, compared to adults, youth have a lesser moral culpability and a greater capacity for reform and rehabilitation. Consequently, adolescent offenders often get shorter sentences than adult offenders. The focus is on providing young offenders with the skills and helps they need to alter their life while also holding them accountable for their behavior. Alternatives to imprisonment in a juvenile detention facility include community monitoring and probation for juvenile offenders.

According to a recent article by Karen Bartko (2022), seven juveniles aged between 14 and 17 were recently charged with second-degree murder for allegedly participating in the killing of a fellow student outside McNally high school in Edmonton. According to reports, the incident occurred following a heated confrontation between two opposing sides. Since the suspects were under 18, the Youth Criminal Justice Act, which prohibits publishing their identities, required their anonymity. The six adolescents were jailed for many days during the first week after the assault and were first charged with attempted murder. However, police publicly announced that the charges had been upgraded to second-degree murder. An autopsy confirmed Sahota’s cause of death to be a stab wound to the chest and the manner of death to be murder.

According to Canada’s Youth Criminal Justice Act, the maximum penalty for young offenders convicted of second-degree murder is up to seven years of four years in prison, with the remainder under supervised community rehabilitation (Wun, 2022). The YCJA also enables the imposition of adult sentences on juvenile offenders in some circumstances, such as when the perpetrator is at least 14 years old, and the crime is particularly heinous or violent. Under certain conditions, the criminal would get an adult prison sentence and serve it in an adult prison. Due to the seriousness of the circumstance, the family of the slain teenager advocated for the case to be considered as an adult.

Whether or not the teens committed the offense, a juvenile law-compliant process must be followed to determine whether or not they should be held guilty. Over the years, incarceration has shown to be an expensive and usually ineffective method of addressing juvenile delinquency, while community-based treatments typically provide a higher possibility of rehabilitation (Pennington, 2019). While there are unquestionably instances in which incarcerating young offenders for accountability and rehabilitation reasons is appropriate, Parliament thought imprisonment was being overused under the YOA, especially for nonviolent criminals. Parliament intended for the YCJA to focus more on community-based remedies to juvenile delinquency and less on the jail, as stated in the YCJA’s Preamble. It also makes clear that responses to crimes committed by children should be proportional to the transgression, even though children have less responsibility than adults. The YCJA provides judges and other decision-makers with a policy framework for dealing with juvenile offenders. The purposes of the juvenile justice system and the YCJA are outlined in the Preamble and accompanying Declaration of Principles.

It is essential to recall that the YCJA emphasizes rehabilitation and reintegration as the major goals of sentencing for juvenile offenders (Wun, 2022). Therefore, even in heinous crimes such as second-degree murder, the punishment will try to provide the offender with the resources and assistance necessary to alter their lives and become law-abiding citizens. Rehabilitation programs are equally as important as discouraging criminal behavior and administering reasonable penalties. In addition, rather than being a distinct objective of the juvenile justice system, the public’s long-term safety is seen as a consequence of rehabilitation and accountability. This order advises the courts to give greater weight to sanctions that help rehabilitate juvenile offenders than to incarceration periods that would only leave them unable. In light of the Edmonton case, if the youths were found guilty, the court would order them to complete a rehabilitation program that would assist them in turning their life around rather than imposing hefty sentences that would have no impact.

A substantial body of criminology research suggests that for some youths, particularly those without a prior history of incarceration, a custodial sentence may increase the risk of recidivism because stigmatization and removal from the community harm a youth’s chances of obtaining an education and a job and increase the likelihood that they will associate with antisocial peers (Mears et al., 2015). In general, a community-based sentence that addresses a young person’s problems is more likely to be rehabilitative than a prison term that removes the young person from his or her community. While some detention institutions offer substantial counseling and rehabilitation programs, many detention centers in Canada lack the resources to effectively address young offenders’ criminogenic needs, and recidivism rates are often high in juvenile incarceration centers.

Sometimes, the punishment will be handed down immediately after guilt has been confirmed. A pre-sentence report [PSR] may be compiled in more serious situations. If a detention period is to be imposed, section 39(6) compels the court to develop and evaluate such a report. Before the sentencing hearing, a medical or mental evaluation may also be conducted. Section 40 of the statute mandates the creation of pre-sentence reports by probation officers, which serve as an essential information resource and sentencing guide for juvenile courts (Bala, 2007). The staff who prepare these reports often have the knowledge and discernment to determine if a teen has repented. Additionally, they are often aware of the available community and correctional services.

