Servant Leadership And Desmond Tutu Free Sample

Several authors argue that peoples’ motivations are influenced by the leadership styles they socialize with (Eisler & Carter, 2010, p.100). For instance, servant leadership has replaced transformational leadership as one of those leadership styles that influence peoples’ motivations through serving them while upholding one’s personal integrity (Liden et al., 2008, p.161). Based on the above, the author chose to study how Archbishop Desmond Tutu, a respected and famous South African activist, and cleric, upheld the principles of servant leadership.

To start with, borrowing from Chatbury et al. (2011, p.58), servant leadership stressed the need for leaders to earn trust by fully accepting and empathizing with their following masses. This was demonstrated by Tutu when he empathized with many non-white South Africans who had been heavily discriminated against under the white Apartheid rule. To demonstrate the high level of his empathy, Tutu quit his first career in teaching to study and devote himself to Christianity in the year 1958 (De Klerl, 2003, p.456). Here, like Jesus Christ, he believed in the triumph and the power of good over evil things. As a result, he entrusted the remarkable strength of the dynamic human spirit to help him achieve his dream of seeing a ‘free and equitable’ South African nation.

Also, Chatbury et al. (2011, p.58) suggested that the South African concept of Ubuntu (which embraced caring and serving, hospitality, and the notion that a human being existed through assisting other human beings) matched the qualities of the servant leadership theory that include amongst others humility, moral authority, service, and sacrifice. Comparing these findings to our chosen leader, De Karl (2003, p.357) established that Tutu’s theology was also known as the Ubuntu Theology and similarly rested on a person depending highly on his/her neighbor and God in a way that defined one’s real identity (De Klerl, 2003, p.357).

Nonetheless, Ebener (2010, p.13-14) described a servant leader as a serving leader as opposed to a self-serving person. This was interpreted to mean that servant leadership concentrated on influencing people toward achieving common goals (Liden et al., 2008, p.161; Taylor et al., 2007, p.405).

These goals benefited the group or the community by serving their collective and common interests (Ebener, 2010, p.14). Similarly, Desmond Tutu advanced the above by resigning and quitting his teaching career in the year 1958 to influence the black South Africans into resisting the oppressive apartheid leadership rule which had infringed on many of their rights. The motivating factor behind Tutu’s resignation was the passage of the Bantu Education Act. This act defined poor educational standards for the non-whites and high and better standards for the ruling whites in South Africa.

On their part, Lidein and others (2008, p.162) carried out a study that concluded that servant leadership was a multi-dimensional approach encompassing nine dimensions. These were emotional healing, conceptual skills, the creation of community value, the act of building relationships, the act of servanthood and empowerment. A majority of these dimensions were also achieved by Tutu in the following manners:

On emotional healing, Tutu showed sensitivity to the suffering of South Africans by advancing active cleric and activism roles. This was only one year after the end of the apartheid rule. On the creation of community value, he demonstrated a genuine concern for helping many suffering South Africans by advancing statements and speeches on the theme of liberation theology (De Klerl, 2003, p.327). The community value was realized when followers joined hands to resist and overthrow the oppressive Apartheid rule in the year 1994.

On the dimension of conceptual skills, he possessed knowledge on the tasks at hand by effectively leading The South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission (BBC News, 1998). He is also the chair of a number of charitable events and works including the Amandla AIDS Fund, The Ubuntu Education Fund, and the Global Action Against Hunger. Lastly, he built relationships when he successfully chaired a Truth and Reconciliation Commission whose mandate focused on promoting national unity as well as reconciliation among the warring factions in South Africa.

In addition, servant leaders are dependable as a result of their intuition, foresight, and their character of leading by example (Chatbury et al. 2011, p.58). On this, Tutu demonstrated his intuitive ability by applying his thinking to a number of issues affecting his community. To expound, we are told that it was through self reasoning that he proposed to offer amnesty to perpetrators of inhuman acts such as torture and murder. This was implemented in the course of achieving the mandate of the Truth and Reconciliation Process in South Africa (BBC News, 1998).

In a nutshell, therefore, the author noted that Archbishop Desmond Tutu provided a good example of a servant leader. This is so because right from his school days as a teacher, he demonstrated the skills and attributes that defined a servant leader through his sayings, teachings, and actions. Surprisingly, despite having retired from most of his leadership roles, Tutu continues to advance servant leadership through motivational lectures and chairing a number of both national and international charitable organizations.

References

BBC News (1998). Desmond Tutu’s long crusade.

Chatbury, A., Beaty, D. & Kriek, H.S. (2011). Servant leadership, trust and implications for the “base-of-the-pyramid” segment in South Africa. S.Afri.J.Bus.Manage, 42(4), pp. 57-62.

