Shakespear’s Hamlet: Conflict Between Seeming And Being Free Writing Sample

Introduction

The conflict has been one of the central themes of Hamlet, the celebrated play by Shakespeare, and the conflict between seeming and constituting a major part of the conflict theme. “The theme that remains constant throughout the play is appearance versus reality. Things within the play appear to be true and honest but in reality, are infested with evil. Many of the characters within the play hide behind a mask of falseness.” (Hamlet – Appearance vs. Reality). An analysis of the characters such as Hamlet, Ophelia, Rosencrantz, and Guildenstern clarifies the play’s obsession with the theme of the conflict between seeming and being.

The character of Hamlet

This conflict is most evident in the character of Hamlet who is always hesitating to act due to this dilemma or conflict in his character. The character is presented as constantly struggling due to the question of “to be or not to be” and this conflict is the result of what is apparent and real. The nature of the character is not clear to the character itself nor it is clear to other characters and in a way the whole play can be treated as an endeavor to find the real in his being. All through the play, several factors point to the conflict between seeming and being, such as the facts regarding the ghost, the affection of a mother, the love of Ophelia, the sincerity in the friendship with many characters, the inner realities of his character, the realities regarding other characters, etc. Hamlet seems, in his assessment, to be very fast in action, correct in decisions, and rational in actions. However, the analysis of the character proves these claims to be wrong as the reason for every tragedy in the play is Hamlet’s failure in decision making, right judgment, and quick and efficient action. Thus, the obsession for the conflict between seeming and being is very evident and accurate in the play.

The character of Ophelia

An evaluation of the character of Ophelia further augments the point that the tragedy is obsessed by the conflict between seeming and being. Ophelia seems, through her words and claims, to be very affectionate and sincere in her relationship with Hamlet. However, often the character proves herself that the claim is far from reality. Every element about the character of Ophelia makes it clear that the character is less faithful and sincere in her relationship with Hamlet. Whereas Hamlet often proves his love for Ophelia such as in the very remarkable statement at the Graveyard Scene, Ophelia fails to be of great comfort and use to Hamlet at his time of difficulty. The character, on the one hand, seems to be very much important to the character of Hamlet through her words with Polonius and others. However, on the other hand, she does not contribute greatly to the character of Hamlet at his times of distress. Thus, there is a notable conflict in the character between what is true and what seems and the obsession for this conflict has been very clear in the play.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern

Another character study that contributes to the topic of the play’s obsession with the conflict between seeming and being is that of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. They seem to be the true friends of Hamlet who wish to be of solace to him in his time of distress. However, it is obvious in the play that the two are nothing but the tools at the hands of Claudius to amplify the mental struggle in him. They seem to be sincere in their action and their dialogues with Hamlet claim that they are very much dedicated to his well-being. However, their actions and thoughts betray them and it becomes clear to the audience, as it is obvious to Hamlet, that they are expecting the downfall of Hamlet’s mental being. These characters seem to be true and honest, but their words, thoughts, and action bring out the real being of their character.

References

Hamlet – Appearance vs. Reality. 2008. Web.

The Airline Industry: Data Protection

Introduction

Information about an individual or entity is always considered private unless the person in question whether natural or artificial sees it appropriate to disclose it. Data protection covers more of the relationship between collection, processing and dissemination of data. It can be defined simply as the prevention of misuse of information collected from a person or an entity. In our case, the information is personal information collected from an individual before traveling in air. There has to be some physical or technical measures to guard against unauthorized access to this personal data. This personal data may involve things like; the name of the person, his or her origin, his financial status, his mission and even the race and attachment to a group or religion. The purpose of the data protection is to protect the individual from being mishandled as a result of this information. (Ethics, Privacy, and Data Protection 2007).

Questions like who should handle which personal data and where should the data be transmitted to will always find their answers in data protection policies. Different countries have different data protection laws. Some like the US have the information act, the EU has the data protection act and others have different laws. For example, in 2003, the US decided to follow the freedom information act FOIA in disclosing any personal data upon request.

How does data protection in European community compare with data protection in the U.S.A.? The two have very different data protection laws and their policies differ in all aspects including the kind of data to be protected and the consequences for violating such laws. The history of data protection in the European community is based from experience from the World War 2 while that of the U.S. is simply based on preventing fraud theft and terrorism.

The EU data protection law covers a wider area than the US. In the US, the data considered is very personal; they are only concerned with the personal data of the customers. The EU on the other hand have a concept known as data ‘subjects’ which ensures that the information about personal data of the customers’ employees, customers, suppliers and all contacts is put to consideration. Enforcement of the data protection law is quite different in these two countries. It is more definite and defined in the US than in the EU. In fact, most of the law violations in the EU go unpunished unlike the US where even a slight violation is published and punished. This is so because of the broad scope of the law in the EU and lack of resources. Whenever there is a security breach in the EU, notification does not reach each affected person unlike in the US where each affected individual is notified. (Elizabeth 2007).

Discussion

Personal data is private unless the individual has given consent to its processing and handling. In one of the acts on data protection, the US agreed with the EU that personal information concerning racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or other beliefs, trade union membership, health, sex life, and criminal convictions should be disclosed. This is categorized as sensitive data, and the main question is, suppose the data subject doesn’t want the data to be disclosed? What will happen? Is it going to be released with out his consent? And if this is done, does it not go against the law of right to privacy which states that every body has a right to determine which information should be disclosed, to who and for what purpose? It makes the whole issue an ethical dilemma. This is because an individual might see an opportunity to benefit from this situation by making ones restricted data available in return for a fee, one may argue that this is legal but is it ethical. Are people happy with the amount of information collected, stored, manipulated, and transmitted by the air line operators about them before they travel? (Simon 1999).

