Sexual Orientation Health Disparities Problem Free Writing Sample

Sexual minorities across the United States are at an increased rate of experiencing healthcare disparities than heterosexuals. Tabaac et al. (2020) established various forms of discrimination, including employment and family marginalization, that expose sexual minorities to poverty, increasing their risk of experiencing disparities in insurance coverage, health utilization, and unmet healthcare needs. Still, those who can afford the needed resources to access quality care, the sexual minorities comprising lesbian, gay, bisexual, and others, are victimized by discriminatory attitudes and treatment from some healthcare practitioners. In most cases, an LGBTQ patient is prone to maltreatment by a health practitioner because of preexisting prejudices about their sexual orientation. The Capstone project aims to quantify the existing healthcare disparities that are sexually oriented and crucial for generating evidence-based solutions that are policy and systematically informed to address the problem.

During my practicum, I intend to work with people who identify as gay within the healthcare context. The person may be a patient or colleague I share with a working space. For an expanded research experience, I aim to target LGBTQ as a group, not individuals, analyzing their various unmet health needs because of marginalization resulting from their sexual orientation. Various trends within the healthcare system suggest disparities targeting sexual minorities in the United States. A specific one is the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program; this healthcare service only targets gay and bisexual men without considering the presence of women who identify as bisexual or gay (Tabaac et al., 2020). Also, the existing employment and insurance policies and practices like the Affordable Care Act fail to clarify the inclusion of sexual minorities in various insurance covers, pointing to healthcare access disparities (Tabaac et al., 2020). Thus, failing to identify the LGBTQ group within the healthcare context creates access barriers to healthcare for individuals who classify as gay or bisexual. As baccalaureate-prepared nurses, we aim to strive for an inclusive healthcare model and system, especially in a globalized world defined by diversity in all human care aspects. Thus, addressing sexual-orientation issues that cause healthcare disparities ensures efficient inclusion of the LGBTQ group in accessing quality and affordable care in the United States and universally.

Contextualizing the Sexual Minority Problem within the Nursing Care

Hughes et al.’s (2022) study identifies the CDC’s definition to describe health disparities as “preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or access opportunity to quality care” (p. 514). The National Institute of Health (NIH) recognizes sexual and gender minorities as health disparities population. In that case, transgender people are at high risk of poorer health than cisgender people, with nursing being one of the healthcare units contributing to this problem. According to Hughes et al. (2022), health disparities grounded in prejudiced beliefs and attitudes expose the gay and bisexual population to psychological distress and suicide ideation. For instance, when patient identification forms only include male and female genders and refer to the remaining ones as others, a transgender patient is likely to feel marginalized and unwanted in the care facility. Given that nurses are the primary caregivers within the healthcare context, literature recognizes the severity of discrimination targeting sexual minorities. This issue should be addressed to improve the quality of care for the target group. The information is reliable because it is from a recent peer-reviewed article.

The literature further identifies barriers that make it challenging to implement evidence-based practices to address health disparities affecting sexual minorities. Legal and systematic obstacles like the recognition of gender, freedom of expression and movement, and other mainstream human rights make it challenging to eliminate health disparities targeting sexual minorities within a clinical setting (Zeeman et al., 2019). Also, the marginalization of sexual minorities is enhanced by the stereotypes formed by the mainstream culture and population, creating a barrier to addressing sexual minorities’ discrimination within the healthcare context. Evidence links wider social influences as a key barrier to addressing minority discrimination within healthcare systems (Zeeman et al., 2019). In that case, the solution should tackle societal causes and healthcare challenges. Besides, Reisner et al. (2021) research identifies nurses’ communication roles, including confidentiality, respect, medical knowledge, and proper communication skills, as key to reducing healthcare disparities among sexual minority groups. Nurses should use their knowledge and experience when interacting with transgender patients to propose policies that will improve their clinal outcomes when seeking treatment in any healthcare facility.

Critical to understanding and resolving transgender health disparities, the literature suggests a transcultural nursing model as a framework for improving LGBTQ care. The transcultural nursing framework emphasizes multicultural study and practices to understand similarities and differences between cultures (Medina-Martinez et al., 2021). The aim is to avail culturally congruent care that accommodates each person’s lifestyle, values, beliefs, and systems (Medina-Martinez et al., 2021). The transcultural nursing model helps nurse practitioners understand the beliefs and values of a transgender community to eliminate biased and discriminatory practices from the healthcare system.

State Board Nursing Practice Standards Impact on Transgender Care

Nursing professionals play an integral role in caring for patients who identify as LGBTQ with related gender variance. Rosa et al. (2019) study emphasize the presence of a nursing team in the healthcare context addressing the outpatient issues from first to concluding patient contact among hospital services. In that case, nursing standards, beliefs, and practices are central to improving inclusivity experiences for the population that identifies as transgender. Evidence points toward nursing practice standards promoting activities to improve health and prevent various diseases for the LGBTQ population (Rosa et al., 2019). Thus, nursing activities such as health promotion, education, and inclusivity campaigns demonstrate efficiency standards to eliminate sexual minorities’ discrimination within the clinical context.

