Sexual Harassment In Society Free Sample

Sexual harassment is discrimination based on sex. As an ideology, it can also be described as a statement asserting that one gender is naturally better to the other. All types of gender-based discrimination, including sexual harassment, are outlawed under the Human Rights Code. Services, goods, and facilities; tenancy of accommodation; contracts; employment; as well as membership in vocational organisations such as trade unions, are all covered by the Code. A person’s capacity to work, live, acquire an education, feel secure, and participate fully in society might be limited if sexual harassment is allowed to go unchecked. Lack of prevention measures for sexual harassment can result in significant expenditures, including lost productivity, lowered morale, higher absences and cost of healthcare, as well as possible legal expenses for the company concerned.

Sexual harassment is always defined as an act of sexual assault. In the legal sense, sexual harassment may be defined as the use of sexually suggestive or disparaging statements directed towards a certain sex, but this is not always the case, depending on the context and frequency. The border between bothersome courtship advances and sexual harassment isn’t clear-cut. It is even more difficult to quantify the degree of sexual harassment because people respond differently to objectively similar treatment. Females tend to use the word sexual harassment only when discussing more serious types of harassment, such as sexual assault.

There is widespread sexual harassment in society, regardless of whether it occurs in a home, school, or job. The harassment of women by men serves to preserve the dominance of men over women in both the individual and communal levels, regardless of the context in which it occurs. Sex harassment is a problem that affects people from all walks of life. A business leader or a labourer in a factory can both be affected (Sue,2017). A growing number of people are recognizing that gender-based harassment is part of sexual harassment. Sexual harassment has the potential to have catastrophic and long-lasting consequences. Sexual harassment victims may face a wide range of physical and mental repercussions, such as anxiety, depression, exhaustion, losing weight, sickness and gastrointestinal problems, difficulty sleeping, disengagement from relationships, self-blame, diminished ego, and comment stress disorder.

In contrast to verbal and physical sexual harassment, virtual sexual harassment can have a variety of different motives. It is common for people to post sexually explicit images or information online in an attempt to humiliate the victim. They may know the individual, have been rejected in person, and are now retaliating in the form of cyberbullying. Virtual sexual harassment, on the other hand, can quickly escalate.

People can say things they wouldn’t say in person because the assailant and victim have no physical contact. Co-workers can overcome their shyness by sending sexually explicit emails rather than approaching them in person. It’s possible that other harassments, even if they don’t know the victim, may add to the flames of a public post by the harasser. As the authors point out, “the online posters may not know exactly who the victims are” and “there is always the option to hop off at any time.” One victim may be harassed by a group of harassers, although in “conventional” sexual harassment, one harasser and one or more victims were the norm.

Sexual harassment in the workplace is one of the few ethical concerns where men and women view it differently. Many corporations have reacted to costly court rulings by becoming more concerned about avoiding harassment before it occurs. Many sexual harassment training programs, on the other hand, have only resulted in a shaky peace between the sexes. As a result, they have often merely highlighted the variations in how men and women view the issues at hand (Maypole et al,1983). Many males still believe that the issue isn’t as serious as many women describe it to be.

There is a perception among many males that women are overly sensitive to innocent jokes and flirtatious gestures, and that they charge harassment too early. To avoid getting in trouble or losing their jobs, many men in the office have adopted a bunker mentality and grudgingly “walk on eggs” around female co-workers. In spite of all of the attention that has been paid to the subject and the fact that many women remain enraged by the pervasiveness of harassment in the workplace, they feel that males still “simply don’t get it.”

Women have historically been prejudiced against and are disproportionately affected by sexual and domestic violence, which may explain some of the divergent views on this issue that have been expressed in court. In light of these findings, some proponents of an “ethic of care” would suggest that one further reason for the variation in how men and women view sexual harassment is due to theorized disparities in how both genders see and resolve ethical difficulties.

