Sentinel Town Community Health Assessment Free Sample

Introduction

Primary prevention is an approach to managing the population’s health by engaging in initiatives that help prevent the onset of a disease before it develops. The Sentinel Town residents have an issue with all three aspects of healthcare access because their economic condition and low income do not allow them to access all the services they need. Moreover, this affects the overall health of the town since the clinic cannot maintain its work on the weekends, and there is no pharmacy. Hence, the timeliness is impaired as well, because in some cases, the citizens have to drive to a city hospital or wait for an ambulance for 30 minutes.

The community health nursing diagnostic statement is the issue of access to healthcare due to the economic disparities of Sentinel Town’s citizens. One of the strategies for addressing this, outlined in the Healthy People 2020 strategy is the promotion of telehealth services, which can address all three aspects of quality healthcare (“Access to health services,” n.d.). Telehealth is a provision of services through digital communication means, which allows medical professionals to consult patients without seeing them face-to-face. While this would not address all the issues in this community, it would help promote health and provide timely care for people who otherwise would be unable to afford these services or would have to spend time to get to the nearest city. This paper presents a community health needs assessment, a windshield survey of Sentinel Town, community resources, and primary prevention methods.

Replacement Field Experience Sentinel Town Project Submission

Community Assessment

A community health assessment was completed by touring Sentinel Town and collecting information about the area and community living here. The geographical area of Sentinel Town is a rural community. The population is estimated at 609, and the majority of the population, or 24% are of age between 24 and 44 years old. The average household income is $27,024 per year, and notably, 73 citizens, or 17 families, live below the income poverty level, which is 12% of the population (“Sentinel demographics,” n.d.). No data regarding homelessness or unemployment was retrieved, suggesting that these rates are low at Sentinel Town.

The further population age breakdown is the following – 3.6% are under the age of 5, 18.3% are between 5 and 18, 7.5% are aged 18 to 24, and 23.2% are between the ages of 45 and 65, 21.8% between the ages of 65-84 and 1.5% is attributed to people aged 85 and more. Regarding race breakdown, Sentinel Town is predominantly white – 93.3%, following Hispanic or Latino individuals – 7.6%, African Americans – 0.5%, and American Indians – 0.3%. The average household income is $27,024 per year, and notably, 73 citizens, or 17 families, live below the income poverty level, which is 12% of the population (“Sentinel demographics,” n.d.). No data regarding homelessness or unemployment was retrieved, suggesting that these rates are low at Sentinel Town.

Environmental Hazards

Dulce Lopez reports that the air is not polluted, and the town has access to clean water, which eliminates a significant health concern. Next, Jack Carter, one of the citizens, informed that there are several problems in the town “from muddy roads to potholes, to poor lightning and no sidewalks” (“Jack Carter,” n.d.). Because of this, there were burglaries, and the town has a lack of EMT and fireman specialists. According to the Sheriff’s Office report, there were four robberies and seven aggravated assault cases last year (“Sheriff’s office,” n.d.). One issue is that the ambulance response time is approximately 30 minutes (“Janet Mills,” n.d.).

Disaster Assessment

The town’s Sheriff reported that the community does not have a readily available disaster response plan. Although there are no reports of disasters and Sentiment Town does not appear to be a disaster-prone area, it should be noted that the community lacks EMT and fireman specialists, which is an issue.

Other

The largest contributor to diseases is diabetes, with the most significant number of services attributed to this condition (“Clinic,” n.d.). Additionally, cancer treatments and follow-ups have the most significant number of referrals to a city hospital. Many citizens are concerned with the increasing issue of drug and alcohol abuse, as well as emerging mental health problems (“Janet Mills,” n.d.). Controversial matters discussed in the local sources include cases of child neglect and lack of immunization, especially in the community of immigrants, which is attributed to lack of information. Minor injuries are the largest contributor to emergency department visits. In summary, the quality of life in this community is reduced due to its economic status and inability to develop infrastructure in the town that would promote health and allow for better access to healthcare.