The Supreme Court of Canada’s judgment in R v. RWC, which addressed whether to obtain a DNA sample of a juvenile convicted of assault with a weapon, exemplifies the relevance of these reports. ] Therefore, when a PSR is requested, a judge cannot specify that the report excludes risk assessment, but it is ultimately up to the court to choose how to use this information. Rather, “discretion is left to the Provincial Director” to define the report’s contents. The probation officer also has considerable discretion about the report’s structure, which may be a written update or a previously generated report for the juvenile. It is common for a PSR to include information about unpunished criminal behavior (such as charges of school violence). The court may consider such material when determining the appropriate sentence. Nonetheless, if the adolescent challenges the accuracy of the evidence, which might result in a heavier punishment, it must be proven beyond a reasonable doubt.

A few locations have devised programs to aid defense lawyers filing arguments on community-based sentencing. The Ministry of Children and Youth Services and Legal Aid Ontario have collaborated to support the Youth Court Action Planning Program pilot project of Operation Springboard in Toronto (Scott, 2021). With the funds and permission to seek out community resources that address the criminogenic variables in a youth’s life, the program’s plans may be presented to the court as a condition of bail or punishment. In R. v. SB, a juvenile court sentencing case, the judge received an “intensive plan” established by Operation Springboard and a pre-sentence report made by a probation officer recommending a prison term. The alternative plan proposed a community-based sentence to address the teen’s educational requirements and learning challenges, as well as therapy and anger management.

References

Bala, N. (2007). Responding to Young Offenders: Diversion, detention & sentencing under Canada’s YCJA. Queen’s Univ. Legal Studies Research Paper, (07–10), 2015-027.

Bartko, K. (2022, April 22). Seven teens charged with 2nd-degree murder after stabbing at McNally high school in Edmonton. Global News. https://globalnews.ca/news/8779549/mcnally-high-school-stabbing-murder-charges/

Mears, D. P., Cochran, J. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2015). Incarceration heterogeneity and its implications for assessing the effectiveness of imprisonment on recidivism. Criminal Justice Policy Review26(7), 691–712.

Pennington, A. L. (2019). Keep Kids Out of Prison: Community-based Alternatives for Nonviolent Juvenile Offenders. Intuition: The BYU Undergraduate Journal of Psychology14(1), 9.

Scott S. (2021). EVALUATION OF LEGAL AID ONTARIO’S YOUTH COURT ACTION PLANNING PILOT PROJECT. Department of Justice / Sélection de la langue – Ministère de la Justice. https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/cj-jp/yj-jj/pdf/evaluation.pdf

Zhang, L. (2016). Are youth offenders responsive to changing sanctions? Evidence from the Canadian Youth Criminal Justice Act of 2003. Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d’économique49(2), 515-554.

Wun, T. W. H. (2022). Teenager or Terrorist?: The Problematic Treatment of Young People Charged with Terrorism Under the Canadian Youth Criminal Justice Act (Doctoral dissertation).

Sexual Transmitted Diseases And Their Implications Free Essay

Infection Rates Based on Age, Gender, and Race

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2021), California recorded a decline in gonorrhea infection rates in 2019; there was a 203.2 infection rate compared to 198.5 infection rates in 2020. The age with the highest infection rate was 20-24, which recorded an infection rate of 645.3 per 100,000. Furthermore, the 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-54, and 55-64 had infection rates of 574.5, 466.5, 313.5, 220.9, 111.9, and 48.4. People above 65 years recorded an infection rate of 7.1 per 100,000 (CDC, 2021). Additionally, the charts show that Blacks had the highest infection rate, 589.8, compared to other races. In comparison, AI/AN, NHOPI, Hispanic/Latino, White, Asian, and MultRace recorded infection rates of 195.3, 164.6, 124.4, 102.5, 38.6, and 34.5, respectively (CDC, 2021). Finally, Californian males recorded the highest infection rate of 253.5 compared to 142.4 in females.

