Sex Trafficking By Organized Crime Groups Essay Example For College


The modern world is experiencing tremendous paradigm shifts as consistent and systemic efforts are being made to eliminate discrimination and create a tolerant and egalitarian society. Feminism is a movement and ideology which seeks to redefine social attitudes towards women and establish the provision of equal rights. Despite significant progress and massive advocacy efforts on behalf of individuals, groups, and international organizations, gender-based discrimination is present in practically every region of the world. Transnational sex trafficking is a prevalent issue that serves as evidence that a persistent problem exists surrounding the exploitation of women due to the lack of social protection. The modern globalized world provides numerous opportunities for organized and transnational crime to align the efficient system of women sex trafficking. It is critical to comprehend the link between the social vulnerability of women and inherent economic conditions in developing nations that cause transnational sex trafficking in order to implement comprehensive and systemic solutions that address the needs of the victims and promote a paradigm shift in accordance with feminist theory.


The United Nations has established human trafficking as a quickly growing criminal activity. It is estimated that approximately 2.45 million are trapped in forced labor and trafficking networks worldwide, with 43% being targeted for sexual exploitation. An 80% majority of these transnational victims consist of women and girls (Erez, 2010). International organized crime creates problems for all victims and vulnerable populations. However, there is an adverse impact on women as a whole. For example, migration intensifies the gender-linked vulnerability of females, making them dependent on male husbands, employers, or sponsors within the ethnic communities.

Human trafficking is based on obtaining control over a person through illegal and inappropriate methods of force, fraud, and deception with the purpose of exploiting them. The definition established by the United Nations emphasizes that trafficking is more than a criminal act. Rather, it is a complex process that is a crime against humanity. It mentions that abuse of power and a vulnerable position of a person can be considered methods of control. Furthermore, there is a clear indication that “exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation” (Erez, 2010, p. 552).

Feminist Theory

Sex trafficking is inherently a form of violence against women, which is a common occurrence in a patriarchal society that exists today. The second wave of feminism demonstrated the intricacies of violence that exists in industrialized nations. This horrific aspect can take many forms, but it is based on a universal theoretical concept of power and control. It has been shown that sexual crimes are often not centered around sexuality but rather positions of power and social order in the patriarchal society. Men engage in violence against women because society has allowed them to do so, with social institutions and the criminal justice system tacitly overlooking numerous cases of control and abuse (Rosenberg & Duffy, 2010).

These patterns of violence were part of the mechanism designed to sustain social male domination and subordination of women. Feminist research over the years has identified the complex model of abuse that extends beyond physical and sexual into economic and psychological dimensions. The issue is not based so much on individual men or their gender in general, but rather a social order which creates an environment and pressure conducive to abuse. Violence becomes less of an external threat but rather an internal process as women are affected by attitudes of learned helplessness and a sense of self which leads to victimization (Rosenberg & Duffy, 2010).

The theoretical background for sex work and sexual exploitation of women is complex and diverse as a social concept but is often underdeveloped at the individual level. The moral debates considering these macro-level theoretical contexts impact large-scale social systems (such as law) that determine the legality of whether a woman can choose to exchange sex for money (both willingly and involuntary). Academic and legal scholars on the issue offer various viewpoints on comparing sex work with sexual exploitation. However, micro-level theories view sex work as a process that consists of victimization and entry as well as the difficulty of exiting this industry (Gerassi, 2015). This is an important aspect to discuss because sex trafficking often leads to women becoming sex workers or being exploited for sexual purposes.

The feminist theory seeks to question whether any type of sex work or prostitution can be a voluntary act. Service providers of such services (escort) tend to argue against the interpretation that that industry maintains an overrepresentation of women. Regarding this topic, generally, two opposing sides exist, each arguing a different theoretical perspective. Neo-abolitionists condemn any form of sex work, even if voluntary, viewing it as oppression against women in general. Their argument is based on the premise that prostitution cannot be fully consensual. However, the opposing group, consisting of sex positivists, states that a woman has the right to choose this line of work (Gerassi, 2015). Sex trafficking has been consistently associated with services offering sex in exchange for money. These women are kept under strict control, abused, and not allowed to leave. Even if their entry into the profession was voluntary at first, there are numerous instances of the issue becoming oppressive.