Community and Population Health Assessment Windshield Survey

The windshield survey of Sentimental Town’s community was completed by driving a car to different parts of the town and walking the streets. In total, 12 locations were visited to collect the data. There aren’t many apartment complexes in Sentinel City. Instead, there appears to be a large number of single-family homes, most of which appear to be in satisfactory shape, however, some of them need attendance such as masonry work or a coat of paint. During this journey, no abandoned houses or destructured property was noticed. However, a town has a trailer park where the majority of the population earns approximately $20,000 per year. Additionally, there is a large farm located outside the main town.

There aren’t many community spaces, such as parks, and only one cafe and one grocery shop were noticed. Moreover, there are not many trees on the streets or sidewalks along the roads. The main neighborhood hangouts are the schoolyard and the local church. In terms of transportation, a car is the only option available to the citizens, and a gas station is available since the town has no public transportation, and the roads are unpaved, making it impossible to use bikes or other means. In general, the city lacks community spaces and recreation places that would help promote health through physical activity.

Social Media Campaign

The present initiative for promoting the health of the community is access to healthcare. The topic of primary prevention is connected to access to healthcare, and it is based on the Healthy People 2020 initiative (“Access to health services,” n.d.). As suggested by the health assessment and commentary from Jack Carter, this is a rural town with a limited opportunity for economic growth, which affects the accessibility of healthcare services for its citizens. Some people cannot afford basic things such as food or shelter. Moreover, the local clinic does not work on the weekends, and there is no pharmacy, which are the underlying causes of the health concern. Hence, the health concern is linked to a health inequity or health disparity within the target population because Sentinel Town does not have enough resources or funding to facilitate the adequate provision of healthcare services to all citizens. It seems that Sentinel Town does not have any primary prevention resources.

The community plays a vital role in the assessment of the problem and the facilitation of its resolution. Community resources include the local clinic, and it appears that the local church is an important place for community gatherings, many activities are held there. Since the community does not have other places that could hold recreational activities and support the population’s health, the church and the clinic are the only places for health promotion.

Data about the topic and evidence-based resources on it is the statistics on healthcare access from CDC (2017), which suggests that only 87.6% of citizens have a place where they usually visit to receive healthcare services (para. 2). One of the key initiatives of the Healthy People 2020 campaign is increasing access to healthcare services for different communities. According to the initiative, “comprehensive, quality health care services is important for promoting and maintaining health, preventing and managing the disease, reducing unnecessary disability and premature death, and achieving health equity” (“Access to health services,” n.d., para. 1). Three main components facilitate this – insurance coverage, availability of services, and timely care.

Community Social Media Campaign

The objective of the campaign is to promote the understanding of healthcare’s role as an important factor of one’s life, with the focus on children immunization for the immigrant community, since the healthcare assessment results showcase that this is an issue. Next, the campaign will advocate for the adoption of telehealth as an affordable option for consulting with health professionals.

The first population-based social marketing strategy is the dissemination of information about the immunization of children, its importance, and its impact. It will help this initiative by notifying the immigrant families that they can get access to these resources. This can be done by placing infographics on Facebook, at the clinic, and school and translating information into Spanish. The second population-based social marketing is promotion, which will target access to care services with a focus on telehealth. It would improve the health message by creating a resource for community members where they will be able to read information about preventative care, exercises, diet, and options for telehealth access.

The social media platform that will be used for this campaign is Facebook because it allows creating groups and communities where information such as lengthy texts, infographics, and videos can be posted. Hence, the benefit of this platform in supporting preventative care is the ability to invite community members into one group and encourage discussions and dissemination of useful information – in this case, telehealth and availability of immunization for children. The target population will benefit from this because Sentinel’s citizens rely on one physician and one nurse as their main source of information and cannot discuss any emerging health concerns, which will be possible through Facebook.

Best practices for implementing social media tools for health marketing are using social media and digital resources, multichannel marketing, focusing on the patient’s needs, and employing analytics to further improve the campaign (“Best practice guide – Healthcare marketing,” n.d.). The value-based focus on the healthcare system implies the need to focus on the needs of the patient; in this case, access to healthcare services and credible information is the key problem of the town. Next, the use of digital tools and resources such as social media helps target a wider population with fewer expenditures, and communicate with patients to further assess their needs and concerns. Finally, analytics enabled by the digital resources allow making changes to the campaign based on the engagement levels, allowing to create the most effective message to prevent serious health conditions.