Similarly, California recorded an infection rate of 19.5 per 100,000 population in 2020 compared to 20.9 in 2019 for primary and secondary syphilis infections. The age group with the highest infection rate was 25-29, which had an infection rate of 50.6, while 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-54, and 55-64 had 47.2, 38.3, 30.4, 20.5, and 10.2 per 100,000, respectively (CDC, 2021). Furthermore, 20-24 had a slightly higher infection rate of 39.4, while 15-19 recorded an infection rate of 10.1, and the 65 years and above had a 1.5 rate per 100,000. Blacks had the highest infection rate of 45.5 per 100,000 population. Other races, such as NHOPI, AI/AN, Hispanic/Latino, White, Asian, and MultRace, had 25.3, 20.3, 17.4, 16.5, 6.6, and 5.8 infection rates per 100,000, respectively (CDC, 2021). Finally, Californian males had a higher infection rate of 31.1 compared to 7.7 in females.

Additionally, there was a considerable decline in Chlamydia infection rates, where CDC recorded 599.1 infection rates in 2019 compared to 452.2 infection rates per 100,000 population. However, 20-24 had high infection rates, 2328.2 per 100,000 population (CDC, 2021). The second age group with high infection was 25-29, which reported a 1237.2 infection rate, while the 15-19 age group recorded an infection rate of 1184.3. Furthermore, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-54, and 55-64 recorded infection rates of 715.7, 408.7, 253.8, 123.8, and 48.6 per 100,000, respectively. Blacks recorded the highest infection rate of 669.8 per 100,000 compared to other racial minorities and Whites (CDC, 2021). For instance, NHOPI, AI/AN/ Hispanic/Latino, White, Asian, and MultRace recorded infection rates of 302.5, 228.5, 186.9, 134.7, 73.0, and 35.3 per 100,000, respectively. Finally, Californian women had a higher infection rate of 550.3 compared to a 350.0 infection rate among men.

Furthermore, California recorded a reduction in Early Non-Primary and Non-Secondary syphilis between 2019 and 2020. In 2019 there was a 21.0 infection rate per 100,000 population compared to 19.4 in 2020. Moreover, 25-34 years recorded the highest infection rate of 46.4 per 100,000. Age groups 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 15-24 recorded 36.5, 25.4, 13.7, 1.9, and 17.4 infection rates per 100,000 (CDC, 2021). Furthermore, Blacks had the highest infection rate of 45.1, while the NHOPI recorded 31.4. Other races such as Hispanic/Latino, AI/AN, White, MultRace, and Asian recorded 21.0, 17.9, 14.5, 7.1, and 6.4 per 100,000, respectively. Finally, Californian men had the highest infection rate of Early Non-Primary and Non-Secondary syphilis at 32.7 compared to 5.8 among women (CDC, 2021). Correspondingly, California recorded a rise in congenital syphilis infections from 99.4 in 2019 to 107.7 per 100,000 population in 2020.

Evidence of Disparities

The results show that the 20-24 age group was twice as likely to contract STDs compared to other age groups, as they are more sexually active and may have numerous sexual partners. Furthermore, the results show that men have higher infection rates, as they are three times more likely to contract STDs, due to men’s tendency to have more sexual partners. The research shows a higher infection rate of STDs as Blacks have a five times higher rate of infection compared to whites. The disparity is that Blacks only comprise 5% of Californians, compared to 35% of Whites in California. The main rationale is that racial minorities diagnosed with STDs are less likely than Whites to be linked to care, remain in care, and get better viral suppression.

Discuss Barriers that may Contribute to Disparities in STD Rates in California

The main barriers contributing to disparities emanate from social conditions such as low education levels, poverty, and neighborhoods that affect a wide range of functioning, health, and quality of life risks and outcomes (Tapp & Hudson, 2020). Most racial ethnicities have to deal with high poverty levels, as they face difficulties affording basic needs, ultimately affecting their ability to access quality sexual health services. Furthermore, racial minorities might face discrimination leading to distrust in the health care system and negative feelings about getting treatment for STDs.

