Should Serious Sex Offenders be Castrated [please include the two main types of castration]? Why do you agree or disagree with the question? What would be your determination for castration? Does castration work? Is it good social policy? | Castration is the removal of male testes resulting in sterility, decreased sexual desire and inhibition of secondary sex characteristics such as hair growth and deepening of the voice. Castration in humans is sometimes necessary for some cancer prevention or as punishment related to sex crimes.
Chemical and Surgical Castration Chemical Castration Under medical supervision anti-androgen drugs are injected under a multi-week treatment. With lower testosterone levels most men will experience a reduced sex drive, arousal and sexual thoughts. On sexual offenders Depo-Provera a progestin shot is used this chemical castration does not remove the testicles and if the chemical treatment is used to discontinued his testosterone and sperm production may resume.
Surgical Castration. In surgical castration a surgeon makes an incision in the scrotum and pulls out the vas deferens duct until the testicle is completely exposed. The vas deferens is knotted and cut than the testicle is removed. The remaining vas deferens is packed back into the scrotum. After the doctor stitches up the incision then repeats the same procedure to the other testicle. Pros and Cons about Castration Pros * A sexual offence is one of the worst kinds of crime one can commit, damaging there victims both physically and mentally.
For such a horrific crime a suitable punishment is needed. Castration fits the bill perfectly. It has been shown that for many sex offenders the crime is caused by both psychological and physical urges no rational counseling will prevent repetition of a sex crime. Castration does not only stop further sexual crimes witch is the main purpose of this punishment but it is one of the strongest preventative for sex offenders. * Castration will help the offenders by freeing them from the urges that motivate them to commit a sex crime.
Numerous court testimonies have shown that many sex offenders would like to be free of these urges but can not control their actions and a chemical cure can free them from the urge. * Castration will also help the widespread panic about the sex related crimes. At the moment there a huge number of sex offenders and them being “named and shamed” in publicity also harassed by mobs and are subjected to a large amount of violence in prison from other inmates. If castration is introduced the public would know that the sex offender is no longer such a big threat and they are able to move on with their lives.
Cons * The U. S. legal system works on the basis of non-physical punishments for crimes committed. What would happen is the suspect was later acquitted? The castration process could not be reversed. * Even if castration is combined with jail time this treatment is not as effective as prolonging psychotherapy. Also others might see as getting off easy and giving these sex offenders a break. * Castration would not end public anxiety, just as a murder in rehabilitation wouldn’t put the neighbors as ease. Castration wouldn’t end prison violence and indeed any other violence because it is not motivated by fear of the offender repeating the offence but by the desire to punish them further for the original crime. Castration would not work under these circumstances. Castration often fails Given the damage sex offenders do to their victim’s castration doesn’t sound like such a bad idea. There was a case I read about, where a judge ordered a first time sex offender to undergo chemical treatment after finishing with his 20 year sentence and for a ten year probation period he had to take regular injections to reduce his sex drive.
It was obvious the judge still feared that this man would still be a threat to society even after serving time. What happens after the 10 years and if the offender chooses to stop taking the treatment? In another case I read a sex offender voluntarily started with the chemical treatment almost two decades ago and pleaded guilty yet to another sexual assault but this time she was a five year old girl and all his lawyer could say was that his client stopped taking the chemical treatments.
Prisoners opt for Castration. There is an extreme high rise in sexual predators that are opting to under go this procedure in order to reduce their sentencing. Could this procedure back fire? These sexual offenders understand better than the rest of us that a sexual abuse has little to do with sex its self but more to do with physical domination. Castration isn’t likely to stop a sex offender from committing these acts but would only change the way they go about their crimes. It’s not their testicles that cause them to commit sexual crimes but it’s in their heads.
A better alternative Instead of locking away these sexual predators for long periods of time and giving them the option of castration there should be a much more helpful alternative such as high security mental facilities where they came get psychiatric help with a combination of drugs that reduce their sex drive. While chemical castration can turn off the physical urges for a time psychological counseling is needed to help them with the mental addiction and with out it they are more likely to repeat an offence.
