Sex Offenders And Their Prison Sentences University Essay Example

The first article under consideration is called Abusing State Power or Controlling Risk?: Sex Offender Commitment and Sicherungverwahrung written by Demleitner. In the article, the author addresses the problem of the civil commitment of sexual predators. This problem is of considerable importance despite the fact that the number of such individuals is relatively small. The author also dedicates his paper to the analysis of the confinement law, which is “the starkest example of a collateral sanction” (Demleitner 2003, p. 1621). These commitment regulations are of great value, as they considerably increase public safety.

In the article, the researcher also discusses Hendricks vs. Kansas case where the Supreme Court applied compulsory confinement succeeded in a criminal justice sentence for sexual abuse. This case is proof of illegal imposition of this “civil sanction” on the accused. On the one hand, Delmeitner condemns the decision made by the Supreme Court, as was subjectively evaluated. On the other hand, he explains that these legal actions are approved, as the primary goal of sex offender confinement is to guarantee public security.

Further on, the paper introduces the reader to the American legal policy of handling sex offenders. A serious situation in the United States occurs, as the American society frequently witnesses sexual abuses of children and women. Therefore, the Court constitutes that “sex offenders are at a higher risk of recidivism and are uniquely unsuitable for rehabilitation have driven much of the legislation” (Delmeit, 2003, p. 1622). According to the above, the lengthened prison terms are imposed on sex offenders beyond their prison sentences. It goes without saying that such sanctions cannot be imposed on all subcategories of sexual abuses, which are explicitly viewed in Hendrick’s case.

There are cases when sexually dangerous people were taken to mental hospitals thus being considered as individuals with mental disorders and abnormality. In this particular article, the author admits that such measures for personality improvement would be more acceptable rather than capital punishments. Besides, they would also contribute to the public safety. Nonetheless, the penalties should remain depending on reasons and types of the crimes.

According to the author, the advantage of the confinement law adoption lies in the fact that it ameliorates the social situation, as this class of people is viewed as posing a great danger to society. Therefore, this sanction was also ratifies in Germany, that still has some limitations thus giving chance for improvement for those sex offenders who committed such crime only once.

Finally, Demleitner also mentions the role of mental health system whose participation in confinement procedure is of paramount importance. In this case, the author refers both to negative and positive outcomes of treatment of the most dangerous sexual predators.

The second article under analysis is called Decision-Making About Volitional Impairment in Sexually Violent Predators. The authors of the paper also discuss the importance of Kansas v. Hendricks case of 1997 that argue the necessity of the civil confinement of those sexual abusers who cannot control their violent desires. The paper also describes the terms under which the law is eligible to impose the confinement on the sex offenders. According to the discussions, Hendricks was found as sexual offender due to the facts that he “suffers from pedophilia” and “continues to harbor sexual desires toward children” (Mercado et al., 2006, p. 588).

The author main question in the article is “should the Court be relying in part upon Hendrick’s history of sexual violence, it is unclear how “inability to control” behavior is something other than criminal recidivism” (Mercado et al., 2006, p. 588)? In other words, Mercado does not recognize the volitional impairment as the most effective means against social disturbances thus referring to as to serious crime recidivism rather than to mental abnormalities. The author also insists on the fact that there should a strict difference between insanity and cruel desires to violent actions.

Further on, the authors tries to define an accurate definition of the notion of “volitional impairment” that presented as a lack of behavior and impossibility to control the actions. The investigators express their concern with the connection of this notion with the term “insanity”, as it is hardly relevant to this definition. The fact is that all sexual crimes are conducted purposefully, the abusers realize what they are doing and why. In this respect, the paper rejects the adoption of sanctions and their application on dangerous offenders whose treatment would not be efficient.

The article also introduces the readers to the empirical researches in the study of sexually violent predators’ intentions. This study showed that sex offenders’ confinement will save society from violent and sexual acts as 59 % to 71 % would commit crimes if not detained by the law officers (Mercado et al., 2006, p. 589). The experiments proved that there was a huge difference between the lack of control phenomenon and mental disorder. Hence, the former problem is more connected with lack of upbringing whereas the second one directly relates to psychological trauma.

