Sexual Health And Identity Through Historical Lens Essay Example

Historically sexual health and identity have been and still remain taboo topics for the majority of people in society. Despite all the detachment from the topic all along, it affected different spheres of a person’s life. Reproductive health and sexuality will always be the inevitable part of humanity, whether it is widely discussed or mostly ignored by the masses. Several social institutions are impacted the most by the issue of sexual health, and some of them are family, healthcare, and education. However, to better understand the influence and interconnection of the subject and social problems, it is helpful to analyze the phenomena through the history lens. Thus, the paper’s main goal is to identify the impact of the problem on social issues and get a deeper understanding of it through the historical lens.

It seems that it most affects familial and healthcare institutions because of the stigma, stereotypes, and prejudices in society. For instance, medical workers can avoid conversations with the patients about the core points of sexual health and instead use fear as a prevention method. The study confirmed that the lack of history-based knowledge results in the lack of safety and neglect of contraception (Castellanos-Usigli & Braeken-van Schaik, 2019). As a result, appear adolescent pregnancy and the spread of venereal diseases.

The history lens may give a deeper understanding through reviewing the LGBTQ representatives’ position in society regarding sexual health and orientation. The minorities, such as representatives of the LGBTQ community and transgender people, experienced a massive deficit of quality medical assistance (Capriotti & Donaldson, 2022). They were not recognized by society and could hardly get any help, so rarely did some of them have an opportunity to get the treatment (Castellanos-Usigli & Braeken-van Schaik, 2019). Therefore, it impacted the spread of venereal diseases and healthcare in general because historically, they could not access medical assistance.

A similar situation happens with sexuality since many individuals do not feel safe opening up to their surroundings and even the closest family members about their self-identity. Due to the conservatism of some parents and the lack of support towards gay children, the traditional family values do not seem much appealing anymore to the minorities. They create their own vision of classical social institutions and redo them so that it would be possible to adjust already existing norms to the new, constantly changing reality.

In conclusion, the historical perspective on sexual health and identity identified the two central social institutions influenced by this subject: familial and healthcare institutions. The stigma around this topic contributes to the ignorance and lack of proper education, which eventually leads to negative health outcomes. Adolescents and sexual minorities are the most vulnerable groups because of the little awareness and open conversations about sexual health and systematic discrimination.

Art and mass media are some of the most influential and powerful ways of bringing certain ideas to the masses. The same method applies to sexual health and identity. Nowadays, there are many feature films and literature with the representation of sexual minorities, the importance of protection, or the consequences of neglecting the safety methods. For those who do not have a visible example of same-sex relationships or an image of the person with self-identity struggles, art became the answer to their questions. Therefore, the paper aims to identify how the issue is portrayed in society, what message it brings, and how it interacts with my personal life through the humanities lens.

The humanities lens allows us to learn a lot more about the social attitude towards specific topics and identify their perception of the issue. Sexual health, for instance, becomes a less stigmatized topic for the unrepresented parties of the society that see and learn about it through art expressions and mass media. The rise of social media lets individuals and, specifically, adolescents more information regarding the subject of sex. While many parents may still avoid the inconvenient conversation with their children about intimate relationships and their sexual identity, mass media serves as a substitute for this.

Modern culture develops more examples and representations of sex education and health by writing about it on blogs, talking on the shows, making podcasts, and focusing on it on online series. The internet sources gradually eliminate the stigma around the subject and bring awareness to the audience about different scenarios and situations regarding sexual interactions and identities (McInroy et al., 2021). Specifically, there seems to be a growing tendency of the more realistic adolescents’ television shows and series which raise the issue of sexual health and identity. With the help of examples from the movies, young people can align the characters and the problems with themselves and issues they struggle with on a daily basis (Philbin et al., 2021). As a result, some noticeably positive changes start to appear in the representation of this topic among society. For instance, in the bookstores and libraries in the children’s section, illustrated books about reproductive health and sexuality were explained in simple language so that the younger audience could understand.

In addition, my personal experience resonates with the findings from the research and depicts the tendencies that exist in society regarding the topic. Apparently, more people from my surroundings get a more precise understanding of their sexual identity and can more clearly explain it to themselves in the first place. Some subjects regarding asexuality or gender brought awareness to the people and allowed to decrease the amount the confusion while gaining the necessary knowledge that has been missing. Moreover, sexual health became a subject that we can freely discuss in interpersonal conversations with friends and colleagues while sharing opinions without feeling shame or discomfort.