I have put much thought into my answer and have came to a conclusion that I think it would be best if any sex offender a first time or a repeat offender should automatically have to get the castration procedure done along with psychological counseling. I feel this way because the psychological counseling would help with the mental addiction and the castration would help to slow down or stop the sexual urge as well as maybe teach them a lesson that it is a privilege to keep there “goods” intact. References http://debatepedia. idebate. org/en/index. php/Debate:_Castration_of_sex_offender
Action Reading Fundamentals
The Action Reading FUNdamentals program was designed to enhance reading instruction by using phonics. Its goal is to help students and adults improve their reading skills and develop a passion for reading. This course offers college students the opportunity to teach the program to a student named Jake, who is an eight-year-old white male living with both parents and two siblings, in just four weeks.
His family currently receives government assistance because his father was honorably discharged from the United States Army last year. His father has an average IQ and earned a high school diploma before enlisting. In contrast, his mother did not graduate and encountered challenges in school. Jack has faced speech and hearing difficulties due to recurring ear infections, which necessitated multiple sets of ear tubes. Regrettably, Jack lacked access to early education and is now in third grade. Consequently, the school administered a standardized test to evaluate his reading skills.
The test results indicated that Jack has below-average skills in reading and writing. He requires accommodations as part of his Individualized Education Program (IEP) to address these weaknesses. These accommodations should be implemented in all regular education classes. Jack and other students will be divided into smaller groups and given extra time for assignments. They will also be instructed to read questions and directions aloud, have a scribe available, and take frequent breaks. The first and second discs of the Fundamentals-Phonics Tutorial: Action Reading program offer extensive information.
During week one, Jack started using the workbook and flashcards for his introduction to the curriculum. However, his use of the modules on the discs has been limited due to the instructor’s decision to tailor the curriculum specifically for Jack. Nevertheless, with the instructor’s assistance, Jack was able to use the target sounds to sound out his nightly reading assignments. Despite the limited time, Jack managed to produce most of the alpha mobile sounds. The instructor then introduced disc two which focused on shortcuts and 2:4:1 sounds. Jack continued to practice the Aah, Bah, Cuh alpha mobile sounds aloud with the help of flashcards. Additionally, Jack started noticing the sounds in songs that align with the Action Reading program. This program teaches phoneme-grapheme correspondence and utilizes the power of phonemic awareness to aid children in their reading journey.
One side of Phonics Online focuses on distinguishing sounds in words, while the other side focuses on starting with the letters that represent these sounds (phonemes) and moving towards reproducing the spoken sounds the letters represent. The following morning, Jack was quizzed on the sounds; suh, tuh, ouh, puh spells STOP, cuh, aah, nuh spells CAN as he was driven to school. He was able to identify twelve out of fifteen words. According to Phonics Online, using grapho – phonemic cue Letters represent sounds and enable readers to sound out words towards recognition.
Jack has been diligently practicing with the workbook and has now begun the introduction of some games. In the second week of the Action Reading Program, disc three and four were introduced. The workbook included twenty-three new pages, focusing on Consonant Digraphs (combinations of two consonants representing one sound, such as sh, ck, th, ch) and Vowel Digraphs (two vowels together representing one sound, with the first vowel typically having a long sound and the second vowel being silent, such as ai, ea, oa). Additionally, there were shortcuts such as ar, or, er, ir, and ur involved in the program (Phonics Online).
The instructor started the week by going over the alphabet sounds and using the songs on disc eight, including “Aah is for Apple” and “Engine sounds.” New songs were introduced, such as “Where have you been Billy Green?” and “The Muscle Song (Bingo),” which focused on vowel sounds. The instructor and Jack have been working on action reading fundamentals. Jack has been practicing analytic phonics, where he is taught sight words and then breaks them down into separate phonics elements.
Jack appears to be responding well to synthetic phonics, which involves teaching students the letter sounds and combinations so they can blend them together to read words and recognize patterns (Phonics Online). Jack practiced these skills by completing activity sheets, such as tic-tac-toe on page twenty-five where he used two for ones instead of X’s and O’s. He had to write the letters that made the specified sound, say the sound out loud, circle the corresponding combination, and provide an example of a word that contains that combination. For the sound “ch,” Jack used the words “chair,” “lunch,” and “much.” In the second game, he used the sound “wh” and the words “wheel,” “when,” and “what.”