Comparing the analyzed articles, it should be pointed out that both authors express an original opinion on the problem. Still, one can pursue some peculiarities of visions. Hence, both authors believe that confinement law should be applied in curtain cases strictly established. Both authors consider the reasons for civil commitment and both agree that this sanction considerably contributes to the improvement of social security. Finally, the papers also touch upon Kansas v. Hendrick cases but from different angles. Hence Mercado et al. consider this case in terms of the necessity of commitment law whereas Demleitner fully rejects the possibility of the civil commitment on the basis of mental disorder in case the person commits the acts of violence repeatedly.

The articles have different approach to the role of mental establishment in treating sex offender recognized as mentally ill patients. In this case the first article expresses a more radical point of view thus fully rejecting the treatment of serious sex offenders. As for the second article, here the author is more focused on the analysis of medical terms and diagnoses allowing the treatment of sexual predators.

In my opinion, the both author do not fully support this sanction due to many reasons, including medical, social, ethical, and even legal biases, where the latter is fully ignored. Therefore, the governmental adoption of the confinement law should undergo certain amendments. To my mind the sex offender should be taken in custody for an indefinite period of time in case the predator commits the act of violence repeatedly. In case the sex offender commits the crime only once, he/she should be sentenced to imprisonment.


Demleitner, N. V. (2003). Abusing State Power or Controlling Risk?: Sex Offender Commitment and Sicherungverwahrung. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30(5), 1621+.

Mercado , C. C., Bornstein B. H., and Schopp, R. F. (2006). Decision-Making about Volitional Impairment in Sexually Violent Predators. Law and Human Behavior. 30(5). 587-602.

English Language Learners Classrooms & Instructional Strategies

English Language Learners must pass a speaking and writing portion of language proficiency assessment for scoring out and being fully immersed in mainstream classes without support. There exist a number of students with different cultural backgrounds who are unable to speak or write English fluently or too shy to speak up and answer a question, even when they have the answer. In this paper, I will present instructional strategies to help my ELL students gain the language proficiency they need to succeed in school.

My students will learn to work cooperatively and to recognize their individual responsibilities within a group by actively participating in such learning centers and activities as a set of discussion questions around a story they have read, producing of a cognitive map of the story, or inventing a puppet show to highlight character traits. (Calderon, 2001) Learning centers will also help the students advance into student-led discussions, which is likely to encourage class participation. Furthermore, students will learn new information and connect it to their personal lives by using their native language and making what they are learning more meaningful. For example, asking students to tell a story that is either popular in their home country or is based on their own experience and allowing them to tell it both in their native language and in English, can help to increase their confidence and send a powerful message of cross-cultural appreciation.

Utilizing Krashen’s theory of comprehensible input, I will try to make the content of the class more understandable to students; for this, I will use a set of student-based strategies, which includes incorporating a variety of learning styles that will be based upon the visual learners, auditory learners, and the students who learn best through hands-on. I will also use a variety of assessment opportunities (such as performance-based, pictorial, and reflective). For example, I am planning to use the “Realia strategy”. “Realia” is a term for any real, concrete object used in the classroom to create connections with vocabulary words, stimulate conversation, and build background knowledge. Realia give students the opportunity to use all their senses to learn about a given subject; they are appropriate for any grade or skill level. The use of realia can also contribute greatly to incorporating cultural content into a lesson. For example, eating utensils and kitchen appliances (chopsticks, a tortilla press, a tea set, and a wok) can build vocabulary and increase comprehension providing at this insight into different cultures.

Since I have taught mathematics and will be teaching mathematics, my goal is to demonstrate models of teaching that may help ELL students deepen their understanding of mathematics and increase their achievements in this subject. Math classes for English Language Learners (ELLs) can be especially challenging because students are faced with learning both mathematics and English at one and the same time. Math teachers can and must make every effort to reach out to these students to create a class that is both positive and rewarding.