Overall, the humanities’ outtake on the issue of sexual health and identity demonstrates its representation through the art forms such as movies, television series, and literature. People can see some aspects of the issue that they might not face in real life or be unfamiliar with some sides of it. It also affected the communication style in my personal and professional circles in a way that people became more certain of their self-identity and less afraid of speaking about the crucial issues regarding sexuality and health.


Castellanos-Usigli, A., & Braeken-van Schaik, D. (2019). The Pleasuremeter: exploring the links between sexual health, sexual rights, and sexual pleasure in sexual history-taking, SRHR counseling, and education. Sexual and reproductive health matters, 27(1), 313-315. WEb.

Capriotti, M. R., & Donaldson, J. M. (2022). “Why don’t behavior analysts do something?” 1 Behavior analysts’ historical, present, and potential future actions on sexual and gender minority issues. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 55(1), 19-39.

McInroy, L. B., Beaujolais, B., Craig, S. L., & Eaton, A. D. (2021). The Self-Identification, LGBTQ+ Identity Development, and Attraction and Behavior of Asexual Youth: Potential Implications for Sexual Health and Internet-Based Service Provision. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50(8), 3853-3863.

Philbin, M. M., Wang, X., Feaster, D. J., LaBossier, N. J., & Phillips II, G. (2021). LGB-Affirming School Climates and Sexual Health Outcomes Among US High School Students 2015–2017: Differences by Sex and Sexual Identity. Journal of Adolescent Health, 68(6), 1121-1128.

Divine Command Theory And Zagzebski’s Moral Argument


I think divine command theory is the idea that morality exists because a higher force, typically God or gods, says so. In other words, God’s commands determine the rightness and goodness of an action. Divine-command theory aspires to raise moral notions above the transient character of human desire and tradition, making them irrefutably binding and giving “holiness” that is difficult to achieve without the intervention of God. If divine directives have moral validity in and of themselves, as most religious ethics assumes, then divine commands must imply at least certain responsibilities.

Divine Command Theory

Divine command theory is based on moral notions wielded by a higher power. However, whenever people begin a study of ethics, the first question that comes to mind is why they are studying it in the first place. Zagzebski argues that “since it is rational to try to be moral, it is rational to believe in a providential God” (294). Morality is described as the contrast between correct and incorrect judgments, behaviors, and intentions, or, to put it another way, the distinction between good and bad things. Essentially, these are norms or principles derived from a standard of conduct generated from a specific philosophy, society, or religion. Nonetheless, finding the balance or origin has constantly confronted humanity with concerns and a need for justification. The vague impression that seeking to live a moral life is pointless is one root of the fear of doing so (Zagzebski 294). Moral claims can be an expression of an individual attitude. As a result, judging whether someone possesses a particular virtue is more than a matter of opinion.

Zagzebski’s argument about the existence of God is that the purpose of divine command theory is to yield good and hinder any evil while making individuals virtuous. “Perhaps to say something is morally wrong is to that it is a violation of moral law” (Stich and Donaldson 259). When humans recognize that living a moral life takes more than time and effort, the problem becomes even worse. In essence, it entails putting one’s interests aside to pursue the “greater good.” On the one hand, it is not reasonable to forego a known reward unless the sacrifice is likely for the greater good. On the other hand, it is plausible to doubt morality power in the notion that we can contribute to good and avert the evil by acting collectively and individually. Overall, if the people’s desire for trust is powerful enough, it may be able to overcome skepticism.

I believe God commands because it is the right thing to do, hence, I am persuaded by divine command theory. After all, anything adored by the gods is loved by them and is bound to be correct, but what makes anything religious is an entirely different issue. As a result, although they are not universally moral, religious ideology presents us with righteous ideals. Generally, some acts are evil, while others are appropriate because there are standards attached to actions, but they all rely on God’s commands.


In brief, if divine orders are morally valid, then the ideology must imply some level of responsibility. Therefore, the most compelling argument for the divine command theory is that God is fundamentally kind and wants what is suitable (right) for His creation. Despite the contradiction, believers’ proclivity for philosophical ethics, especially the existence of God and the powers He wields, is best understood. Generally, the theory’s potential to provide a desirable result is primarily based on an individual’s ability to account for God’s divine command, which is neither dependent nor trivial.

Works Cited

Stich, Stephen, and Tom Donaldson. “Are There Objective Truth About Right and Wrong?” Philosophy: Asking Questions–seeking Answers, Oxford UP, 2018, pp. 243-259.

Zagzebski, Linda. “Does Ethics Need God?” Faith and Philosophy: Journal of the Society of Christian Philosophers, vol. 4, no. 3, 1987, pp. 294-303.