The Impact of Globalization on Sex Trafficking

Globalization is the trend of socio-economic interconnectedness amongst countries around the world that is promoted through a free-flowing movement of capital, goods, and ideas across borders. Neoliberal economic policies implemented in the 1980s have actively contributed to creating the modern global system of open financial markets and competition with little government regulation. The aim was to improve global economic growth by providing entry to markets for poorer nations. While the goal of reducing absolute poverty was achieved, these policies resulted in a tremendous wage gap between the rich and developing countries. The effect on agriculture and industry, which lowered wages, has created a pull factor that attracts migrant workers to affluent nations such as the United States. However, stringent immigration policy has led to the creation of forced labor, and human trafficking practices as migrants become dependent on third parties (Encinas, 2018).

In the modern globalized world, criminals have learned to take advantage of numerous opportunities for the trafficking of people. It is achieved through modern methods and networks of transportation which have been created by globalized trade (Bromfield, 2015). This applies to sex trafficking as well, which has become one of the primary objectives for criminal organizations. As borders are blurred, more opportunities arise for the transport of women from more impoverished regions into affluent countries for the purposes of sex work and exploitation (Flynn, Alston, & Mason, 2013). Tighter border controls result in poor and vulnerable migrants relying on brokers to make perilous journeys. The cost of transportation amounts to a person’s life savings and more which places them in debt to these powerful criminal organizations. Therefore, people are forced into slavery or prostitution for compensation.

It is critical to consider that most women involved in sex trafficking come from poor regions of the world. Poverty, illiteracy, cultural patriarchy, and the widening gender gap all contribute to the rise of trafficking in these regions (Jani &Felke, 2015). Furthermore, the political climate, buried in corruption and where the rule of law is rarely enforced on such issues, becomes conducive to crime. Governments of such regions are not actively involved in resolving sex trafficking. Meanwhile, legal systems are based on cultural traditions of patriarchy which promote the vulnerability of women. This leads to practices of forced marriage and rape, as well as creating barriers to education and employment (Gilbertson, 2015).

Therefore, globalization negatively impacts women from these regions of the world as they become sources of cheap labor to be used in developed countries, including sex services (Jani &Felke, 2015). The countries where women are trafficked are commonly affluent. It does not matter whether prostitution is legalized or regulated. Women will be funneled into either the legal industry or the underground sex trade, depending on the policies of that specific country. Nevertheless, women become slaves, even if they are integratedinto the legal system of sex service. Furthermore, participation in such systems creates a possibility for arrest by law enforcement. Most often, this leads to deportation on the charges of illegal entry or forged documentation. Meanwhile, traffickers themselves are rarely convicted (Gilbertson, 2015).

Case Study

Eastern European countries are common sources of sex trafficking. Romania is one particular country impacted by the issue. The cause of this is considered the low standard of living in the country with significant demographical, unemployment, and financial issues after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Families are commonly unstable as women are left by their husbands. Therefore, they are left vulnerable and can be entrapped by traffickers through the promise of good income. The social mindset for women focused on attracting a wealthy man in order to have a decent quality of life is commonly manipulated by traffickers. Furthermore, there is a lack of a strong legislative base or federal structures to protect women and prevent trafficking, which is abused by criminal organizations. The post-Soviet government corruption and relaxation of border control have allowed for criminal activity and sex trafficking into the European Union nations (Caramello, 2013).

FeministsEfforts to Improve the Situation

Sex trafficking most commonly occurs in regions or situations where there is a lack of social guarantees for women. In order to resolve the issue, a redefined legal environment should be created. Women are significantly empowered when the criminal justice system protects them and becomes a resource to resist violence and victimization. The trafficking of women for sexual exploitation requires a collective response that provides support services and respects the rights and dignity of women. The needs of vulnerable populations such as migrants should be considered as their immigration status should not jeopardize access to services. Overall, existing institutions, social structures, and community networks should be utilized in providing support and protection for women at risk of sex trafficking and attempting to escape victimization (Erez, 2010). While there are limited resources to help each victim individually, a collective effort is undoubtedly effective against transnational sex trafficking.