Many industries and organizations are still plagued with sexual harassment despite years of awareness, legal action, as well as advocacy efforts. Sexual harassment is a problem in every industry, and its effects are felt across the board. Numerous victims suffer harm to their health, well-being, financial security, and career prospects as a result of sexual harassment, and organizations bear the financial burden as well as the production, morale, efficiency, and talent that are lost as a result. The interaction of power and gender is at the root of all forms of sexual harassment, and it can be found at practically every level of the business.


Scheff, Sue, and Melissa Schorr. Shame nation: The global epidemic of online hate. Sourcebooks, Inc., 2017.

Maypole, Donald E., and Rosemarie Skaine. “Sexual harassment in the workplace.” Social Work 28.5 (1983): 385-390.

Should All Canadian Provinces Provide Financial Support For IVF Treatment? Free Sample


“Should we publicly fund IVF in Canada?” written by Francesca Scale (2019), explains the reason for investing in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. The IVF treatment has undergone a series of developments since introducing the first test-tube baby in England in 1978 (Gunby et al., 2010). In the in-vitro fertilization, treatment eggs are extracted from a woman’s ovary and fertilized with sperm in a laboratory. Then, later on, the embryos are implanted in the woman’s uterus for development. The fertilized eggs can also be donated to another couple or utilized for scientific study. Canada’s universal healthcare system is frequently panegyrized globally for outstanding care systems. However, there is no complete coverage for assisted fertility therapies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). According to (Francesca 2019), in a country where about one in every six Canadian couples has infertility, many couples face a significant financial barrier. As such, the government must fund IVF treatment in order to make it accessible to all humans.

According to (Williamson, & Lawson, 2021), individuals can incur more than $10,000 every cycle on reproductive therapy, depending on their province. Due to the high expense of IVF, many couples or singles in need of assisted reproduction therapy are unable to obtain fertility treatment. However, infertility is becoming more widely acknowledged as a sickness, prompting some governments, such as Canada, to support fertility therapy. Public funding of IVF creates additional concerns about who should receive treatment and how they should obtain it. Regardless, Francesca (2019) observes that public funding of IVF would improve monitoring of the operation and increase access to treatments for underprivileged and marginalized individuals.

This study is essential in highlighting the advantage of expanding access to fertility treatment. According to (Francesca 2019), income inequality is a significant obstacle to IVF therapy. In every society, there is a group of the affluent who can afford fertility treatment and a group of the impoverished who cannot. By supporting IVF, the government contributes to eliminating this inequality in society. Due to the increased likelihood of minority families being low-income, these communities are doubly at risk of infertility. The disadvantaged individuals frequently carry a greater share of the costs of seeking infertility treatment. According to (Chambers, Adamson, & Eijkemans, 2013), this disparity in fertility rates is explained by infertility’s “cumulative impact.” Women from disadvantaged backgrounds are at high risk of infertility due to underlying medical disorders and environmental factors. Without continuous access to high-quality health care, these difficulties may go untreated, eventually resulting in the inability to conceive a baby. Infertility can be caused by a variety of circumstances, including medical, environmental, and genetic factors. Therefore, funding the IVF would help this demographic access treatment for their fertility conditions.

Similarly, Francesca (2019) emphasizes the importance of extending access to IVF to raise the population’s birth rate considerably. Between 2010 and 2015, when Quebec granted government support for IVF, the provincial birth rate jumped dramatically, over one percent (Williamson, & Lawson, 2021). Considering the birth rate is diminishing in the communities, it is essential to invest in treatment programs. In order to sustain its population, the state needs more than 2.2 children born from every couple. According to (Winsor et al. 2020), a decline in births is often associated with economic anxiety, as it results in fewer employees and taxes decades later. The two primary approaches to assist individuals in having the babies they desire are to provide them with time and money. A nation can assist an infertile couple financially by covering the cost of IVF therapy. Expensive therapy explains why some infertile individuals who desire children delay having them: they cannot finance IVF.