Nurses play a central role in improving transgender health outcomes, preventing illness, address readmission. A professional consensus recognizes the essentiality of improving transgender care through education, research, and practice (Hughes et al., 2022). Hence, nursing practitioners come together to create a national action plan that unifies the nursing role, agenda, and purpose to improvise healthcare policies targeting the LGBTQ population within a clinical context (Hughes et al., 2022). Regarding policymaking, nurses are well-positioned to influence clinical standards, laws, and practices that will eliminate healthcare disparities targeting sexual minorities. The nurses can influence the nursing curriculum through research and policy implementation to develop a course that recognizes sexual minorities and the challenges they face strategically to improve the population’s access to quality care.

Similarly, nurses can communicate their experiences with policymakers regarding sexual minorities’ health disparity issues. Their first-hand information may influence the health committee’s decision to implement inclusive policies to strengthen healthcare equity and equality. Nurses are well positioned to influence policy reforms from local, state, and federal legislation regarding improving the care of sexual minorities within a clinical context. The local, state, and federal policies on sexual minorities’ healthcare access and utilization influences nurse decision and behavior in treating patients that identify with this group. As a result, as nurse practitioners, we are responsible for ensuring that this policy does not promote marginalization based on sexual orientation or any other form of discrimination targeting an individual or group.

Leadership Interventions

Leadership intervention to eliminate healthcare disparities targeting minorities should be rooted in the organizational policies and standards that promote equity and equality. Designing inclusive and non-discriminatory policies for the organization helps nurture a healthcare culture supporting sexual minorities’ needs (Valentine et al., 2021). Hence, nurses and other healthcare leaders should emphasize inclusivity beliefs and practices among caregivers to eliminate any attitude or behavior among health workers that could expose a member of a minority sexual group to discrimination. Also, healthcare management should ensure that all the standard clinical procedures recognize the sexual minority identity as a group and not generally categorize them. For instance, Healthcare institutions should use intake documents that inquire about a patient’s sexual orientation and not generally categorize people as male or female (Valentine et al., 2021). Such practices create an inclusivity environment that eliminates any care practice that could promote sexual minority discrimination. When these leadership interventions are implemented, health practitioners will concentrate on patient-centered care rather than being misguided by stereotypes about sexual orientation.

Addressing health disparities targeting sexual minorities should begin with training institutions. The healthcare leadership should collaborate with medical and nursing training institutions to readjust the curriculum that promotes diversity and inclusivity beliefs and attitudes among healthcare trainees. Also, the leadership should invest in workshops and conferences that instill these values in the current healthcare employee body. Transgender identity may be new to many healthcare workers necessitating the need to educate them about the cultural beliefs, values, and practices that make them an active social unit. Learning their identity will minimize and eliminate the prejudices that promote sexual minorities discrimination within the healthcare context. Improving communication, where practitioners emphasize respecting nurse-patient privacy and confidentiality, will enhance the needed trust between the people who identify as transgender and healthcare providers. Also, integrating a multidisciplinary approach to the group’s patient care helps address their various needs, including psychosocial challenges experienced within the healthcare context. As a result, multidisciplinary collaboration is ideal for improving sexual minorities’ access to quality care.

To summarize, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender groups are prone to experiencing health disparities because of their sexual orientation. The cultural values that make them a community contradict some mainstream sexual norms, beliefs, and practices. Nurse practitioners should be guided by a transcultural framework that allows us to identify similarities and differences between cultures to eliminate minority discrimination. Non-discriminatory policies and practices within the healthcare system help eliminate health disparities targeting the group. Significantly, the leadership should be at the forefront of promoting sexual minority inclusivity needs within the healthcare context.


Hughes, T, L., Jackman, K., Dorsen, C., Arslanian-Engoren, C., Ghazal, L., Christenberry, T., Coleman, C., Mackin, M., Moore, S, E., Mukerjee, R., Sherman, A., Smith, S., & Walker, R. (2022). How can the nursing profession help reduce sexual and gender minority related health disparities: Recommendations from the national nursing LGBTQ health summit. Nursing Outlook, 70(3), 513-524,

Medina-Martinez, J., Saus-Ortega, C., Sanchez-Lorente, M, M., Garcia-Martinez, P., & Marmol-Lopez, M, I. (2021). Health inequalities in LGBT people and nursing interventions to reduce them: Systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(22),

Rosa, D, F., Carvalho, M, V, F., & Pereira, N, R. (2019). Nursing care for the transgender population: Genders from the perspective of professional practice. Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 72, 299-306,