In terms of interventions, social workers must examine the process and system comprehensively. A criminal justice response is commonly rejected in favor of harm reduction programs. These seek to employ case management which interconnects clients with counseling, medical care, housing assistance, and advocacy groups. It is important to note that despite common misconceptions (even amongst social workers), women experiencing violence in both domestic disputes and sexual exploitation are inherently similar. These women are faced with physical and psychological abuse, dominance, social rejection, and overbearing control (Bromfield, 2015). This is an important concept to consider within the context to address the issue since efforts and interventions targeted at the issue of sex trafficking can be used in other social situations and vice versa.

Moving forward, change is most likely to occur through legislation. However, as history has shown, policies are often ineffective at addressing the root of the issue and, at times, create more barriers. Some concepts to consider is that both academic research and legislation passed regarding the issue of sex trafficking should focus on the needs of the victim rather than the demands of the criminal justice system as it has been doing. The process of prosecution is often traumatic and detrimental to the victim, particularly migrants. Police practices and procedures should take a holistic and investigative approach as the issue requires a collaborative approach amongst agencies, both domestically and internationally (Kingshott& Jones, 2016).

There is a significant gendered policy discourse regarding sex trafficking. The subject is often viewed as men trafficking women (which may be somewhat supported by anecdotal evidence). Women are portrayed as victims that are naïve and unaware of the risks and oppression that are associated with human smuggling. Meanwhile, men are portrayed as most likely to deliberately break the law and to be perceived as criminals. Therefore, human rights violations against men are not taken into account, and men are viewed as less deserving of compassion. Therefore, protective policies lead to the restriction of women’s choices. They are creating a legislative framework that places abuse of female migrants as the sole fault of traffickers as detrimental. This way, the women’s agency is denied, and the role of the state is unclear. The discussion on the topic fails to consider that human smuggling and trafficking is a by-product of “restrictive migration regimes, exploitative employment practices and inequality between poorer and richer countries” (Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women, 2011, p. 62).

Policies should be more comprehensive in assessing the problem. Through feminist efforts, politicians should consider questions of whether the legislation values or empowers women and addresses inequality without creating loopholes or double standards. Eventually, policy creation will evolve towards creating a significant impact on the prevention of transnational crime (Noyori-Corbett & Moxley, 2016). Inherently, this will require a paradigm shift in social thinking which will be difficult to achieve but will produce equality amongst genders and end the horrific practice of sex trafficking.


Advocacy efforts against sex trafficking highlight several distinct principles:

  1. Prostitution directly causes sex trafficking;
  2. Sex trafficking and prostitution are interconnected;
  3. Prostitution is a form of violence against women (Jackson, 2016).

In the continuous battle of formulating social perceptions of sex work and the individuals participating in it, as well as those who seek to help and support these women, it is critical to establish precise definitions surrounding the issue. This requires challenging stereotypes and reclaiming labels. Feminist advocates seek to highlight the experiences of women involved in sex trafficking in order to clarify their side of the story. The primary objective is to destigmatize sex work and repel criminal prosecution of the victim rather than the abuser. These narratives are difficult to accept as they challenge mainstream cultural morals and attitudes. However, such “counterstories” of marginalized and oppressed victims effectively disrupt the social constructs manipulated by media and political agendas (Jackson, 2016).

In order to identify the best practices on the issue of sex trafficking moving forward, one must avoid participating in the moral panic that commonly arises in the discussion of the topic. As evident, the problem is complex, requiring an in-depth understanding of political and social contexts, theoretical background, and the process of victimization in sex trafficking. The scholarly human rights framework needs to recognize that while consensual sex work exists, there are a number of participants who are coerced and exploited in the industry due to sex trafficking (Bromfield, 2015).


Gender-based discrimination and exploitation of women remain prevalent issues in the modern world. Feminist theoretical perspectives highlight that violence against women occurs due to the systemic social status quo which sustains such conditions. Rapid globalization, which is a positive occurrence, has been overshadowed by transnational sex trafficking that has become widespread due to ease of transportation. Women experience discrimination due to gender-linked vulnerability and a common perception of women as sexual objects. Feminists attempt to redefine social norms and resolve the issue by establishing social guarantees for women through the removal of barriers to financial stability and protection from crime.


Bromfield, N.F. (2015). Sex slavery and sex trafficking of women in the United States: Historical and contemporary parallels, policies, and perspectives in social work.Affilia, 31(1), 129-139. Web.

Caramello, I. B. (2013). A case study of sex trafficking in Romania. Web.

Encinas, P. (2018). The correlation between globalization and human trafficking. Web.