De Klerl, B.J (2003). Nelson Mandela and Desmond Tutu: Livings icons of reconciliation. The Ecumenical Review, 55(4), pp. 322-334.

Ebener, D. R. (2010). Servant leadership models for your parish. New Jersey: Paulist Press.

Eisler, R. & Carter, S. (2010). Transformational leadership from dominion to partnership. ReVision, 30(4), pp. 98-107.

Liden, R.C. et al. (2008). Servant leadership: Development of a multidimensional measure and multi-level assessment. The Leadership Quarterly, 19 (2008), pp.161-177. Web.

Taylor, T. et al. (2007). Examination of leadership practices of principals identified as servant leaders. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 10(4), pp.401-419. Web.

Food Shortage Situation Overview

Food shortage refers to a situation in which the supplies within a region cannot provide sufficient energy and nutritional demands of the population within that particular region. Some factors have been pointed to as core to the problem of food shortage. These include the problem of production – the inability to produce adequate foods to meet the demands of regional needs and logistical problems associated with the inability to import enough foods. In addition to the above, food shortage is also created in instances where excess food is exported from regions of production without regard to the demands of those regions. “Historically, the great hunger of Ireland (1845-1847) and the famine of Bengal (1944) have been attributed more to British political decisions to export locally produced grain supplies without compensating imports than to production shortfalls per se” (Buchanan-Smith, Davies & Petty, p. 71).

Whereas several reasons have been advanced as the causative factors of food shortage, the global problem of population explosion remains the main factor behind food shortage. It is a natural fact that if a population of any species is uncontrolled, then it has to become burdensome on the existing resources. As the world’s population grows every year, there is increased pressure on available production factors such as arable land, energy, water, and biological resources that are critical in the supply of food while at the same time maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. Statistics provided by relevant bodies are very grim and points towards a bigger food problem and acute energy and nutritional shortages in the future.

Pimentel, Huang, Cordova, and Pimentel (p. 351) illustrate that “according to the World Bank and the United Nations, from 1 to 2 billion humans are now malnourished, indicating a combination of insufficient food, low incomes, and inadequate distribution of food”. This remains a historical figure given the fact that it is the largest number hungry population recorded in the history of mankind. “In China, about 80 million are now malnourished and hungry; based on current rates of increase; the world population is projected to double from roughly 6 billion to more than 12 billion in less than 50 years” (Pimentel et al., p. 353).

The relationship between the increase in population and food shortage is very real given the connection between availability created by supply and demand which is increased by the increase in population. Pimentel et al (p. 354) proceed to point out that “As the world population expands, the food problem will become increasingly severe, conceivably with the numbers of malnourished reaching 3 billion”. The growing imbalance between the world’s population and resources that support the lives of human beings is a major concern to governments and institutions globally. Reports available from Food and Agricultural Organization, scientific research institutions, think tanks and numerous international organizations abide in the existence of acute shortage and escalation of the problem of food security shortly. According to Pimentel et al (p. 356), “the per capita availability of world grains, which make up 80 percent of the world’s food, has been declining for the past 15 years which means that with a quarter-million people being added to the world population each day, the need for grains and all other food will reach unprecedented levels”.

A large fraction of the food supply that supports the lives of humans comes from land while a very small fraction comes from other sources. “More than 99 percent of the world’s food supply comes from the land, while less than 1 percent is from oceans and other aquatic habitats” (Pimentel et al., p. 347). The ability to provide adequate food supply to meet the rising demands, therefore, depends on the availability of ample fertile land, adequate water, energy, and biodiversity. The growth of the human population is directly proportional to the demands of these critical resources. According to Ayisi (p. 33), “Even if these resources are never depleted, on a per capita basis they will decline significantly because they must be divided among more people”.

The increasing population is not only putting pressure on the available resources but is also creating other challenges related to increasing demands for quality social demands such as healthcare. Whereas the world is experiencing a population explosion, the size of fertile land is declining at an alarming rate. The pressure put on land but man is indeed a concern. This is echoed by Barkin, Rosemary, and DeWalt (p. 12) in stating that “At present, fertile cropland is being lost at an alarming rate; for instance, nearly one-third of the world’s cropland (1.5 billion hectares) has been abandoned during the past 40 years because erosion has made it unproductive.” Rectifying the problem of soil erosion is not a simple task in that it can take up to five hundred years to form 25mm of fertile soil capable of supporting the lives of crops.