Infertility is a condition that results from procreative malfunction. Thus, infertility is an illness, at least for specific age groups. Certain people require reproductive therapies such as IVF to avoid or treat this condition. As a result, these procedures are medically required. In this context, “medical need” refers to what humans require to achieve species-typical normal functioning. Infertility is an illness, and so, to the extent that states are responsible for their citizens’ healthcare, fertility therapy should be paid as one component of such care. Indeed, healthcare is frequently viewed as a necessary service that states should supply. This reason is frequently used by individuals supporting the funding of fertility therapy. Francesca (2019) asserts that fertility treatment satisfies a medical need and should be considered another healthcare component.

A study by McLeod (2017), “The Medical Nonnecessity of In-Vitro Fertilization,” explains the reason why the government should not fund IVF treatment. Although the CHA requires provinces to pay for all medically required health care services, McLeod (2017) argues that IVF should not be government-funded. According to the author, infertility as a disease provides an inadequate rational explanation for financing fertility treatment. Infertility does not qualify as a disease in the relevant sense required to justify funding, and the resulting distribution pattern generated by this justification is undesirable in any case. Thus, it is not fair for a government to subsidize IVF based on medical needs in order to promote the preference many individuals have for biological children. IVF is costly, risky, and stressful. Thus, the government should not see procreation as critical enough to justify funding IVF based on medical needs. This would imply that becoming a parent through reproduction is better than other parenthood methods, such as adoption. The government cannot support such a perspective without breaking its duties to equity and justice and without causing harm to individuals, especially children awaiting adoption (McLeod, 2017).

Many philosophers agree that parenting is critical for many people; yet, the benefits of parenting are not contingent on procreation (Romanski et al., 2020). Adoption, for example, is one way to achieve parenting. Others believe that parenthood, or the ability to become a parent, is not necessary for a happy life and that it would be better for the world and the people who live on it if we procreated less (McLeod, 2017). According to the philosophical literature on parenting, having biological children or having the potential to procreate is a simple desire, not a basic necessity or an objective goal. As such, the government is not obligated to finance people’s attempts to reproduce through IVF using this definition of procreation.

Compared to other modern treatment models for fertility, the worth of procreation is unclear. While few individuals would argue that being able to breathe comfortably is important, many would doubt the worth of procreation. For other people, the capacity to reproduce is a barrier to living a fulfilling life, which means a life without children. On the other hand, many others find infertility to be a severe hindrance to happiness (McLeod, 2017). In the midst, some individuals find infertility frustrating but not sad. It’s easy to think that infertility affects everyone in the same manner as the second category above: as a severe impediment to happiness. However, most of the research cited for funding IVF focuses on persons seeking or who have sought treatment for infertility (Chambers, Adamson, & Eijkemans, 2013). It is biased to use the information from infertility people to generalize every individual ( McLeod 2017).

Chambers, Adamson, & Eijkemans (2013) observe that IVF is not publicly supported, partly because, is not regarded as a medical need. In the opinion of McLeod (2017), medically essential reproductive services should only be utilized by persons who have an underlying ailment, not by those who merely have a profound desire to reproduce that they are unable to fulfill on their own and hence require the assistance of others. It appears that sponsoring IVF would appear to endorse uneven access to these services systems, in which only heterosexual couples are eligible for publically financed treatment (Gunby et al., 2010). Second, the reasoning argues that all medically required therapies for sickness are also ethically permissible (McLeod, 2017). However, certain therapies are not medically essential, and some treatments are not medically necessary. Only from a purely financial standpoint are some superior to others. Improved social surroundings for persons with physical impairments, achieved via making these settings more available to them, can serve as a nonmedical approach to medical intervention in treating their medical conditions. Furthermore, depending upon the type of medical treatment, it may be a preferable option to surgery. A nonmedical alternative to fertility therapy is adoption, which can be an equal or better alternative depending on the nature of the suggested medical treatment