Erez, E. (2010). Women as victims and survivors in the context of transnational human trafficking for commercial sex exploitation. Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal, 81(3), 551-562. Web.

Flynn, C., Alston, M., & Mason, R. (2013). Trafficking in women for sexual exploitation: Building Australian knowledge.International Social Work, 57(1), 27-38. Web.

Gerassi, L. (2015). A heated debate: Theoretical perspectives of sexual exploitation and sex work. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 42(4), 79-100.

Gilbertson, M. (2015). Globalization and the sex trafficking industry: Examination of effects on regional value chain operations. Web.

Global Alliance Against Traffic in Women. (2011). Smuggling and trafficking: Rights and intersections. Web.

Jackson, C. A. (2016). Framing sex worker rights: How U.S. sex worker rights activists perceive and respond to mainstream anti-sex trafficking advocacy.Sociological Perspectives,59(1), 27-45. Web.

Jani, N., &Felke, T. P. (2015). Gender bias and sex-trafficking in Indian society.International Social Work, 69(4), 831-846. Web.

Kingshott, B. F., & Jones, T. R. (2016). Human trafficking: A feminist perspective response. In Advancing justice on all fronts (pp. 1-22). Denver, Colorado: Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences. Web.

Noyori-Corbett, C., & Moxley, D. P. (2016). A transnational feminist policy analysis of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act. International Journal of Social Welfare, 26(2), 107-115. Web.

Rosenberg, L., & Duffy, A. (2010). Violence against women. In N. Mandell (Ed.), Feminist issues: Race, class, and sexuality (5th ed.) (pp.161-196). Toronto, Canada:Pearson Education Canada.

Gun Violence Reduction In Urban Community


Gun violence has become a national epidemic, especially affecting underserved urban communities. The rate of gun homicide and injury in urban areas has reached a crisis point with certain socioeconomic and racial groups impacted to a greater extent. There are numerous causes to the issue, and various policy and institutional approaches have been implemented over the years for better or worse with addressing the foundation of the problem. Gun violence in urban communities can be reduced by focusing on breaking the cycle of violence and poverty through implementation of socially focused, community-oriented strategies aimed at the core population in urbanized areas.

Background and Definitions

It is important to begin with defining gun violence. It is an act of violence and crime committed with the use of a gun, including firearms and small guns. It often includes gun-related violence such as robbery and assault with the use of a gun. Gun violence can result in homicide, crime, suicide, injury, and associated trauma (American Psychological Association, n.d). In this paper urban communities are referred to as areas of high-density populations, most commonly located in the inner city of large metropolises, with populations of over 1 million inhabitants. Often a city will have various areas and neighborhoods which differ in their structure and socioeconomic development. In the context of the paper, the focus will be primarily on low-income residential urban areas where violence is perpetuated due to reasons discussed below.

Gun violence commonly affects urban communities very disproportionally in comparison to sub-urban or rural neighborhoods. Although public health officials state that gun violence has no boundaries virtually, urban neighborhoods are more at risk due to factors of poverty and illegal gun possession. In turn, this leads to higher rates of homicide and crime by violent individuals in possession of illegal firearms. Police departments understand this and attempt to combat illegal gun possession as one of its primary tactics, but are limited by factors of safety, avoiding perpetuating more violence, and acting in a legal and respectful manner to these neighborhoods, which are often communities of color and minorities (John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, n.d.).


In the past decade, over 1.2 million people in America have experienced gun violence with millions being witnesses. Most Americans personally know a victim of gun violence, impacting personal lives. Approximately 36,000 gun deaths occur in the United States annually, with the peak year in 2017 being 39,773 deaths. Gun deaths have increased by as much as 16% since 2014. Americans are also 25 times more likely to experience gun violence than citizens of other developed countries. Gun homicides disproportionately impact urban areas, which houses a quarter of the total national population and communities of color.

For every individual killed, up to 6 more are injured in a gun assault. Gun homicides are also up 30% from 2014 to date (Giffords Law Center, n.d.). Approximately 20% of all homicides occur in the 25 largest cities in the United States, and 81% occur in urban areas. Disparities are exacerbated in the geographical neighborhoods of large cities. For example, Philadelphia’s safest and affluent neighborhood which is 85% white saw no gun deaths for the year 2014, but its most violent district which is 95% black saw 189 shooting victims and 40 deaths. African Americans are on average 8 times more likely to experience gun violence than other white Americans (Mitchell & Bromfield, 2019).