Discuss how Rates in California Compare to those of the US

The results show that the US recorded increased infection rates of primary and secondary syphilis from 2019 to 2020. In 2019, the US recorded an 11.9 infection rate compared to 12.7 in 2020; however, there was a reduction in infection in California (CDC, 2021). Furthermore, the age group 25-29 in the US had the highest rate of infection recorded as 36.8, reflecting the high infection rate among 25-29 year-olds in California. Similarly, other age groups, such as 15-19, 20-24, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65 and above, recorded infection rates of 8.5, 29.4, 34.7, 24.3, 18.5, 12.1, 6.0, and 1.0, respectively. The data also shows that Blacks had the highest infection rate of 34.1 per 100,000 in the US compared to 45.5 in California (CDC, 2021). Furthermore, other races were three times more likely to have a higher infection rate in the US population and California than Whites. Finally, the overall US statistics show that males had the highest infection rate of 20.8 compared to 4.7 in females, which coincides with the Californian male infection rate of 31.1 and 7.7 in females.

Correspondingly, the data shows an increase in Early Non-Primary and Non-Secondary Syphilis in the US. In 2019 there was an infection rate of 12.7 compared to 13.1 in 2020. However, California recorded a 1.6 reduction in infection rates between 2019 and 2020. The 25-34 age group recorded the highest infection rate of 36.8 in the US, while California recorded a 46.4 infection rate per 100,000 (CDC, 2021). Furthermore, age groups such as 15-24, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-year-olds and above recorded 15.5, 24.1, 14.2, 7.2, and 1.1 respectively, which was slightly lower compared to California; for instance, 35-44 had a high infection rate of 36.5. Both California and US data show that Blacks had the highest rate of infection, which was 45.1 and 35.9, respectively, compared to Whites and other races. Finally, American females had a lower infection rate of 4.7 compared to 21.8 in males, while in California, women had a 5.8 and men 32.7 infection rate (CDC, 2021). Similarly, the US recorded increased rates of congenital syphilis in 2019 and 2020 that rose from 50.0 to 57.3, reflecting the increase in infection rates in California, from 99.4 in 2019 to 107.7 per 100,000 population.

Additionally, the US recorded reduced Chlamydia infection rates of 551.0 in 2019 and 481.3 in 2020. This data depicts the gradual decline of Chlamydia cases in California. Furthermore, in the US, 20-24-year-olds had a high infection rate of 2660.6, similar to 2328.2 within the same age group in California (CDC, 2021). The data shows that Blacks in the US had an infection rate of 1086.3, approximately five times higher than Whites. Furthermore, Blacks in California were ten times more likely to contract Chlamydia than Whites. Finally, US females have an infection rate of 616.5 compared to 339.4 in males, which resembles the high rate of infection in California, which had 550.3 female infection rates compared to 350.0 in men.

Similarly, the data shows that the US recorded an increase in gonorrhea infection rates; in 2019, there was a 187.8 infection rate per 100,000, while in 2020, had 206.5. However, California recorded a decline in gonorrhea infection rates between 2019 and 2020. The data shows that 20-24-year-olds in the US had the highest infection rate of 845.4, which coincides with the infection rates among 20-24-year-olds in California which recorded an infection rate of 645.3 per 100,000 (CDC, 2021). Similarly, Blacks had a high infection rate of 662.4 in the US, which is almost similar to the 589.8 infection rate in California. The rate of infection among Blacks in the US was ten times higher compared to Whites, while other racial minorities such as AI/AN, NHOPI, MultRace, and Hispanic/ Latino also had higher infection rates. Finally, US males had an infection rate of 238.5 while females had 174.5, which reflects the infection rate of Californian males and females.

Discuss Two Person-Centered Actions the Nurse Practitioner can Use to Promote STD Self-Care Management for Marginalized Clients.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2019), person-centered actions entail systematic practices that focus on individuality, communication, autonomy and dignity of individuals getting STD services with non-coercive and respectful services led by a culturally competent staff. The first person-centered action is using education to create awareness about self-care in managing STDs (WHO, 2019). For instance, nurses can educate marginalized clients through social media platforms and community campaigns. Hence, health education will equip marginalized clients with knowledge on protection measures, risk of infection, and sexual health. The second action is annual wellness programs (WHO, 2019). Nurse practitioners can use community wellness programs to sensitize the masses to participate in check-ups and understand their health status. These annual check-ups will ensure that most community members are tested and treated, thus, averting health risks associated with STDs. The annual wellness check-ups will also boost community participation in STD vaccines, increasing access to better healthcare and decreasing infection rates.