Tabaac, A, R., Solazzo, A, L., Gordon, A, R., Austin, B, S., Guss, C., & Charlton, B, M. (2020). Sexual orientation-related disparities in healthcare access in three cohorts of U.S. adults. Preventive Medicine, 132,

Valentine, S, E., Shipherd, C, J., Smith, A, M., & Kauth, M, R. (2021). Improving affirming care for sexual and gender minority veterans. Psychological Services, 18(2), 205-215,

Zeeman, L., Sherriff, N., Browne, K., McGlynn, N., Mirandola, M., Gios, L., Davis, R., Sanchez-Lambert, J., Aujean, S., Pinto, N., & Amaddeo, F. (2019). A review of lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, and intersex (LGBTTI) health and healthcare inequalities. European Journal of Public Health, 29(5), 974-980,

Mental Health Issues: Social Phobia University Essay Example


A 25-year-old male comes to my clinic because he has been experiencing difficulties in his new job. Since he works in a consulting firm, it is challenging for him to give a presentation because he will embarrass himself, and his peers will judge him negatively or demean him. In order to avoid embarrassment, he has been rejecting multiple leadership roles and promotions as well. He says he doesn’t like interacting with small groups or friends in the workplace.

List of the patient’s problem

  • Social phobia
  • Anxiety
  • Glossophobia

The main reason for selecting the above disorders is because the patient is experiencing them at different levels. For example, the patient fears interacting with small groups and friends in the workplace. Secondly, he fears presentation, which makes him have a stage-flight phobia, also known as glossophobia. Lastly, he suffers from anxiety since he passes up multiple leadership roles and promotions because he fears being assigned roles that involve interaction.

Diagnosis to be considered

The appropriate diagnosis process is by conducting a physical examination of the patient to identify the symptoms, which will enable the doctor to identify the appropriate disorder the patient is suffering from (Mayo Clinic, 2020). Also, the doctor might perform a blood test to determine whether the patient has other conditions, such as hypothyroidism, which might cause anxiety symptoms.

Rationale for diagnosis

In this case, one of the major symptoms of his disorder is isolating himself from others or fearing to interact with his collogues at the workplace of friends. According to the DSM IV, people diagnosed with social phobia are likely to isolate themselves or stay alone. They rarely share their information with other people, such as friends. As a result, the person is likely to suffer from other disorders, such as stress and depression.

Differential diagnosis to consider

The appropriate differential diagnosis to consider in this case is anxiety because the other two disorders result from anxiety. For example, the patient could not experience social phobia without experiencing the fear of interacting with other people. Secondly, stage-flight phobia or glossophobia is also a type of anxiety. Therefore, addressing anxiety disorder will elicit other disorders.

Screening tools

The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) is a popular screening tool for measuring anxiety. It evaluates a number of anxiety-related symptoms even though they came before modern conceptions of anxiety. The HAM-A includes subscales for both physical and mental anxiety. The psychological subscale, which includes questions about the more individualized cognitive and affective aspects of anxious experiences, such as anxious mood, tension, and anxieties, is particularly helpful in determining how severe anxiety is (Belzer, 2019). In contrast, the somatic subscale emphasizes anxiety symptoms that are a little less common, such as autonomic arousal and cardiovascular and respiratory symptoms.


The first treatment strategy to address this disorder is subjecting the patient to psycho-education. This will enable the patient to understand the disorder in detail and know the consequences that emanate from it, thus maximizing the chances of developing a solution. Secondly, psychotherapy will address the patient’s disorder because it enables the patient to understand how their thoughts and behavior contribute to the disorder. The last treatment strategy is using medications, such as antidepressants. This medication increases the activity of neurotransmitters in the brain which helps in reducing anxiety.

Standard guidelines

The major guideline I would use to assess the patient is conducting a mental and physical examination to determine the disorder and come up with the best treatment strategy.


Belzer, K. D. (2019). Tools for assessing generalized anxiety disorder. Psychiatric Times23(3), 26-26.

Mayo Clinic, (2020), Social anxiety disorder (social phobia),

Group Differences In Child Development Sample Paper

Background information

Kayla is an only child who is a quiet and reserved elementary school student. She struggles to learn and participate in cooperative or small group learning activities with her peers, preferring to work alone. Kayla has no strong or close friendships with the other students in her class and has difficulty engaging her peers in meaningful conversations and gaining their perspectives. The teacher wants to help Kayla develop her social and perspective-taking abilities and emotional intelligence and become a fully integrated classroom community member. Kayla’s mother encourages her to do her best in school but only provides a little support for her to engage in social or academic activities outside school. Kayla struggles with academic areas such as reading and math and often gives up on challenging tasks, believing that she needs to improve in areas where she has done poorly. The teacher is concerned that Kayla’s sense of self-efficacy, motivation, and academic achievement may decline if action is not taken. The case highlights group differences, including social and academic skills, motivation, and self-efficacy. (from the Application Case Vignette)