The Future Of Disability And Inclusion


Individuals and communities do not have to accept disability as their fate. Positive decisions taken today can help avoid developmental disabilities, counteract their implications, and contribute to the creation of more appreciative social and physical environments for persons with disabilities. Disability is not a minority concern in the United States. According to current data, more than 40 million individuals with impairments reside in the community or institutions1. In addition, roughly 18 million American adults had an aging partner or guardian with a handicap in 1999, and nearly 4 million delivered community-based care to such a family member4. This essay reflects on the future of inclusion at home, in schools, in the community, and in the media for persons with a disability in the US and how their future will look in the coming years. The paper will also include sufficient content to demonstrate an understanding of the many factors influencing disability.

Factors influencing people with disability

Individuals with disabilities are much more likely to be poor than people without impairments. Impairment affects all household members, not just the individual who is disabled. Disability can result from poor nutrition and health, underprivileged living environments, inadequate right of entry to medical services, ecological dangers, and stress fractures among those living in extreme poverty. Similarly, the development of impairment can harm schooling, job, and taxable income, raise living costs and lead to higher disparities. Poverty is related to a lower standard of education, poorer health, and bleak job prospects. Disabled individuals are less inclined to work full-time and are more unemployed. Disabled people, on average, have lower health and less healthcare access than people without impairments. After the commencement of disability, they are more likely to develop subsequent health issues and potentially die prematurely. People with intellectual and disabilities are more likely than non-disabled people to acquire chronic health problems like hypertension, heart disease, and insulin resistance.

Individuals with disabilities suffer personal and social restrictions that limit their participation in services and work prospects and their ability to exercise their liberties. The design and implementation of outdoor and indoor amenities can make it difficult for people to attend classrooms and clinics, shop, access criminal justice agencies, and obtain or hold a job. Footpaths, parks, and transit systems may also be unavailable, prohibiting certain disabled people from participating in essential areas of social life. Information sharing hurdles, such as virtual and physical difficulties in obtaining and exchanging information, are also a problem for people with disabilities. People with impairments use information communication technologies (ICT) at a much lower rate than people without impairments.

Stigmatization and discrimination affect practically every area of the livelihoods of disabled people. They exist on a personal and organizational level through laws and conventions that actively isolate such people, making it difficult for them to get work, receive services, and make friends. People with impairments often have their professional and vocational aspirations unfairly decreased. For fear of mistreatment, families may keep disabled children away from schools. Children with impairments are subjected to unfavorable opinions and harassment if they attend school.

Future of inclusion for persons with a disability in the US

Individuals are encouraged to think of disabled people as important customers. Seeing the disabled community as an intended audience and consumer is still considered progressive. They are the globe’s largest minority group, but they are the least well-represented in brand marketing because they are the last to be considered. While some of this is attributable to the fact that the handicapped society is diverse, those sectors of the population and their families nonetheless have enormous buying power. Celebrities with impairments are gradually being used in the design and advertising strategies in the United States, but this must become the standard rather than considered forward-thinking.

Individuals should recognize that individuals with disabilities are members of the human race made by society to secure their future inclusion. It is captivating how people only view a disabled individual in one aspect, ignoring that the person is a living being. People conveniently forget that a person’s life synthesizes various facets when they see them from outside their environment. People seem to be forgetting that a disabled person should be first and ultimately a human being with the same ambitions, talents, skills, heartbreak, and loss as everyone else. Governments and social groups in the United States are partnering and providing education that individuals with disabilities are also humans, guaranteeing that the disabled’s future is brighter.

Championing community cohesion in educational institutions is one way to guarantee that the disabled have a prosperous future. Starting in elementary schools, a shift in cultural understanding about how society treats and relates to persons with disabilities is required. Individuals must recognize and reward their classmates with impairments, regardless of their differences. There will be less prejudice and more community cohesion if this is instilled early. Having children, either with or without disabilities, allows everyone to recognize the abilities and talents that each child brings. The disabled have a legal obligation to protect their participation in society, which will reflect a rewarding career for them.

Disability background is being incorporated into school curricula in the United States. Americans with disabilities learning have still not been widely practiced to pupils within their syllabus in teaching and learning. For society to be openly acknowledged, disability culture has been included in the public education system. This is a crucial move that shows that the disabled’s destiny is being carefully considered and that there is optimism that the disabled will be well embraced in the societal structure.

Hiring persons with disabilities is another step conducted in the United States to ensure that the disabled are included in society since they are able and willing to work. According to NPR, only about one out of every five disabled adults is working. According to Demographic data on average wages, disabled workers make nearly $9,000 less per year than non-disabled professionals, as per CNN Money3. In the early 1990s, the difference was less than $6,000. Disabled people face discrimination at work, for instance, being declined a job or a final examination. Employers have trained the importance of viewing a person, including their impairment, as an asset rather than a liability, ensuring a promising future for the disabled.