Stakeholders’ Roles

There are two key categories of stakeholders with this campaign – the citizens and Sentinel’s officials and healthcare personnel. The former’s role is in helping share the information about the campaign, engaging in discussions, and using the recommendations that they receive. The latter’s role is in facilitating the process, finding the professionals who will help create content, advertise it, and verify the information. Additionally, this stakeholder group will be responsible for evaluating the outcomes of this campaign.

Potential public and private partnerships include partnering with the local clinic to help add credibility to the campaign. The local health professionals can recommend the Facebook resource to the visitors and be guest-writers for content because they are aware of the problems and health concerns in this town. The town’s sheriff is another partner for the campaign as he is one of the primary decision-makers. Additionally, to help enable better access to care through telehealth, campaign management can partner with a private insurance company that provides telehealth coverage to help disseminate information and offer a discount for the citizens. Other potential private partnerships include marketing and advertising agencies that can help create a compelling message for the campaign’s social media accounts. Hence, public partnerships can enhance the credibility of this campaign while private ones can help improve the effectiveness of advertising efforts. The following is the timeline for the campaign:

  1. May – initiation, gathering primary data about the town
  2. July 1-10 – negotiating with partners.
  3. June 11-15 – creating educational materials.
  4. June 16-30 – Post information to the Facebook page, inviting Sentinel’s citizens to the group.
  5. July 1st – analyzing the campaign’s results

The KPIs of the campaign’s success will be based on the engagement of the audience with the posts and the number of Sentinel’s citizens who will add themselves to the Facebook group. If 50% of the citizens or 300 people will be a part of this group, the campaign will be considered successful, since in a small city such as Sentinel, the information is mostly spread through face-to-face communication, and most citizens know each other. Additionally, the number of posts likes and comments will be calculated as engagement and will indicate the interest that the citizens have in the posted content. The success in this category will be set at 10% of the number of people added to the group.

The costs for this campaign may involve targeted advertising, the services of a designer to make the posts more attractive, and payment for the healthcare professional who will be responsible for creating the content and communicating with the audience. One of the health professionals working at Sentinel may agree to volunteer for this project, setting the cost at $0. Next, the anticipated payment for advertisement and designer services is set at $200, mainly because it is a small town, and the majority of advertisements can be done face-to-face to invite people to the Facebook group.

Reflection

The impact of social media on the future of nursing practice is enormous. Mainly, the shortage of medical personnel in the United States and the issues with increasing costs require healthcare professionals to work on disseminating information about health and the prevention of diseases through lifestyle changes. Social media creates a unique opportunity to provide this information to a large group of people. Hence, I think that in my nursing practice, social media will become an important element of work where I will be able to share advice on how to prevent serious health conditions.

Summary

To conclude, this paper is an assessment of health-related environmental factors that affect the population’s health in Sentinel Town. The assessment of various aspects of the community and allowed developing an understanding of key issues contributing to poor health. The economic status does not allow citizens to access quality healthcare services, especially regarding the immigrant population. Therefore, the social media campaign will help address this issue by providing citizens with a trustworthy resource of information.

References

  1. Access to health services. (n.d.). Web.
  2. Best practice guide – Healthcare marketing. (n.d.).
  3. CDC. (2017). Factstats. Web.
  4. Clinic. (n.d.). Web.
  5. Dulce Lopez. (n.d.).Web.
  6. Jack Carter. (n.d.). Web.
  7. Janet Mills. (n.d.). Web.
  8. Sentinel demographics. (n.d.). Web.
  9. Sheriff’s Office report. (n.d.). Web.

The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)

Introduction

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is a severe disease that has dangerous affects on the fetus and on a born child. Moreover, the abnormal features of this harmful syndrome accompany a person throughout the life span. The biological grounds of the disease are encompassed in the alcoholic effects going on in the body of the mother. It is no surprise that such an alcoholic reaction with harmful effects does not omit the fetus.