As far as I know, mathematics is taught in an integrated format in most of the countries. The United States is one of the few countries that separate math instruction by math topics. The subject is divided into Algebra class, Geometry class, and Trigonometry class. In order to make sure that students are placed into a proper mathematics classroom, I question them in their native language to find out their background in mathematics. Much of the mathematics curriculum today involves using technology in the classroom. Many ELL students have not been taught in their native countries to use a calculator, nor have they been taught to use a computer as an educational tool. Using calculators and computers is extremely important in mathematics this is why students who do not have necessary skills in using these technologies should be taught to do this during additional classes. The wait time for written instruction on the board should be10 to 15 minutes or more. The ELL students tend to write down everything that the instructors put on the board, which is good to some extent; however, the students miss most of the oral instructions because they are too preoccupied with writing what is on the board. Providing a list of the daily assignments might be helpful in this situation.

It is essential that we take into account the ELL unique exercises, prior learning, and individual strengths in order to develop appropriate instructional strategies. Other cultures have different approaches to mathematics which the ELL may be unaware of, (Selby & Slavin, 1991) this is why a thorough research should be conducted before implementing definite teaching strategies.

Mathematical Concepts That May Differ or Be Difficult
Measurement Measurement may be especially challenging for ELL students, as their prior instruction most likely covered the metric system.
Fractions Fractions may be unfamiliar to ELLs. Some ELL students may have come from an educational environment where decimals received more emphasis than fractions.
Geometry The discipline of Geometry in particular has many terms that may cause difficulties in understanding.
Algorithms In some cases, algorithms may have been learned differently. Some ELL students may be used to algorithms that are different from traditional algorithms taught in your curriculum. Allow students the opportunity to share their algorithms. Use this as a learning opportunity by comparing algorithms and analyzing similarities and differences.

An effective strategy which we sometimes tend to forget is that teachers, parents, fellow classmates, and friends should work as a team to help the ELL students succeed. Through the variety of experiences I have had, I have noticed that the more involved parents are in their children’s education, the more enthusiastic and determined the latter are to learn. Effective communication will provide a necessary balance between the information that students are learning at home and bringing to the classroom and the information that they are receiving from school and taking home with them.

Good teachers provide all students with equal opportunities for success. To help the students reach this success, we must take into account cultural backgrounds of all the students. Applying multiculturalism strategies in our lesson is not difficult. We work in a multicultural society, dealing with people of different nationalities. This should help us to use variety of teaching strategies and methods to help students to be more active in the lesson and to deepen their comprehension of English language.

Progress, no matter how big or how small, is success. A confident, happy, and successful student is a true reward for a teacher. I myself was an ESL student once and I wrote the following words for my teacher:

She made me like school.

She made me want to learn.

She made learning fun.

She pushed me to be the best I could be.

She made me feel successful.

She made me smile.

She was not only my teacher, she was my friend.

I hope my ELL students would want to write the same about me.


  1. Calderon, M. (2001). Effective programs for Latino Students. Mahwan N.J.: Erlbaum.
  2. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice of Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
  3. Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. (2003).
  4. Selby, P. & Slavin, S. (1991). Practical Algebra. New York: John Wildey & Sons, Inc.

Canadian Multiculturalism: Global Anxieties And Local Debates


  • There is a widespread perception that multiculturalism has failed. (Europe)
  • Canadians may be blind to growing evidence of stresses and failures in ethnic relations in Canada.
  • We show that there are indeed stresses and strains within Canadian multiculturalism, with real issues that require serious attention.

The Global Context

There has been a major shift in the general trends regarding immigrant integration in the western democracies. (Example: Netherlands).

This global backlash and retreat is now widespread. (Example: Council of Europe 2008,10).

4 disadvantages of multiculturalism in the European debate:

  • Residential ghettoisation and social isolation of immigrants.
  • Increased stereotyping, and hence prejudice and discrimination.
  • Political radicalism, particularly amongst Muslim youths.
  • The perpetuation of illiberal practices amongst immigrant groups.

The Canadian Model

  • Canada is a multicultural country along many different dimensions.
  • 2 Levels of this policy in 1971

  1. 1. Small Multiculturalism Directorate.
  2. 2. Multiculturalism is also a government-wide commitment.