Discuss Opportunities for Interprofessional Collaboration to Address Disparities in STD Rates.

Nurses can work with social workers in identifying community members that need help. For instance, during the assessment of families, a social worker might identify a client needing HIV resources. Therefore, the social worker might refer the client to the Nurse, and the Nurse might offer access to HIV testing, Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), and HIV primary care (Tapp & Hudson, 2020). The other opportunity for interprofessional collaboration is through partnerships with hospitals, retail clinics and local pharmacies. Government hospitals can partner with local pharmacies and retail clinics to offer free STD testing and half-priced medication purchases. This partnership will ensure that marginalized communities access better healthcare, reducing disparities in STD rates. Finally, policymakers can collaborate with nurses by offering more funds, resource coordination, and cultural competence programs to help healthcare professionals embrace diverse races when treating STDs.

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2021). STD Charts. https://gis.cdc.gov/grasp/nchhstpatlas/charts.html

Tapp, J., & Hudson, T. (2020). Sexually transmitted infections prevalence in the United States and the relationship to social determinants of health. Nursing Clinics, 55(3), 283-293. doi.org/10.1016/j.cnur.2020.05.001

World Health Organization. (2019). WHO consolidated guideline on self-care interventions for health: sexual and reproductive health and rights. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/325480/9789241550550-eng.pdf

Jazz Music In 20th Century Free Writing Sample

Introduction

The distinctive sound known as New Orleans Jazz may be traced back to the early decades of the 20th century. It is a song moulded by the city’s one-of-a-kind cultural blend of influences from places such as the African American diaspora, French culture, Spanish culture, and the Caribbean. It is a genre of music that has developed with time, transitioning from its earliest Dixieland and ragtime incarnations to its more contemporary incarnations. The differences between Dixieland and ragtime, the Latin, Caribbean, and Spanish influences on the music, the oral/improvisational tradition of ragtime and the written tradition of ragtime, key players and bands and their contributions to the music, relevant historical events that took place in the city, and how the New Orleans Jazz style has been a foundation for later generations of music will be discussed in this paper.

Ragtime and Dixieland music

In its early stages, Dixieland and ragtime were the precursors of New Orleans jazz. The city of New Orleans is the birthplace of the jazz style known as Dixieland, which emerged in the early 1900s. It is distinguished by its use of polyphonic melodies, communal improvisation among the musicians, and a powerful backbeat. Dixieland music is characterized by its emphasis on the trumpet, trombone, clarinet, and drums as the principal instruments. “ragtime” refers to a specific kind of jazz developed in the latter half of the 19th century. A predetermined collection of rhythms, a march-like vibe, and a syncopated melody distinguish it. Ragtime is characterized by its heavy reliance on the piano, banjo, and drums as its principal instruments.

Influences from Latin America, the Caribbean, and Spain

The city’s Latin culture, Caribbean culture, and Spanish influence all contributed to the development of New Orleans jazz. The rhythms of Cuban and Puerto Rican music have been especially vital to the development of New Orleans jazz. New Orleans jazz has been significantly influenced by Latin music. Calypso, mambo, and other Caribbean musical forms have been blended into the jazz sound, further demonstrating the significant influence that Caribbean music has had on jazz(Baker 12). The rhythms and melodies of flamenco have also made their way into the music, which is another example of the song’s influence on Spanish music.

The origin of the jazz songs

The origins of New Orleans jazz may be traced back to the early 20th century, although the sound has evolved significantly since then. It is music that’s been influenced by the city’s diverse cultural heritage, including African American, French, Spanish, and Caribbean traditions. Dixieland and ragtime were the foundations of New Orleans jazz. The musicians in a Dixieland jazz band are expected to improvise together while maintaining a steady backbeat. The hallmarks of the jazz genre known as ragtime include a syncopated melody, a marching beat, and a set of standard rhythmic patterns. Some of the most prominent examples of Latin, Caribbean, and Spanish impact on the music include the incorporation of calypso, mambo, flamenco, and the rhythms and melodies of Cuban and Puerto Rican music (Turchet, 1855). Ragtime is a written tradition, whereas New Orleans jazz is an oral/improvisational style that depends mainly on communal improvisation among the performers. New Orleans jazz has been shaped by Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, and the Original Dixieland Jazz Band, among many others. Numerous critical historical moments, such as the Louisiana Purchase, the Great Migration, and the Civil Rights Movement, have left their mark on the music of New Orleans. The Chicago jazz tradition has significantly impacted New Orleans jazz, which in turn has paved the way for subsequent generations of musicians.