On the other hand, Francesca (2019) contends that the CHA requires governments to fund only “medically essential” treatments and services. However, the phrase is undefined under the Act. Provinces are given great discretion in determining the services they must provide. While other governments reimburse for therapies like surgery to address infertility’s underlying reasons, only Ontario considers IVF medically essential (Gunby et al., 2010). There are various repercussions of not publically supporting IVF. To begin, governments have unintentionally turned IVF into a private commodity rather than a medical service by not insuring it. The CHA advised against privatizing IVF procedures in its 1993 report. Notwithstanding the ministry’s caution, finance continues to determine individuals who are eligible for reproductive therapy. Access is restricted to wealthier, primarily white couples, excluding underprivileged minorities unable to finance the private clinic’s fees.

With the exception of Quebec, there is very no government regulation of IVF centers. The federal Assisted Human Reproduction Act (AHRA) of 2006 did include measures for regulating and monitoring IVF facilities, but the Supreme Court of Canada overturned those provisions in 2010 because they were judged to impinge on provinces’ rights (Williamson, & Lawson, 2021). Because governments might apply constraints, public funding of IVF could provide an additional means of improving the safety and quality of IVF treatments while also potentially lowering healthcare costs in the long run. Countries like Sweden, for instance, discourage more than one birth using IVF treatment since they pose greater health risks and increase the burden on the healthcare system. In the same manner, the Canadian government has the authority to compel single embryo transfers for patients under the age of 18. Ontario’s program, prompted by similar concerns, only allows for single embryo transfers. When individuals are not financially constrained, they are less likely to feel compelled to perform many embryo transfers in the hope of achieving a successful pregnancy.

Francesca (2019) notes that IVF eligibility standards differ per clinic. While recommendations from medical organizations such as the Canadian Fertility exist, clinics may impose their own age and weight restrictions (Romanski et al., 2020). In Ontario, for example, some clinics evaluate eligibility based on body mass index, while others have no cut-offs at all (Williamson, & Lawson, 2021). Public financing would contribute to developing more consistent, uniform, and transparent standards among clinics operating within the same jurisdiction. Lastly, while (McLeod 2017) claims that individuals cannot access IVF based on their sexual orientation or marital status, hurdles persist for poor or marginalized populations. For instance, IVF facilities frequently exclude LGBTQ individuals from their services and information materials. By extending public coverage to IVF, the government can guarantee that clinics do not perpetuate health disparities based on race, ethnic origin, gender identity, or sexual orientation.


By making IVF therapy available to low-income people and couples, public funding can help level the playing field in terms of childbirth. Additionally, it can provide increased supervision and protection of patients and more standardized qualifying rules. Nonetheless, public coverage of IVF would not close all of the shortcomings in existing assisted human reproduction policies. For instance, IVF financing cannot address problems about elective fertility treatment, the legality of frozen eggs, donor compensation for egg or sperm, or parenting agreements. To close this divide, both levels of government must step up their efforts and unite to create a regulatory framework for enhanced human reproduction.

Having one’s offspring is best characterized as one of several projects that can contribute to a useful or meaningful existence, such as jobs, personal relationships, or religious activities. As with citizens’ notions of the good, there are many ideas regarding what constitutes a good life. Thus, although having fulfilling work may be important to one person, raising a family or traveling to new places may be important to another. At the same time, trips to the gym and lunches with friends may be important to another. Additionally, not all meaningful or successful lives need raising children, much less having children of one’s own in the way that reproductive therapy enables. To refute this is to deny that persons who choose to remain childless or adopt rather than undergo reproductive therapy may have fulfilling lives. Reproductive therapy is one of several goods that nations may supply to enable individuals to pursue a variety of worthwhile life goals or have access to activities that help their lives run smoothly or appear important.


Chambers, G. M., Adamson, G. D., & Eijkemans, M. J. (2013). Acceptable cost for the patient and society. Fertility and sterility100(2), 319-327.