Developing fetus in the uterus
Fig1. Developing fetus in the uterus

Postulated Mechanisms

Both direct and indirect mechanisms are discussed with respect to their contribution to alcohol-related effects on embryo-fetal growth and development. It is suggested that impairment in the protein synthetic machinery, resulting in cellular growth restriction at critical periods of development is the common mechanism underlying alcohol’s teratogenicity. Because the development of the CNS is so prolonged and complex compared to other organ systems, it is exquisitely vulnerable to derangement throughout pregnancy.

Parts of the brain
Fig 2: Parts of the brain

Serotonin

Transmission of impulses

In the brain, there are a considerable number of Neurotransmitters. The significant Neurotransmitters related to alcohol are serotonin, glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Glutamate is the main excitatory Neurotransmitter.

Prenatal subjection to drinking can end up Triggering FAS, with symptoms of undeveloped limps, facial dysmorphologies, and much other neurobehavioral underdevelopment. Neurobehavioral impairments in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, and in disorders brought about by drinking, encompass memory problems, concentration discrepancy, and motor dysfunction. A lot of the characteristics may be replicated in rodents.

The reported findings show that alcohol is the teratogen that commonly appeared among humans. However, scientists think that it can be solely prevented, for there is no cure to be used against the disease {235/2m}. This study is evaluated as a description and analysis of FAS’s harmful effect on both mother and child. Furthermore, the paper discloses the harms on different levels: biological, biochemical, physiological, social, and even economic. It means that the whole concept of the problem runs the gamut of the organism’s reaction to alcohol during pregnancy.

Thus, teratogenic impacts of alcohol are viewed as the key factors for the development of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Therefore based on available statistics, the research is implemented in terms of a deep estimation of FAS going on with supposed genetically related and physiologically impulse diseases and consequences on a child.

Methodology

Research and data of 81 mothers of young school-going children having PFAS or FAS are contrasted with142 haphazardly selected maternal controls of other children learning in the same schools.

The methodology used in this study is correlated in order to distill the main approaches and principles for working out the main problem. In this respect, a brief descriptive analysis of the disease itself is supported by peer-reviewed researches on FAS made in the US and overseas. Thus, generally accepted and unique features on the main issue are designated in terms of several questions that give a reason for FAS, namely:

  • Why alcohol is so dangerous for infants and which trimester of pregnancy is the most hazardous?
  • What are the factors maximizing the risk of FAS among pregnant women?
  • Is there any amount of alcohol being of no harm to the fetus?
  • What are the cure and stages of pregnancy on which it is better to use it?
  • Are there any preventive therapies?

The variety of defects to a fetus is singled out so that to characterize the best method to be implemented in the study {514/3b}. The research is done in accordance with the current medical practice.

Case study

An examination of hazardous factors for extreme FSAD, FAS and other related disorders in an African society reportedly having a high number of these disorders globally was conducted.

Results and Discussion

FAS is the result of the alcohol consumption of a would-be mother. This direct connection of a pregnant woman and a fetus inside is apparent. There is a scope of outcomes concerned with alcohol consumption: spontaneous abortion, growth retardation, facial abnormalities. A pregnant woman does not harm herself as worse, as she makes tragedy for a newborn child.

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome is considered with women who are alcoholics or those who drank too much previously. It is also a problem that can be inflicted during the first trimester of pregnancy when it is not well-known whether a woman is pregnant or not. The safe amount of alcohol to a fetus is not established yet {412/1t}.

Claire D. Coles provides points on FAS exposure delineated by attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Alcohol-related symptoms of FAS can rely on neurocognitive tests and clinical observation of children {199/2t}. This assumption shows that the roots of the disease are concerned with prenatal alcohol consumption. This is why the brain formation retards and perceives some physiological and genetic deformations, especially in the first trimester {545/3m}. Scholars (pediatricians, gynecologists, maieutologist, and therapists on the whole) should pay more attention to the special behavior of women to prevent FAS and its precursors as well.

Since FAS was first defined as a medical condition in 1973, sociologists relate it to the increase of sexual activity among adolescents and their illiteracy in the issue of normal sexual relations {7/5b}. Thus, the social-related implications are fully considered with the lack of educational and/or economic support. Further still, pregnant women exposing their children to FAS, place society at risk of adolescent delnquency12 {679/1t}. This application can be explained through the mental retardation which appears as a consequence of FAS. In turn, adolescents being invalid to think and act as fast as their peers seek appreciation by means of commission of a crime.