The places where populations grow up and live can have long-lasting effects on well-being and behavior. In recent decades, greater evidence suggests that social factors such as poverty, crime, joblessness, lack of social connections, and weak formal institutions contribute to a person’s health and psychological prospects. In the United States, historically, communities that are marginalized based on these social inequities also experience negative treatment due to race and ethnicity. This includes by government institutions where racial minorities are prejudiced against beginning with the school systems and ending with the justice system often demonstrating disparate treatment.

Shared experiences within communities also influences perception of appropriate behavior. Committing delinquent behavior, particularly by youth, is more prevalent in communities in urban areas of concentrated disadvantage where norms are accepting of delinquency. In inner city communities affected by gun violence, there is often a tense relationship with law enforcement, as populations feel targeted and abandoned by the justice system (Campie, 2016).

Cycle of Violence and Urban Poverty

Urban gun violence is directly associated with neighborhoods affected by social disorder such as lower social cohesion and collective efficacy. Furthermore, physical deterioration of infrastructure and urban landscapes (i.e. abandoned buildings), in combination with a lack of economic development such as closed businesses create a derogatory environment. In theory, a lack of informal social control leads to toleration violence and crime, which results in a poorer quality of life for all residents. In turn, this further exacerbates the issue of social cohesion that can effectively address the behaviors.

It becomes a “cyclical perpetuation of violence, neighborhood stigma, and socioeconomic inequities” (Santilli et al., 2017, p. 374). Exposure and participation in gun violence is clearly associated with social class that depends on education and employment, both of which are lacking in urban communities leading to poverty. This cycle negatively affects communities as residents react in fear by either engaging in violence themselves by joining gangs for protection or obtaining illegal firearms or choose a path of avoidance. People begin to fear attending schools, public events, or health facilities, resulting in these services not fully functioning in urban communities and populations not receiving critical services that can contribute to economic and social development.

Strategies for Improvement

Any solutions to the issue of urban gun violence should begin with recognition of key factors. First, that gun violence does not consist of episodic mass shootings, but it is a chronic persistent event which affects small clusters of people in urban communities. Second, violent crime can respond to positive and negative incentives. While deterrence can work, it is important to provide alternatives and reconciliation for those who are considered criminals. Finally, gun violence often occurs in areas where law enforcement is seen as illegitimate, particularly neighborhoods of color where racially motivated prejudice and killings have occurred by police. However, strategies should not attempt to blanket entire neighborhoods, races, or police departments as the root of the problem (Abt, 2019).

A strong regulation of firearms and strategic gun violence reduction initiatives are effective strategies for mitigating this issue. It is a complex factor that will require political, social, and economic participation from stakeholders. The key is to create a safe environment where there is an adequate control of illegal possession and use of firearms (Amnesty International, n.d.). There must be concrete commitment from political leaders and funding available to address the issue. There should be a balanced approach that is not limited to law enforcement but includes residents of urban communities in order for the efforts to be recognized as legitimate.

Pacifying shooters is the first step, using both legal means but also offering steps such as conflict mediation and cognitive behavioral therapy to address trauma which often affects shooters. Focus of policy should avoid legal gun ownership, non-violent gangs, or even drug use – offering alternatives to incarceration and reducing grounds of conflict between individuals and gangs. Funding should be distributed equally between enforcement and prevention initiatives.

Despite the frequency of occurring violence in urban communities, it is often portrayed in the media as a way of life rather than a social problem that needs addressing. Unanimously most research on gun violence suggests that the majority occurs in impoverished neighborhoods of color, communities where extreme poverty and lacking social or government support has driven people to crime. It is a consequence of decades of marginalization that has led to disparities in available community resources, public and social services, and fundamental economic development, which in turn results in disparities in gun violence statistics.


Urban gun violence can be considered the linchpin of concentrated poverty, which holds other conditions of inequality such as unemployment, poor education, and homelessness. Poverty in cities will remain as long as urban gun violence exists as a neighborhood that is not safe, will never be able to prosper. Therefore, as established, urban gun violence is a persistent cycle of urban poverty and crime, which combined with other negative social factors creates significant barriers to development and resolution. Proper recognition of underlying factors and policy focused on building communities and reconciliation can address the problem in the long-term.