Francesca Scala (2019). Should we publicly fund IVF in Canada?April 30, 2019

Gunby, J., Bissonnette, F., Librach, C., Cowan, L., & of the Canadian, I. D. G. (2010). Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in Canada: 2006 results from the Canadian ART Register. Fertility and sterility93(7), 2189-2201.

McLeod, C. (2017). The medical nonnecessity of in vitro fertilization. IJFAB: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics10(1), 78-102.

Romanski, P. A., Bortoletto, P., Rosenwaks, Z., & Schattman, G. L. (2020). Delay in IVF treatment up to 180 days does not affect pregnancy outcomes in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Human reproduction35(7), 1630-1636.

Williamson, L. E., & Lawson, K. L. (2021). Canadian Support for IVF Access and Use. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada43(2), 175-181.

Winsor, S. P., Ala-Leppilampi, K., Spitzer, K., Edney, D. R., Petropanagos, A., Cadesky, K. I., … & Laskin, C. (2020). The Affordability and Accessibility of Ontario’s Publicly Funded IVF Program: A Survey of Patients. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada42(5), 568-575.

Sickle Cell Disease Essay Free Essay

Background Definition

Sickle cell disease refers to a group of inherited disorders of the red blood cells that affect the hemoglobin, the proteins which carry the oxygen in the body. The erythrocytes for a patient with sickle cell disease are in a crescent shape compared to the ordinary person, which is disc-shaped and flexible with the ability to squeeze in between the narrow capillaries. The disease is also called sickle cell anemia. It is caused by gene mutation, which responds to the body by making compounds rich in iron that makes the blood red, enabling the red blood cells to carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body (Slaughter & Dilworth-Anderson, 2017). The presence of this abnormal hemoglobin in the bloodstream makes the erythrocytes rigid, sticky with a “C” shape conformation that can slow or block the normal flow of oxygen to various parts of the body. For a case study, when one parent has sickle cell disease, the parent can pass the sickle cell gene to the child who will develop the traits for sickle cell with one normal gene for hemoglobin and another carrier form of the gene. Therefore, it is said that the trait for the sickle cell can manifest in both normal hemoglobin and sickle cell hemoglobin.

The gene for this disease is now known to be widespread worldwide, with many regions experiencing it. This has gone as far as equatorial Africa, where high incidences have been reported, extending to some parts of Southern Italy, Turkey, and India. Pathologist in the medical field suggests that this disease has no sex predilection existing since it is not an X-linked disease (Ghosh, 2018). Although no particular gender is associated with the disease predisposition, data analysis from the US Renal Data System observed marked male predominance of sickle cell nephropathy in affected patients. This condition is more associated with the nephrons. Sickle cell anemia is a health disorder that follows the family history, and therefore it is an inherited disease that starts proliferating from birth. This means that the disorder is mostly seen in children during their early stages of life after inheriting the sickle cell genes from their parent (Ghosh, 2018). In other words, this is a condition that one has to grow up with, and data analysis shows that an individual cannot or rather has low chances of developing the disease in adulthood. However, sickle cell disease is most common in some ethnic groups, such as African-Americans and Hispanic-Americans, estimated to have a higher prevalence.

Symptoms and Predisposing Factors of Sickle-cell Anemia

All the major virtual symptoms of sickle cell anemia are what direct the results of abnormal shapes of red blood cells that block blood flow. Therefore, many signs and symptoms start appearing at the age of five months, which varies from one person to another and change with time. Some of these are: Episodic pains which are major symptoms that occur when the sickle-shaped red blood cells block the normal blood flow to the chest and other vital organs of the body (Prussien et al., 2018). When there is an inefficient supply of oxygen, suffocation may occur due to hypoxia, leading to pain such as periodic pains. Episodic pains are together with abdominal pains, especially for the lower abdomen, due to digestive and absorption systems abnormalities.