Therapists and pediatricians need time to work out if a child is healthy mentally and in terms of looks. Such observation of FAS was supposed in earlier studies to have similar effects as the syndrome of Down {239/2m}. However, children with attributes of FAS are not totally damaged in terms of mental activity. The main trouble occurs in their disability in thinking and speaking aspects. Their identification of the reality around them gets retarded. This detrimental factor begets a scope of supporting drawbacks that are inherent to a child throughout the life span.

One of the studies on FAS showed that the discrepancies that are distinctly obvious among infants in the age of 12 months than after 6 months by birth {617/4b}. These data help to estimate the preliminary treatment that can be done to a FAS-exposed child. It means that, in fact, the nature of the disease under analysis is neurodevelopment. Hence, it considers brain disorders and nervous system deviations on the whole.

The development of the fetus that is exposed to FAS can be aggravated by means of additional use of light and heavy drugs (cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, etc. The abnormality of a child’s looks can get more ominous lines by birth. Since 2004 the major medical association and centers in the US agreed to include a new term concerned with FAS, namely: fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) {446/3m}. It concerns the use of alcohol itself and parallel substance abuse and other and other biologically-grounded factors within pregnancy.

There are various cases when pregnant women consume large amounts of alcohol and it does not affect a fetus. In this respect “playing with FAS” can play a box to a child. At least, it should not be something like drawing casting lots. The problem goes beyond one’s beliefs or expectations. It touches upon the medical implementation and the use of abstinence from alcohol during the period of pregnancy.

Qualitative interviews with a number of adolescents with alcohol-related mental disorders in the US high schools showed that the ability to commit a crime by an adolescent with FAS can be explained medically. In terms of anticipated trajectories implied, it became significant to state potential at-risk behaviors among children with FAS. In fact, socially, this disease provides an impulse for spontaneous or unpredicted negative deeds of a child that would be treated by him/her as normal. This evokes several assumptions on why there are so various and frequent cases of suicides among children and adults with FAS. It is known that adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in age from 5 to 29 are inclined to hurt themselves which was proved clinically {34/1t}. This is why therapists are suggested to provide communication with FASD individuals in terms of accurate choice of words and tone during the whole process.

There are different studies on preventive initiatives that are included in the program of many training centers for women exposed to FAS. In this respect to prevent harmful outcomes of FASDs experts recommend pregnant women make an intentional appointment with a set of doctors: pediatrician, psychologist, social worker, nurse, speech therapist, and physical or occupational therapist {365/3m}. Pre-natal therapies are concerned with being the most effective anti-FAS methods {160/4b}. Thus, FASDs can occur easily unless a woman decreases or stops drinking at all. This is outlined in terms of different studies. The reported ones state that the characteristics of children exposed prenatally to alcohol are quite consistent with how the full syndrome of FAS is defined today {103/2t}. Thus, a woman planning to have a child should think primordially of a healthy way of life during an ostensibly long period of time. Moreover, one can infer that a woman drinking too much prenatally cannot prevent a child from at least FASD when pregnant.

The probabilities of static encephalopathy and facial deformities along with severe neurobehavioral impairments cannot but omitted in both FAS and FASD students {6/5m}. The scope of such diseases can be expanded by retardation of recognition, slowness in realizing reality and reacting to different events. It gives a reason why everything related to the brain activity of an individual should not be impacted negatively from the inside, meaning alcohol consumption during the pregnancy.

Moreover, the quality of sperm during ejaculation of a constantly drinking father can influence harmfully on a child. The study reported by Viljoen et al. and concerned with the FAS problem in South Africa showed off that children with FAS had fathers who consumed 84.6 drinks per month, compared with 47.5 consumed by mothers both prenatally and during pregnancy {595/2t}.