He continued to work on two-for-ones throughout the remaining pages, underlining shortcuts and marking changes in vowel sounds from weak to strong. Jack participated in several games, including cards numbered thirteen, twelve, eight, and five. The game on card number twelve, which involved a dart board, proved to be excellent practice for Jack because he was able to provide numerous examples of words that utilize a combination of those consonants. Specifically, he correctly identified words like “whoosh” that contained a transition from the “wh” to “sh” consonants. This impressed the instructor, who has already noticed a significant improvement in Jack’s reading skills. Prior to starting this program, Jack would not even attempt to decode words.
Previously, Jack used to read rapidly and skip words, anticipating that they would be different and reading simply to finish rather than understand. He would give up and admit, “I don’t know that word.” However, Jack now appears to be slowing down, taking his time, and comprehending what he reads. His ability to decipher words is improving significantly. Just this week, Jack had the assignment of reading a book for school called “Froggy and his baby sister,” which was at a third-grade reading level. Although it did take him thirty minutes to complete, he successfully read it and was able to provide the teacher with feedback on the book’s theme.
Jack took his time, carefully pronouncing words, blending sounds, and combining shortcuts. When he encountered unfamiliar words, the instructor provided a few hints to help Jack get back on track. Surprisingly, Jack remained calm and composed throughout the process. He successfully completed his book and displayed satisfaction with his work. In the third week, the Action Reading program introduced discs five and six. The instructor continued to assist Jack in reviewing the sounds of the Aah, Bah, Cuh alphabet, as well as the shortcuts, two-for-one combinations, and vowel sounds. To further practice his sounds, Jack continued to utilize the song CD.
The instructor has continued with phonics instruction as Phonics Online states, “Children learn to master the sounds and letter blends that make up words through drills and analyses.” This week’s lessons started on page forty-nine and went until page ninety-eight in the workbook. In addition, there were forty-nine practice sheets, six new songs, and three new games introduced. The instructor and Jack are taking their time to work through these new lessons. Jack demonstrates a strong understanding of several new lessons, including cousin Y, the ability to pronounce I or E, long I, long O, and the letter C’s ability to pronounce Kuh or Suh.
To assist Jack during the week, the instructor heavily relied on disc exercises. These exercises included practicing vowel sounds through activities like jumping jacks and toe touches. Jack greatly enjoys participating in singing along with various songs. Among the songs played, Sheriff Kindly – Outlaws, I am a Pirate – Surprise Sounds, and the Aah, Bah, Cuh race were particularly enjoyable for Jack. The race amused him, and he attempted to match the speed of the individuals on the disc. Although Jack understands the alphabet sounds and can go fast, he is not nearly as quick as the participants on the disc. Jack and the instructor successfully engaged in three new games: nine, ten, and fifteen.
Game card fifteen, called Ringing Sounds, was one of Jack’s favorites. He quickly caught on to the game, especially when playing it along with song twenty-one. The Chinese-sounding words in Ringing Sounds made Jack feel like he was speaking a different language. However, he did not enjoy game nine, The Surprise Ship, because it used vowel digraphs and vowel diphthongs. Jack found game ten, Pot of Gold, more challenging as he struggled to remember the new sounds and differentiate them from the ones he already knew. With the help of the instructor, Jack managed to do well. It seems that Jack excels in word recognition for smaller words that he is comfortable with.
The instructor has high hopes that Jack will start applying the decoding skills he is learning through this program with more practice. This week, Jack appeared to be greatly overwhelmed by the vast amount of new material presented to him. His overwhelm was so intense that he refused to utilize his newly acquired skills to read the assigned book for school. The book titled “Click, Clack, Moo Cows That Type” was specifically chosen for second grade readers. Jack displayed resistance towards sounding out words, using shortcuts, or even blending sounds together. Despite his reluctance to read aloud, there seemed to be a positive shift in Jack’s attitude towards the end of the week.