The swelling of the hands and feet that comes from little supply of oxygen in the body is another symptom of the disease. Anemia is one of the symptoms where there is easy breakage of the sickle cell and eventually dies, thus making a person remain with few red blood cells in the body (Prussien et al., 2018). The sickle cells only survive for about ten to twenty days from the normal 120 days in anemic conditions. Symptoms of stroke also show the presence of sickle cell disease, where one feels like they are paralyzed from the side of the body, causing weaknesses in walking and unexplained numbness. Delayed and stunted growth may result from a shortage of healthy red cells that slow the growth in infants.

Multiple factors precipitate the sickling process for patients with sickle cell disease. The events that can lead to acidosis, such as extreme dehydration, can predispose to this condition. Hypoxic conditions in local tissues, nausea and vomiting, can cause hypertonicity of the blood plasma, which can cause the disease to accelerate faster in affected patients (Prussien et al., 2018). Too much alcohol, cold weather and extreme physical exercises can predispose a person to sickle cell anemia. Additionally, medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus, herpes and psychological stress in the body can expose one to sickle cell anemia. Finally, cases of low oxygen levels and other body infections can predispose an infected patient to more elevated sickle cell conditions.

The Biochemical Basis of Sickle Cell Disease

Sickle cell disease is associated with various biochemical reaction processes in the body. Biochemistry typically deals with studying biological and chemical processes involving cells and molecules. As we have already discussed, this disease is a group of disorders affecting hemoglobin, a molecule in the red blood cells that conducts oxygen to various cells throughout the body. Therefore, any alterations in the single amino acid in one of the hemoglobin proteins can cause abnormal sickle shapes in erythrocytes. When relating sickle cell disease with its biochemical nature, we refer to the molecular composition and chemical reactions that occur in red cells, which accounts for the prevalence of the disease to people.

The intracellular aggregation of deoxyhemoglobin S is the primary event resulting in erythrocytes’ sickling. The hemoglobin concentration in red blood cells determines deformities in the cell, and sickle cells have reduced deformity, which can be regained through rehydration in vitro. The inside of the HbS comprises four strands surrounded by an outer set of ten strands in regular arrangements, with both strands constituting helices, each having a different pitch. The hemoglobin molecule is one of the best proteins known in the body, with the essential role of oxygen supply. The molecule has given a better ground for understanding the mechanism and regulation of enzymes in the body. Additionally, the molecules comprise four polypeptide chains, of which two are alpha chains containing residues of amino acid and other beta and gamma chains.

In this case, find that hemoglobin may have different combinations from these chains. When the alpha and the beta chains combine, they lead to the adult normal hemoglobin HbA. When the two molecules of alpha and gamma chains combine, they lead to a fetus with normal hemoglobin HbF. The gamma and beta chains differ from each other by ten amino acids. Each chain of these components surrounds a heme molecule containing a central iron atom in which oxygen is bound. The ability of these molecules to transport oxygen is conferred by the availability of globin chains attaching to the molecule. Genetic coding occurs for different chains in the synthesis of various types of hemoglobin. For this case, the chain locus for an alpha particle is located on the long arm of the 16 chromosomes while the beta one is on the long arm of chromosome 4.

Although the genetic loci produce variant hemoglobin, it is said that the most significant number of these variants is found to be associated with the beta gene, which is 25 in number. The substitution of each amino acid causes the hemoglobin variant responsible for a point mutation in the beta-globin. According to many researchers, it has been shown that genetic material for most eukaryotic proteins is kept in the genes of the axon segments where the introns undergo splicing during the processing of mRNA. The beta-globin genes in human beings contain three exons that code for 1-30 amino acids which are separated by the introns; therefore, it is estimated that the entire beta chain that forms the hemoglobin in adults is made up of around 1500 long base pairs with 146 amino acids requiring more base pairs that attach on the triplet codon.