The original 4 goals of the policy

  • Assist all Canadian cultural groups that have demonstrated a desire and effort to continue to develop a capacity to grow and contribute to Canada.
  • Assist members of all cultural groups to overcome cultural barriers to full participation in Canadian society.
  • Promote creative encounters and interchange amongst all Canadian cultural groups in the interest of national unity.
  • Assist immigrants to acquire at least one of the Canada’s official languages in order to become full participants in Canadian society.

Evaluating the Policy

  • Evidence about immigrant integration.

Example: On average, second-generation members of ethnic minorities match the educational achievement of their majority counterparts and move into the workforce without difficulties.

  • Evidence about attitudes towards immigrants within the larger society.

Example: The majority of Canadians are supportive of immigrants and are comfortable with their place in society.

The Role of Multiculturalism

At the institutional level, multiculturalism leads to the development of more inclusive and impartial public institutions. Under the implementation of multicultural policies, children of immigrants are more likely to receive better education and successfully enter the workforce later in life. Immigrants in Canada also show a more substantial interest in the work of public institutions and play a more active part in the country’s public life than their counterparts in other states. Feeling accepted at an individual level and having a strong national identity that is not separate from their ethnic identity contributes to immigrants having a vested interest in the country’s social, economic, and political prosperity. Thus, multiculturalism leads to full integration into Canadian citizenship and results in immigrants having a strong social position.


Religious diversity within multiculturalism has not been adequately addressed

The authors of the discussed article note several aspects of Canadian multiculturalism that have not been thoroughly examined. All these issues require serious attention to be able to prevent potential problems in immigration. One of such matters is the religious diversity within a multicultural setting. According to Banting and Kymlicka (2010), this is, at the moment, “the most controversial domain of multiculturalism.” Although many policies support open secularism, separate religious groups in Canada still experience many issues that are not satisfactorily addressed. Religious minorities in the country are not supported as thoroughly as ethnic minorities are due to the absence of effective mechanisms for resolving theological conflicts. There is a need to establish an independent body tasked with resolving issues raised by religious minorities in Canada.

The relationship between immigrant ethnic minorities and native ethnocultural minorities needs further examination

Canada’s multicultural policies are aimed at three distinct minorities: the immigrant community, the bilingual French fact, and First Nations, the aboriginal population of the country. As the three communities have distinctly different legacies and needs, the policies that support them and protect their rights in the country are separate and do not necessarily account for other factions’ needs. As the members of those communities share many public spaces and services, it is important to ensure that the rights of one ethnocultural minority are not infringed upon or compromised in favor of another one. Therefore, the relationships between the First Nations, French fact, and the immigrant population needs to be more closely examined to identify potential issues and set policies for prevention.

  • Some of the potential racism and discrimination patterns in the country are not thoroughly examined and are not addressed by appropriate policies.
  • Despite a significant number of multicultural policies set in place to support Canada’s ethnocultural communities, there are still incidents of discrimination. There are two main prejudices encountered in Canada: anti-black and, most recently, anti-Muslim. They are aimed at what can be described as visible minorities and are often addressed by various policies. However, both visible and not visible minorities can become victims of bias and intolerance. For example, the aboriginal population of the country is not considered to be a visible minority. Nevertheless, its members often become victims of discrimination and racism. Thus, there is an urgent need to examine prejudices against minorities that are not visible and consider new discrimination patterns to set appropriate policies.
  • Overall, the discussed article raises several questions on multiculturalism in Canada. The main question is: Why is the multicultural approach in Canada seen as more successful than a similar strategy in Europe? In Canada, policies promote a mutual understanding between native-born citizens and immigrants and encourage the latter community to assume an active part in the country’s public life. Although there are still some multiculturalism issues that must be addressed, there is a foundation for further debate. Further questions from the audience about the discussed article are welcomed.


Banting, K., & Kymlicka, W. (2010). Canadian multiculturalism: Global anxieties and local debates. British Journal of Canadian Studies, 23(1), 43-73.

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