Oral/Improvisational Tradition

Jazz from New Orleans is an oral and improvised heritage that significantly emphasizes the performers’ ability to collaborate and improvise. This improvisation is based on a set of predetermined tunes or “head arrangements,” which the musicians use as a guide. The musicians are allowed to add their twists and interpretations to the tune, which results in a sound that is entirely their creation (Baker 10). One of the essential components of New Orleans jazz is its oral heritage, which emphasizes improvisation.

Ragtime comes from a written tradition.

Ragtime is a written heritage, as opposed to the orally transmitted and improvised style of New Orleans jazz. A single composer wrote ragtime, which was then played exactly as it was written. A predetermined collection of rhythms, a march-like vibe, and a syncopated melody distinguish it. Ragtime is a kind of music that was very popular in the early 1900s and is still played today (Marshall 57).

Bands and Important Players

Throughout its history, New Orleans jazz has been significantly impacted and affected by several influential artists and ensembles. Louis Armstrong, Jelly Roll Morton, King Oliver, Sidney Bechet, and the Original Dixieland Jazz Band are influential artists and ensembles associated with Dixieland jazz (Marshall 55). These musicians and ensembles were instrumental in developing and popularizing the distinctive jazz style associated with New Orleans.

Relevant Historical Events

Several historically significant events have taken place in New Orleans that have impacted and inspired the music. The acquisition of Louisiana, the Great Migration, and the Civil Rights Movement are examples of these events. These events have significantly influenced the city’s culture and contributed to the development of the distinctive sound of New Orleans jazz.

The Chicago Method

The jazz style played in Chicago has had a significant impact on New Orleans jazz. The Chicago school of jazz is distinguished by its intense concentration on communal improvisation, its preference for playing in small ensembles, and its adoption of a more conventional approach to the jazz genre. Louis Armstrong and several other significant period artists were responsible for popularizing Chicago jazz.

Establishment of a Base for Future Generations

The music of following generations often has New Orleans jazz to thank for providing its basis. It has had a significant impact on a variety of different musical forms, including swing, bebop, and jazz fusion, among others. The city’s diverse cultural heritage, which includes influences from African Americans, the French, the Spanish, the Caribbean, and other regions, has created a distinctive sound that has been influential to many generations of performers.

Conclusion

The city of New Orleans is home to a diverse cultural population, including African Americans, French, Spanish, Caribbean, and other ethnic groups, all of which have contributed to the development of a musical style that is both unique and recognizable: jazz from New Orleans. It is a genre of music that has developed over time, transitioning from its earliest Dixieland and ragtime incarnations to its more contemporary incarnations. It is an oral and improvised tradition that significantly emphasizes the musicians’ ability to collaborate and improvise together. The Chicago jazz style has had a significant impact on it and has been instrumental in laying the groundwork for subsequent generations’ worth of music. The differences between Dixieland and ragtime, the Latin, Caribbean, and Spanish influences on the music, the oral/improvisational tradition of ragtime and the written tradition of ragtime, key players and bands and their contributions to the music, significant historical events that took place in the city, and how the New Orleans Jazz style has been a foundation for later generations of music have all been discussed in this paper.

Work Cited

Marshall, Wayne. “Ragtime Country: Rhythmically Recovering Country’s Black Heritage.” Journal of Popular Music Studies 32.2 (2020): 50–62.

Turchet, Luca. “Smart Musical Instruments: vision, design principles, and future directions.” IEEE Access 7 (2018): 8944–8963.

Baker, David. Consequential Saints: A Preliminary Study of Jazz and Religion in New Orleans. University of Northern Colorado, 2020.