Disinhibition theory alcohol is likely to increase the aggression among people who consume it and expose to it their generation {54/5b}. It means that the behavioral impairments can be easily inflicted chemically through alcohol in the blood of a mother to a child. Moreover, neuroanatomical studies claim that alcohol forces on the molecular structures within the brain and specific tissues during the gestational development of a fetus {174/1t}. It means that from the biochemical point of view alcohol is an aggressive component poisoning the nervous system and brain, particularly. In this case, one should take a look at the peculiarities of families in terms of different factors (stratification, economic, social, etc.). Here comes the question of whether alcoholism can be delivered genetically from parents to a child.

Continuing the problem of teratogenic influences of alcohol on the brain and behavior, it is important, to admit that despite total affection of the brain, the hippocampal area responsible for storing new memories becomes damaged seriously {187/2t}. Thus, the neurological and neurological characteristics of children and adults exposed to FAS or FASD need more attention on the part of therapists. It distills an idea following the prescription that neurons start decreasing or mutating if being affected by alcohol consumption intentionally (in the case with parents) and unintentionally (in the case with children).

When all data are gathered, it is about time to diagnose potential threats to a fetus and a child on the whole. Moreover, the studies reported by Earnest et al. indicate that alcohol impacts internal circadian clock function by means of loss of communication between neurons inflicted by the loss of cells {137/1t}. This becomes clear when talking about the loss of coordination among drunken people. It is obvious that the brain functions badly, thus its structure has got through partial destruction of cells.

Alcohol intake serves as a signal to the internal destruction of the whole nervous system. This is why to prevent women at risk of alcohol consumption from FAS and FASD, practitioners recommend counseling into gynecologic and obstetric care {219/1t}. It means that most of the controls can abstain from drinking if they are constantly motivated not to do it for the sake of the future child. However, testing cocaine-exposed infants in growth does not differ from alcohol-exposed children {44/4m}. This fact observed in the study outrages, as it becomes clear that there is no significant difference between consuming alcohol or heavy drugs. It influences the fetus similarly.

Exposure to FAS can affect the well-being of society. Thus, it is better to search for the reason among adolescent individuals, for risky sexual relationships often become a start for FAS. The studies reported by Miller et al. outline that 15% of FAS births among 4 million tested cases are to mothers under age 21 {521/1t}. Furthermore, $75 million and $9.7 billion per year are estimated to be the US government’s societal costs for solely 1% of live-born FAS infants {38/2t}. The low economic status of parents and a mother, particularly, has been suggested to be a reason for FAS emergence during pregnancy {773/5b}.

The implications on behavior peculiarities of children with FAS and FAE (fetal alcohol effects) are stated in terms of the Fetal Alcohol Behavior Scale (FABS) {55/3m}. To say more, the factors affecting children’s behavior are considered usually with a misunderstanding of their problems from outside (on the part of peers, adults, teachers, parents) as well as with inner pressure to react aggressively. According to Dunn’s conceptual model, there is a hypothesis that a continuum of interaction exists between neurological processing of sensory input and behavioral responses {265/2t}. This assumption was primordially proved in terms of the trickledown effect (abnormalities of the bones, heart, and genitourinary tract) caused by FAS {96/1t}. Such an evaluation of disorders happened to FAS and FASD-exposed children. Genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses in biology can help in identifying the essence and extent of alcoholic intoxication on a fetus {76/3m}. Hence, an observer should pay special attention to the neurobiological direction of alcohol intoxication as complemented the risk of FAS emergence.

Non-specific disruption of neuronal lipid bilayers caused by ethanol is apparent to the chemical explanation of the harmful effect of alcohol abuse per se {263/4m}. In its pure state ethanol is really dangerous for an organism. One of the problems that appear among FAS children, despite the aforementioned, is ocular disorders and affections of cataract{397/3m}. It provides a construct to hypothesize that the whole organism is exposed to disorders by means of alcohol consumption. Its severest form of negative influence can be achieved to a fragile forming of the fetus in which genetic and physiological information comes from the organism of a woman bearing it.

Comparing it to the above-stated information, it is no surprise that having ocular affection FAS-exposed children are hard to recognize visual information. In addition, children with FAS and ARND need more efficient interventions to reduce the extent or implementation of cognitive and behavioral impairments {155/3m}. All in all, the research on FAS and other alcohol-related disorders and diseases runs the gamut of reasons wherein consumption of alcohol is the main factor.