During the final week of the Action Reading program, Jack and the instructor focused on disc five, disc six, and disc seven. Disc seven introduces the last four pages of the workbook, which cover silent letters such as wr, kn, ps, gn, gh, ph = f, tion, sion, tial, cial, tient, cient, cious, tious, ough= ow, = uff, = auff, = oo, and augh= aff. Through this program, Jack has been able to practice extensively and develop a strong foundation in reading. The information presented has been beneficial and has helped Jack experience a sense of accomplishment.
The instructor has noticed significant improvement in Jack’s decoding skills after using this program for just a few weeks. Recently, Jack was thrilled when he started his school homework and confidently proclaimed, “I can read the directions!” He proudly came over to the instructor and successfully read the directions, needing assistance only with the word “symmetry”.
The fluency, referred to as “Achieving speed and accuracy in recognizing words and comprehending connected text, and coordinating the two” (Phonics Online), is still a work in progress. Jack’s word recognition, defined as “the ability to recognize a previously learned word and its meaning without needing to sound out the word first” (Phonics Online), has started to show significant improvement. In conclusion, FUNdamentals, a research-based phonics tutorial program, is a well-designed program that is user-friendly and suitable for children with reading or learning disabilities.
Jack, an eight year old, third grader with a diagnosed learning disability, has shown significant improvement in the last few weeks using this program. However, since the instructor is not part of the school system, Jack cannot be evaluated to determine his progress. The instructor believes that some progress has been made based on Jack’s statement “I can read the directions!” (References: Phonics Online (unknown, N. D.) pasted from http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/phonics/glossary/a_c.html. Retrieved 01/31/2011).
Presentation Of The City In London
William Blake and William Wordsworth both wrote their poems about the city of London. They both wrote their poems during the Age of Romanticism, seven years apart. William Blake was an individual who lived and grew up in London, working from a young age. Wordsworth lived in the Lake District and wrote a lot about nature and used that in his poems. Both poems feature London and the Thames but they are set at different time of the day London is set at midnight and Composed Upon Westminster Bridge is set at dawn where ‘the very houses seem asleep’ before the rush of the city begins.
Wordsworth’s poem is very Romantic and refers to nature but, Blake’s is very dark and shows a deeper, appalling side to London even though they are written at the same time. Composed Upon Westminster Bridge was written when William Wordsworth was passing through the city on his way to France. It is a sonnet, made up of fourteen lines. It is split into two sections, the octet which is eight lines long and the sestet makes up the last six lines of the poem.
In the first line, Earth has not anything to show more fair, Wordsworth is comparing the city to the Earth saying that there is nothing more beautiful upon it than the city of London. The second line continues the first line to say that people who pass it by are dumb and foolish to miss the sight of the city. Wordsworth uses ‘majesty’ in his next line to imply that the city is regal and royal. The City is said to be wearing the beauty of the morning as a metaphor to say that it is reflecting the sun and the sunrise on the buildings.
William wrote as far as the fields and to the sky; this is the connection to nature. He say’s that it is beautiful in the smokeless air, suggesting that the smoke is yet to come. In the sestet, Wordsworth describes more of the city. In the first line he describes how the sun is shining and soaking the city. In the next line he compares the city to nature he uses a list of valley, rock and hill. This is his first splendour, what he knows about most and to compare the city of London with it must mean he was very impressed with the physical appearance of the city.
He then quotes in the next line that the sight is so incredible that it makes him calm at the fascinating sight. In the eleventh line Wordsworth wrote about the Thames claiming at its own accord. In the final two lines he talks about how quiet the city is as it is in the morning, at dawn to be exact. He writes that they are so quiet that they seem asleep, this maybe a metaphor to say that it is quiet before the morning rush of workers, cart and other forms of transport.
In the poem Wordsworth uses similes in line four: The city now doth, like a garment, wears. This is saying that the city is so beautiful the buildings appear to be wearing beauty as clothing. Wordsworth uses personification to describe the river. He says that The river glideth at his own sweet will, implying it has human form to glide at its own harmony. These two devices imply that Wordsworth saw the town as a person or being rather than a city as he uses personification giving it human qualities and also make the city sound dressed in clothing.