In addition to the above, the increase in population is putting a lot of pressure on water resources. Water remains critical for the survival of almost all types of crops. According to Ayisi (p. 33), “a hectare of corn will transpire more than 5 million liters of water during one growing season; this means that more than 8 million liters of water per hectare must reach the crop.” This means that the demand for water by crops exceeds that of human beings. “Specifically, about 87 percent of the world’s freshwater is consumed or used up by agriculture and, thus, is not recoverable” (Pimentel et al., p. 357). The question that we remain to ponder over is what happens next when both water and fertile land are under pressure by population explosion.

The competition for water resources transcends al all levels of society. Individuals, tribes, regions, the government have constantly come into conflict as a result of competition for water resources. This fact is buttressed by Bates (p. 334) in demonstrating that “About 40 percent of the world’s people live in regions that directly compete for shared water resources; in China where more than 300 cities already are short of water, these shortages are intensifying”. The shortages in water supply globally are reflected by the decline in the combined size of farmlands under irrigation. Water resources that are critical for irrigation and the production of food for the support of human lives are under great stress and pressure. This is because of the increase in population that has led to the birth of populous cities, states and regions.

The increase in population is so intertwined with other factors that all arrive at food shortage. On energy, an increase in the number of motor vehicles and industrial demands that are products of population increase is putting pressure on oil reserves. Because fossil energy is a finite resource, its depletion goes on faster with the increase in the population demands for food. The United States alone has been recorded as importing more than fifty percent of its crude oil. According to Bates (p. 337), “U.S. Department of Energy indicates that the country will exhaust all of its oil reserves within the next 15 to 20 years, oil imports will then have to increase, worsening the U.S. trade imbalance.” The dwindling supplies of fossil energy will translate to increases in the cost of fuel everywhere. Where will such a situation leave farmers in the developing countries who rely on energy to irrigate their farms?

This problem is perhaps best illustrated by Buchanan-Smith, Davies & Petty (p. 71) in stating that “The impact of this is already a serious problem for developing countries where the high price of imported fossil fuel makes it difficult, if not impossible, for poor farmers to power irrigation and provide for their other agricultural needs.” This means that farmers will lack the capacity to produce adequate foods capable of supporting the lives of humans in these regions. The biggest challenge that developing countries face includes their reliance on fossil fuels in powering their agricultural farms. In addition to the above, they have recorded the largest increase in population in comparison to the developed counties.

The concern for food imbalance in the world today is supported by two observations. “First, most of the 183 nations of the world are now to some extent, dependent on food imports” (Buchanan-Smith, Davies & Petty, p. 71). Most of these imports are come in the form of cereal surpluses from nations with low population densities and involved in large-scale agriculture. “Major producers of cereals in the world Argentina, Canada, United States and Australia that produces more than 80% percent of the total world’s cereal” (Bates, p. 339). According to Bates (p. 339) “If, as projected, the U.S. population doubles in the next 60 years then its cereal and other food resources would have to be used domestically to feed 520 million hungry Americans”. This would mean that the United States and other exporting countries will cease to be exporters and in turn produce adequate cereals for its population or even become importers in case of market uncertainties.

Malnutrition and hunger will then begin when exporting countries begin to keep their surpluses at home. Import-dependent countries such as Egypt, Jordan, parts of Asia, and Africa will lack the imports to enable their populations to survive. “As the World-Watch Institute has pointed out, if China’s population increases by 500 million and their soil erosion continue unabated, it will need to import 200-400 million tons of food each year by 2050” (Brown, p. 15). The problem is that there will be nowhere to find such a massive amount of food in the international market. Last, the availability of nutritious foods such as fish is near depletion given the demand that overweighs supply for several decades.

The connections and relationship between population and food shortage transcend all areas of human life and as such encompasses various aspects of demands that support human life. Almost all resources available for the support of human life aim at achieving food security for humans. It is therefore imperative that any form of pressure on any resource definitely threatens food security and eventually leads to food shortage.

Works Cited

  1. Ayisi, Ruth. “Mozambique: Drought and Desperation.”Africa Report. 37.3 (1992): 33-35.
  2. Barkin, David, Rosemary, Batt and Billie, DeWalt. Food Crops versus Feed Crops. Boulder and London: Lynne Rienner, 1990.
  3. Bates, Robert. “Governments and Agricultural Markets in Africa”. Toward a Political Economy of Development: A Rational Choice Perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press. (1988): 331-358.
  4. Brown, L.R. Who Will Feed China? New York: W.W. Norton. 1995.
  5. Buchanan-Smith, Margaret, Susanna Davies, and Celia Petty. Food Security: Let Them Eat Information. IDS Bulletin 25, No. 2: (1994): 69-80.
  6. Pimentel, David, Huang, Xuewen Cordova, Anna and Pimentel, Marcia. Natural resources and an optimum human population. Population and Environment 15: (1994): 347-369.