Due to respiratory activity assessed through cellular viability, it is known today that if a woman drank constantly prenatally it can fall into alcohol dependency during pregnancy {226/5m}. Thus, it is one more challenge to be faced by the medical communities and officials responsible for funding sources to reduce the problem of FAS. The dependence on alcohol is among the strongest like the dependence on smoking. Hence, would-be mothers or parents at large should keep a strict eye on their future today not to lag behind perspectives on health tomorrow. In the course of chemical analysis of the reaction that happened in the organism just after the alcohol consumption ethanol provides a range of metabolic reactions wherein acetaldehyde is a product of alcohol oxidation that is concerned with a bad smell in the mouth {246/1t}. Thus, the research somewhat comprehensively evaluates the dark sides of FAS imposed through alcohol consumption. Moreover, the empirical studies show that maternal attachment to a fetus is concerned with two main contributions: psychoanalytic (mother) and ecological (environment) {49/2t}.

Conclusion

In conclusion, FAS is supposed to be inflicted on a fetus through alcohol consumption of a mother during her pregnancy. In this respect, it does not matter whether it was during pregnancy or prenatally. All periods are considered to be at risk of FAS and FASD (along with ARND and ARDD) affection on a fetus and a child with long implications in the span of life. Pediatricians, gynecologists and, say, therapists should work out the methodology to treat and, perhaps, prevent the FAS and its symptoms prenatally and on the first through the third trimester of pregnancy. The fact that FAS is not cured at all does not mean hereby that no interventions should be applied to a mother and a child, particularly.

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Law-Accepted Manner Of Self-Defense

Many people encounter threats daily and look for a way to properly defend themselves in a law-accepted manner. To solve such conflicts, a person has the right to prevent any harm via self-defense. The extent and the motives qualified as reasonable is a very serious topic of discussion. This essay aims to analyze the lawyer’s plan to defend the person that has committed an act of self-defense and summarize possible positive and negative outcomes of the court hearing.

The defense attorney has a small chance of proving the justification of the defendant’s actions. The victim has walked into the store owned by the defendant and seemed to walk around the isles. The owner was previously robbed on multiple occasions, so he was very cautious and tense. The victim approached the owner with his hand holding something in the pocket. The defendant assumed it to be an attempted assault and shot the customer, who turned out to be holding the phone. To justify an act of self-defense, a proper reasonable motive has to take place. The only way for an attorney to help the defendant is by decreasing the sentence duration.

The owner of the store had nothing but assumptions for his motives. The victim did not express anger or threaten the defendant. The previous store robbings for sure has planted a seed of a doubt, but it has nothing to do with a victim. An attorney’s strategy has to be relying on the reasonable jury members and the judge. His client’s motivations can be justified by a reasonable fear of possible assault (Libraries, n.d., para. 20). The store owner has feared the possible assault and to prevent it he decided to shoot the victim. The problem is that the attorney’s client has overreacted on the situation, and such detail can play a significant role in the hearing result.

The possible court decisions exclude the possibility of avoiding the sentence. The extents of the defendant’s actions far exceed the potential outcome. The jury and the district attorney may point out that even if the victim was planning a robbery, it might not have resulted in the murder of the owner. Of course, if the defendant received threats from the victim, he would have a justifiable reason for self-defense. If the attorney brings up the owner’s previously experienced robberies and his caution about strange visitors, the jury may understand his motives. The outcomes are few: a full sentence for a murder or a reduced sentence. If all the details prove the justification of the defendant’s actions via reasonable fear, the trial may result in a reduction of the sentence. On the other hand, if the attorney fails to make the jury and the judge sympathize with his client, the store owner will receive the full sentence.

The act of self-defense is mostly a tough case to win for any attorney. To justify the client’s actions, the lawyer has to prove that the defendant’s motivation can be subjected to one of the core principles of self-defense. Unfortunately, in the shop owner’s case, a trial will result in a sentence no matter what, the attorney may only affect its duration. This essay aimed to analyze the defense attorney’s strategy for the shop owner’s case and predict the trial’s possible negative and positive outcomes.

Reference

Libraries. (n.d.). The University of Minnesota. 2020, Web.

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