The biochemical of sickle cell disease also involves the alterations in the permeability of the cations in the bloodstream. Thus, in the case of sickle cell anemia, there is a drastic increase in the monovalent permeability caused by the deoxygenation of sickle cells. The Successive studies made said that the summative cation contents in the sickle cell remain constant when the levels of sodium ions are the same as those for potassium. In addition, the physiological and biochemical agitation of these membranes arises when the sickle cells get deoxygenated. These include adhesiveness of the cells, uncoupling of the skeleton membranes away from the lipid bilayer and membrane lipid modification.

Various elements must be considered when discussing the relationship between sickle cell and its biochemical nature. Hemoglobin is a critical molecule focused on its molecular and chemical compositions. It is now clear that for the sickle cell to manifest, various biochemical processes involving alpha, beta and gamma chains with amino acids have to occur. It has been seen the manifestation of this disease occurs more with the presence of the beta-globin gene.

Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease

The National Institute of Health shows that many complications come from the manifestation of sickle cell anemia. Therefore, the institute advises that patient preventive care can be optimally achieved by treating the disease in clinical hospitals. Understanding proper diagnostic methods and procedures of any illness on causes, symptoms, associated medical complications and biochemical basis of the disease is vital in determining the appropriate treatment criteria. For this case, diagnosis of sickle cell anemia involves experiments on blood tests to check for the defective forms of the hemoglobin that may be underlying the sickle cell condition in erythrocytes. The blood samples are taken from veins in the arm for adults and fingers for children, and screening is done.

Treatment management of anemia aims at preventing pain episodes, symptoms relieve and avoiding complications associated. This includes using various drugs that act on the chemical process in the blood. The medication consists of hydroxyurea that reduces episodic pains for infected patients. Red blood cells for sickle cell infected patients can be removed by blood transfusions conducted in the veins. The process helps to reduce the number of sickle cell erythrocytes in the bloodstream. It increases the number of normal red cells that ultimately helps to reduce the clinical manifestation of sickle cell disease.

Medical practitioners have been involved in invasive processes of stem cell transplant in the bone marrow and replacing the affected ones with the healthy ones. However, there has been current research done on the disease, including bone marrow transplant, where the research advances on new techniques used in the transplant and other areas in medicine that include molecular biology and genetics. The treatment is related to the biochemical basis of the disease since the treatment is based on treating the beta-globin genes in the hemoglobin.


When discussing sickle cell disease, a person needs to have a background understanding of an individual’s genetic information. Biomedical research suggests that this disease follows the family history with an inheritable gene from the affected persons. Therefore, knowing how the disease causes, symptoms, and predisposing factors can help a health expert know the treatment methods to handle the disease. To conclude, medical workers should carry out an early diagnosis of the children at their early stages to reduce the cases of sickle cell disease.


Alenzi, F. Q., & AlShaya, D. S. (2019). Biochemical and Molecular analysis of the beta-globin gene on Saudi sickle cell anemia. Saudi journal of biological sciences26(7), 1377-1384

Alayash, A. I. (2017). Hemoglobin-based blood substitutes and the treatment of sickle cell disease: more harm than help?. Biomolecules7(1), 2.

Salinas Cisneros, G., & Thein, S. L. (2020). Recent advances in the treatment of sickle cell disease. Frontiers in Physiology11, 435.

Henry, E. R., Metaferia, B., Li, Q., Harper, J., Best, R. B., Glass, K. E., … & Eaton, W. A. (2021). Treatment of sickle cell disease by increasing oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Blood, The Journal of the American Society of Hematology138(13), 1172-1181.

Slaughter, D. T., & Dilworth-Anderson, P. (2017). Sickle cell anemia, child competence, and extended family life. In Black families (pp. 131-148). Routledge.

Ghosh, R. (2018). A study of Cephalic index among the young age group of West Bengal in relation to sex and geographical factors. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research7(3), 239-245.

Prussien, K. V., DeBaun, M. R., Yarboi, J., Bemis, H., McNally, C., Williams, E., & Compas, B. E. (2018). Cognitive function, coping, and depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease. Journal of Pediatric Psychology43(5), 543-551.