Education Trends Of Women In The USA

Brief History

From as early as the seventeenth century, when public schools were established, women could only attend school for four months in a year, starting from April. At this point in time, children under the age of seven years were not being admitted to school, but since their parents thought it was important for them to begin being taught by this age, the churches allowed for the teachers who took care of them in church and who were mostly female, to start giving them education. This was a good platform for women who would later be the ones to teach these children when they entered primary school and consequently gain experience in school management. It, therefore, followed that most charity schools were established by women, and they were for girls only, effectively taking care of the inequality that was present in the education system.

With the setting up of normal schools, the female teachers could no longer teach from intuition as they had previously done. They now required special training, and this was the beginning of the fulfillment of their thirst for knowledge, for they did not become satisfied with just high school education, but seeing the men attending university, they also followed suit. When Boston University opened in 1871 and later the Institute of Technology, they gave equal opportunities to both sexes in all departments (Ednah., 1948). This was an important step in the evolution of women’s education in the U.S., and they have not looked back since then.

Today’s woman understands that education is the gateway to economic independence. Gone are the days when the man was the sole provider in the family and was therefore, to some extent, justified to get a better education in order to provide for the family. The American woman today is laden with the burden of ensuring that she can and is able to, at any moment, provide for her family; what with women forming more than half of the U.S. population and divorce rates skyrocketing. This reality has led to women being more aggressive in gaining education in order to assume greater leadership roles in the society, the workplace and the family. (McClelland 1992)

Statistics

In surveys conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, statistics showed that women were graduating from high school at a higher rate than men by the year 2006. (U.S. Census Bureau). Other surveys showed that inasmuch as a higher percentage of men have a bachelor’s degree in the general population, a higher percentage of women between twenty five and twenty nine years of age obtained a bachelor’s degree in 2005 as compared to their male counterparts. In the same age group, eighty eight percent of women, that is four percent higher than their male counterparts, had completed their high school education.

Comparisons were made to show progress, and it was discovered that by 2006, the number of women who had obtained their bachelor’s degree was more than double that of 1986, twenty years earlier. The same statistics show that the number of women who had obtained a bachelor’s degree or higher education by 2006 was slightly more than ten percent when compared to twenty years earlier. More over, women are continuing to make big steps towards attaining their education. The National Bureau of statistics on education projected that the number of women grandaunts in the academic year 2007-2008 would be more than their male counterparts, with the women taking home fifty nine percent of the bachelor’s degrees and sixty one percent of the master’s degrees awarded in that academic year.( National Center for Education Statistics).

On top of this, it was also predicted that the women would earn a bigger percentage of the first professional degrees like medical and law degrees. This shows a bolder trend in education adopted by women in that they are no longer limiting themselves but are wiling to take on even the most challenging courses that were previously set aside for men, when it had been believed that women could not tackle such courses and had therefore been left to learn about taking care of their homes. This impression is no longer applicable as statistics now show that the wife has more education than her spouse in over twenty percent of all the married couples. Women have also made advances in their use of computers. During 80s and 90s decades, more men than women used the computer but by 2003 the trend had reversed and the women were leading by a two percentage point in the use of computers (U.S. Census Bureau).

Conclusion

These statistics show the education trends of women in the United States very clearly, and this is that women are taking control of their education. Judging from the number of women who are completing high school, it shows that the women are taking education more seriously from a young age. The rising numbers of women who are obtaining bachelor’s degrees in their twenties show that women are not getting satisfied with just basic education, but that they want to learn more so that they can be able to get professional jobs and take more control in the industries, society and at home. Women are increasingly going for the master’s programmes, and not only that, they are exceeding the number of men in these programmes and are graduating in first-degree programmes that were originally thought to be for men only. This shows that the trend of women education in the U.S. is getting bigger and better and that the women will soon be dominating in the education sector. This is a positive achievement considering that in most places the world over; there is an education gap in the academic sector which is always in favor of the men.

References

Ednah Dow Littlehale Cheney. 1948. “Evolution of Women’s Education in the United States.” Publication: Elliott, Maud Howe, Ed. AC.

McClelland, Averil Evans. 1992. The Education of Women in the United States: A Guide to Theory, Teaching, and Research. Garland Publishing, 1000A Sherman Avenue,Hamden, CT 06514.

U.S. Census Bureau: U.S. Census Bureau Facts for Feature: Women’s History Month 2008. Web.

ies National Center for Education Statistics: Projections of Education Statistics to 2015: Web.

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