Description of Concepts

Group differences in child development are important to consider to understand better the various factors that may impact a child’s educational experience. According to Ormrod et al., cultural and ethnic differences can significantly impact how children view the world and interact with others. The cultural practices and beliefs of a child’s family and community may influence their communication style, values, and aspirations (Ormrod et al., 2019, pp. 107-109). Intersectionality, which considers a child’s multiple identities, such as race, ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status, can provide a more comprehensive understanding of how these different factors intersect to shape a child’s experiences.

Socioeconomic differences, which encompass family income, parental education, and parental occupation, can also significantly impact a child’s development. Based on research, students from higher socioeconomic backgrounds may have greater access to resources such as high-quality education, healthcare, and extracurricular activities. They may also have more opportunities to travel and experience diverse cultures (Ormrod et al., 2019, p. 133). Conversely, students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds may face greater economic and social challenges that can impact their academic achievement and overall development.

Inclusion is an approach that seeks to address group differences by promoting the integration of students with disabilities and diverse backgrounds into regular classrooms. Ormrod et at note that inclusion encourages collaboration between special education experts and regular classroom instructors to support the education of all children, regardless of their abilities or backgrounds (Ormrod et al., 2019, p. 161). This approach recognizes the importance of providing equal educational opportunities to all children while also recognizing each child’s unique needs and abilities.

Concepts Application and Evaluation

In the case of Kayla, her cultural background might impact her academic and social development. As Ormrod et al. suggests, one’s culture shapes one’s values, aspirations, and abilities, as well as one’s communication skills and sense of self. Teachers must understand their students’ cultural backgrounds to provide meaningful and relevant instruction. The teacher in Kayla’s case has recognized this and attempted to learn more about her cultural background, although this has been a slow process. Kayla’s cultural background may also influence her preference for individualized instruction and difficulty in participating in cooperative or small group activities. However, cultural and ethnic differences alone cannot fully explain Kayla’s academic and social development struggles. While her cultural background may be a factor, there could be other reasons behind her difficulties. For example, she has not scored highly on achievement tests and needs help with challenging tasks. Additionally, her lack of close friendships and difficulty collaborating with peers could be due to many factors beyond her cultural background.

Kayla’s socioeconomic status could also impact her academic and social development. Ormrod et al. suggest that a student’s family income can influence academic achievement. Students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are more likely to drop out of school. Kayla’s teacher worries that her sense of self-efficacy and motivation could decline if action is not taken. However, while socioeconomic status could be a factor in Kayla’s difficulties, it is important to recognize that it is not the sole factor. For example, Kayla’s struggles with cooperative learning and social interactions with peers may not be solely due to her socioeconomic status. Additionally, while her mother may provide little support for her engagement in activities outside of school, there could be other reasons for this beyond her socioeconomic status. Therefore, while it is important for teachers to understand their students’ socioeconomic background, it is also important to recognize that other factors may be at play.

Solution Strategies

In order to address the cultural and socioeconomic differences present in Kayla’s case, one potential instructional strategy is to promote cultural competence and sensitivity in the classroom. Teachers can do this by learning about and acknowledging the diverse cultural backgrounds of their students and by providing opportunities for students to share and celebrate their unique cultural identities (Ormrod et al., 2019, p. 117). This can include activities such as sharing family traditions or learning about different cultural holidays and celebrations. Additionally, teachers can work to provide equitable learning opportunities for all students, regardless of their socioeconomic background. This can include ensuring that all students have access to the necessary resources and materials to succeed in the classroom and providing additional support and resources for students who may need extra assistance. Another strategy is to implement cooperative learning activities that promote positive interdependence and collaboration among students while also considering each student’s diverse needs and backgrounds. This can involve carefully selecting and grouping students to ensure that everyone has a role to play and can contribute to the group’s success while providing clear guidelines for effective communication and conflict resolution. While these strategies are important in promoting a positive learning environment that addresses cultural and socioeconomic differences, it is also important to acknowledge that they are not a one-size-fits-all solution. Teachers must also be flexible and willing to adapt their instructional strategies based on each student’s unique needs and strengths, such as in Kayla’s case. By doing so, they can ensure that all students have the opportunity to reach their full potential and become fully integrated members of the classroom community.


Ormrod, J.E. & Anderman, L.H. (2019). “Chapter 4: Group Differences and Chapter 5: Individual Differences and Special Educational Needs,” in E.M. Anderman (ed.) Educational Psychology: Developing Learners. Tenth Edition. Hoboken, New Jersey: Pearson Education, pp. 106–188.