Wordsworth describes and compares the city to the countryside. This is unusual as cities and the countryside are different as cities are more polluted whereas the countryside is clean and fresh. Wordsworth usually wrote romantically about the countryside. There is a contrast between the countryside and the cities but Wordsworth wrote this poem in the same way as one about the countryside. He uses objects to do with nature to describe what the city is like. The poem is a sonnet which is a poem made up of fourteen lines.
This poem is split into two sections, as I have previously mentioned, the octet, made up of eight lines and the sestet, made up of six lines. It describes the city of London from Westminster Bridge in 1802. A sonnet is appropriate for this poem as a sonnet is a romantic poem from the Romanticism period. Wordsworth was a romanticism poet and most of his poems were romantic. Wordsworth uses commas to list the manmade structures seen long the Thames. At the end of two of the line Wordsworth added exclamation marks to add emphasis to what he was saying.
The appearance of the city may change during the day as Wordsworth describes it as being silent and bare this could mean that there is rush to come later in the day. In Blake’s poem, which is set at midnight it is described as being a much busier city during this time. Blake writes about conditions as well as Wordsworth but, Blake writes practically the opposite of what Wordsworth wrote saying that the streets are charted compared to that of beauty from Wordsworth’s poem.
Wordsworth writes about the manmade structures of the city whereas, Blake writes about the people of the city as he bad times they are having because of the impact of the industrial revolution. He writes about the crying from the children, chimneysweeps and also the unlucky soldiers sighing. Because Blake had been living in London for most of his life and had a hard upbringing he knows how it feels to be in the same situation as the people who were being affected. Unlike Wordsworth, who was only passing through the city and only saw the physical city not the people of the city and that is why he commented and listed places in the physical city.
Wordsworth may have wanted to comment on the architectural side of the city to show the greatness and importance of it. It is a major port and has a large theatre district and the description emphasises these features. Blake sees a city of people rather than the buildings that Wordsworth saw. He wrote about the conditions in the chartered streets. He talks about the Thames just as Wordsworth did but an opposite description implying that there is obstructed movement in the river. Blake writes that in every face he see there is weakness and woe.
This says that everyone who he sees had a sad or depressed expression on their face. Blake uses other words such as blights, plagues and curse to describe the unfortunate people of the city of London contrasting to the beauty of the city that Wordsworth saw upon Westminster Bridge. Blake presents the people being very ill-fated and presents them in this way to show the darker side of the city. Everyone is appalled and distressed not just a few people. He talks about not just infants but also the cries of men who were soldiers who have nowhere else to go.
Blake writes about the harlot’s cursing. A harlot is a polite word for prostitute; this harlot is swearing at her new baby and is worried for their future. Blake has described the city as being much deeper and having more than just the beauty on top but a horrible society that was two hundred years ago. Blake saw the city of people not buildings as this is where he grew up in comparison to Wordsworth who was just passing through when he wrote his poem. In both poems the river Thames is mentioned although they are completely different.
In Blake’s the river is described as being in very bad way and struggles to flow, but in Wordsworth’s it appears clean and flows at it’s own accord. Blake’s poem is much darker compared to Wordsworth’s view of the city. Blake talks about the cry’s of the infants. The church at the time did not do enough to help the children of London and failed at trying to help. The soldiers cry was because there was no war at the time so the soldiers were not being paid however, there is a reference to the French revolution when it mentions about blood running down palace walls.
There is also a reference to prostitution as a harlot has a baby which implies that the act was unsafe and has led to a baby being born as no contraceptive was either used or there was not one available. Wordsworth’s poem was composed upon Westminster Bridge and was in the early morning Blake’s poem was practically the opposite as it was midnight so these would show two completely different images to begin with. In Blake’s London it doesn’t give an exact place of where the story was but I doubt it was ‘composed upon Westminster Bridge,’ as it seems to be in a poorer area of the city rather than the richer Westminster.
Blake wants the readers to feel as if there is a much darker side to London that many people may not know about whereas Wordsworth would want to share the beauty of the city with his readers. The poems show that there is both a beautiful and a darker poorer side to London like in most cities. I consider that both poems are very respectful as I have been to London and stayed in Westminster and found it physically beautiful but, I am sure there are rougher areas where there are worse things happening which I haven’t and possibly yet to see.