The US administration is also working to ensure that the disabled’s coming years are inclusive by expanding impairment participation in political settings. Disabled people’s voices have been ignored in national and international election races. When practicing their freedom to vote, individuals with disabilities still face morphological, psychological, and technological impediments, such as the lack of automatic door starters, ASL translations, Braille signals, and staircases. The disabled have additional problems throughout the election system, such as narrow entrances and inadequate electronic voting. Voters’ ability to vote for people with developmental disabilities has been considered, offering hope to the disabled in the years ahead.

Inclusion for persons with disability in 5, 10, and 25+ years from now

Since individuals will be educated on how to accept persons with disabilities in the community, being disabled will not be seen as a meaningful difference. Impairments will continue to be normalized due to political, technical, cultural, and healthcare trends. The UN Disability Rights Convention and special regulations implemented in the US have ushered in a fundamental change away from seeing people with disabilities as helpless individuals with distinct, appealable rights. Furthermore, the emerging trend of customization has made being different universally accepted. Moreover, advances in technology and medicine will make it much easier to reimburse for the limitations of those with impairments.

For disabled persons, the jobs available will grow more secure and tighter. Competitive intensity strain and a more complex economy will be encountered, resulting in both a high pressure to achieve and a need to create more adaptable work and home life paradigms. As per the authors, polarization will occur between highly agile, technology-based, internationally operating enterprises on the one hand and SMEs focused on local added value and togetherness on the other2. They expect SMEs to increasingly adapt their business strategies to local and societal demands and new job prospects for persons with disabilities in this slower-growing sector of the economy.

People with impairments will work in interconnected educational environments and with varying levels of shelter. The transformation between education and work will be more adaptable and tailored to the individual. In the best-case scenario, multicultural education will be created that provides equal opportunity to all students, regardless of their background or disability. The overarching concept will be to organize inclusion in a personalized, person-by-person manner. In addition, Barriers to disabled individuals will mostly vanish in public spaces, transportation, and housing. Places of work can and will be changed over the next couple of decades, as government subsidies and loans are frequently available, and employing individuals with disabilities requires a compelling business case.


In modern America, 40 million and 50 thousand individuals have a disability. As the baby boom generation approaches late life, whenever the threat of impairment is most excellent, that quantity is anticipated to rise dramatically over 25 years. Among people who have impairments today, at least one in seven American individuals are prone to developing impairment. In the coming years, individuals who are or will be directly impacted by the special needs of members of the family and others nearer to them are considered. Visual impairment impacted the behavior of the vast majority of Americans today and tomorrow.

The future of impairment in America will be primarily determined by how the nation organizes for and administers a complex variety of population, fiscal, medical, digital, and other changes over the next few decades. Much more can be achieved now to ensure that persons with disabilities can live perfect and practical lives in the future. Personal and societal expenses will result from inaction, including unavoidable dependency, lowered quality of living, strong emphasis on individuals and businesses, and lost production.


Gachichio I. Review annual compendium for statistics about Americans with disabilities. D C for Higher Education 2018;23(10):9-9. doi:10.1002/dhe.30437

Monterroso Rosas M. Planning the future of a disabled person: Civil Law Solutions?. Teisė. 2020;114:132-143. doi:10.15388/teise.2020.114.9

Marumoagae M. Disability discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access the labor market. P E Law Journal. 2017;15(1):344-365. doi:10.17159/1727-3781/2012/v15i1a2467

Rotarou E, Sakellariou D, Kakoullis E, Warren N. Disabled people: identifying needs, promoting inclusivity. J Glob Health. 2021;11:50-53. doi:10.7189/jogh.11.03007


  1. Gachichio I. Review annual compendium for statistics about Americans with disabilities. D C for Higher Education 2018;23(10):9-9. doi:10.1002/dhe.30437
  2. Monterroso Rosas M. Planning the future of a disabled person: Civil Law Solutions?. Teisė. 2020;114:132-143. doi:10.15388/teise.2020.114.9
  3. Marumoagae M. Disability discrimination and the right of disabled persons to access the labor market. P E Law Journal. 2017;15(1):344-365. doi:10.17159/1727-3781/2012/v15i1a2467
  4. Rotarou E, Sakellariou D, Kakoullis E, Warren N. Disabled people: identifying needs, promoting inclusivity. J Glob Health. 2021;11:50-53. doi:10.7189/jogh.11.03007

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