Abt, T. (2019). We can’t end inequality until we stop urban gun violence. Web.

American Psychological Association. (n.d.). Gun violence: Prediction, prevention, and policy. Web.

Amnesty International. (n.d.). Gun violence – key facts. Web.

Campie, P. E. (2016). Root causes of urban gun violence. Web.

Giffords Law Centers. (n.d.). Gun violence statistics. Web.

John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. (n.d.). Urban gun violence. Web.

Mitchell, Y. T., & Bromfield, T. L. (2019). Gun violence and the minority experience. Web.

Santilli, A., O’Connor Duffany, K., Carroll-Scott, A., Thomas, J., Greene, A., Arora, A., … Ickovics, J. (2017). Bridging the response to mass shootings and urban violence: exposure to violence in New Haven, Connecticut. American Journal of Public Health, 107(3), 374-379. Web.

Mary Fisher’s 1992 National Convention Speech

On August 19, 1992, the Republican National Convention was held in Houston to nominate the President for re-election. The day was also remembered for the eloquent speech of political activist Mary Fisher, who called on party members and all concerned listeners to support her and stop silencing the spread of HIV. This essay is intended to analyze Fisher’s speech for verbal constructions that she used to make her address more convincing.

As a daughter of a post-Holocaust Jewish rights advocate, Mary Fisher was prone to political activity. Fisher was married twice, and both times ended in a divorce. In 1991, she was informed that her second husband, Brian Campbell, was HIV-positive and gave her the virus (Fisher, 2012). This news was an occasion to start a future political and public career. After the largest Michigan newspaper published a biographical history of Fisher, she was invited to speak at a conference in front of Republicans in 1992. She will then establish an international fund to help HIV-positive people. In recent years of political life, Fisher has been educating the people of Africa about HIV prevention.

Mary Fisher’s persuasive speech in front of Republicans allowed the author to gain the trust of his listeners. It is enough to hear this speech once to understand the seriousness and concern of woman intentions. It is possible to analyze her address through specific methods of persuasion that came from the Aristotelian times of Ancient Greece. According to the classification of the famous ancient thinker, any argument can be divided into three groups: pathos, logos, and ethos.

The concept of the logos unites statistical information, the sequence of presentation, and verbal techniques. It is enough to start studying the text of Fisher’s speech to realize that she is using this belief technique. She talks about millions of cases of infection with the virus and provides a statistical forecast of the number of HIV patients in the next few years (EIUPublicSpeaking, 2015). In this part of her presentation, the activist addresses a more rational part of the audience, to ensure interest in the topic under discussion. Such strategies can often be used to increase the impact on the audience.

Later on, we can see that Fisher focuses not on the rationality of information but on the emotional level. By appealing to the listeners’ feelings, the woman can influence their opinions and get the support she wants. With the help of pathos, moods and emotions of the opponent are brought to the fore, and a call to fear shows the best result (Pearson, Nelson, Titsworth, & Harter, 2012). Fisher makes the public feel emotionally uncomfortable when he mentions the Holocaust and Nazi permissiveness. In one sentence she stirs up public fear: “…If you believe you are safe, you are at risk” (EIUPublicSpeaking, 2015). Pathos often makes the audience feel that they are personally interested in the information provided and is, as a rule, a catalyst for action.

Finally, the speaker’s credibility with hundreds of Republicans is built on a method of persuasion, such as ethos. To encourage the audience to act and stop hiding HIV, Fisher begins by acknowledging that he is HIV-positive. This is not a coincidence, but rather a way for listeners who are far from the topic to see in the speaker a person who is closely connected to the disease. In this case, she can be trusted and listened to.

Methods of persuasion were invented thousands of years ago, but even today, they do not lose their relevance. Using them correctly in your speech, as political activist Mary Fisher did in 1992, people can influence the public’s decision to support the idea. It is incorrect to use one particular method instead of seeking integration on the edges of a rhetorical triangle. In such a case, the presentation of the proposed idea will be the most effective and will have the desired result.


EIUPublicSpeaking. (2015). Mary Fisher A Whisper of AIDS 1992 [Video file]. Web.

Fisher, M. (2012). My name is Mary: A memoir. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Pearson, J., Nelson, P., Titsworth, S., & Harter, L. (2012). Human communication. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Humanities.

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