The United States ordered all international airlines to provide detailed information about their passengers to the government. This information contain sensitive data –about the travelers including; name, address, flight number, credit card number, and choice of meal. It was a security measure after the September 11 bombing. The directive provides a challenge in the air line industry. In one aspect, they must ensure that their passengers’ data is kept secure, in the other hand they must comply with the US security measure. (John 2009).

The European air lines are concerned that providing access to the information to the US would violate their privacy laws. Human rights organizations are also raising concerns on the same issue and they criticize the air lines for failing to follow the stipulations in the privacy act. European airlines have petitioned their governments to clarify the airline’s obligations. The EU court advisor for example advised that giving airline data to US is illegal. That was back 2005. (Edward 2005).

Protests are being held world wide against the surveillance of air travelers, collection of telecommunication data, and biometric registration of citizens. One protest was held in 11 October 2008 under the slogan “freedom not fear”. Passengers claim that they are kept for a long time in the US airports. These are some of the issues the airlines are addressing. They are searching for a better information policy to inform all passengers about their rights and how their data are processed by the US authorities. The passengers should know why the data is being collected and how it will be processed. This duty is placed upon the airlines to educate their employees on data protection. (2008).

The airlines should ensure that their staff is trained in how to collect the data, how to relay it to the US and how to cope with customers in case there are problems in collecting the same. A case study of the Lufthansa German airlines will help us understand better such training. A new employer should be trained on these issues before beginning duty. The privacy statement of the airline regards protection of personal information very important. (Lufthansa training 2009).

The trainees need to know the meaning and purpose of data protection. They are sensitized that customers have to know and decide who is to handle the data and where the data might be relayed to. Though they are supposed to comply with the Germany data protection law, they are encouraged to be able to decide when to pass the information to a third party like the spouse and other persons. They are supposed to do some plausibility check which determines whether the person has the legal authority to access the information or not. (Privacy news highlights 2008).

The plausibility check looks for details like, does the person seeking the information have a personal relationship with the person who is traveling, may be a relative or an employee? And if there is a relationship, does he know some essential details of the travel data and why does he or she need such details. They are then trained on the meaning of terms like personal data, controller, third party receiver. (Cirrus Airlines 2008).

They are supposed to understand the confidentiality statement which states that any body handling data should maintain the confidentiality of the data during and after their work in the airline industry. They are trained on the reasons why many employees violate regulations governing data processing including intention, negligence, inexperience and curiosity. They are then informed on the possible offences and the fines there in after committing such crimes. Another element here is on whose information should be protected. New trainees are also provided with information about when personal data might be processed. For example data can be availed when the federal data protection law or other laws allow its processing and utilization, when the data subject gives permission, when there is a contract between the controller and the data subject, if the personal data is generally accessible, or when one has done a plausibility check and found it appropriate to do so. (Lufthansa training 2009).

They should also know the rights of the data subjects. They are trained that the data subject is entitled to make inquiries about his data free of charge, have any incorrect data corrected or deleted, or have data disabled. They are supposed to ensure data security that is to ensure that the data is protected from lose, destruction and misuse which is done by ensuring that rooms, cabinets, and PCs are locked when possible, that data is not copied or taken home unless its for duty purposes, that storage media is properly disposed, that passwords are handled well and that data is only availed when necessary.

Another element of their training is about data transfer. Data should only be disclosed to the data subject, and to a third party if there is permission from the law or from the data subject. Details on why the data is needed should be in written form and also feedback must be written. If courts, companies and other corporate bodies need any information, they should do so through writing and they should provide a legal basis for their request of information. (Wyatt 2008).

Whenever data cannot be availed, the controller is trained to explain why this is so. They should give adequate reasons for withholding that information. Incase sensitive information is passed out accidentally; they are trained on what to do. They are trained never to cover up anything as this may lead to more troubles. There is also training on who should disclose information. That not everybody is allowed to disclose the information even when allowed by the law or the person concerned.

The last bit of their training is why passenger data is so sensitive. That data disclosed will affect the customers’ privacy and it may also lead to undue competition from competitors. In general, they have a knowledge that data protection is necessary as a standard service element of the customer orientation, as a social responsibility of the airline and in order to comply with statutory regulations. This is the course of a new trainee in the Lufthansa airline on how to protect personal data. (Lufthansa training 2009).

Whenever information gets in the hands of more than one person, it ceases to become secret and it can be conveyed to so many people within a very short time. This is the greatest challenge as far as the protection of data is concerned. Both new and existing employees pose a great threat to the safe guarding of this information in the airline industry. Some employees will disclose the information about VIP passengers by a way of gossip. They may tell their friends the travel plans of that person which is a breach of the law. The consequences there after may be overwhelming. It will always remain a challenge on how to keep their mouths shut on this important information. (Linda 2006).

The training of new employees in Lufthansa offers in depth information on how to ensure that the personal data is secure and protected. Due to ignorance and negligence, some employees will fail to observe these precautions and disclose information without proper security verifications. Though there are stipulated fines for such an offense, it will be hard to determine whether it was intentional or accidental. Information will always go out of control accidentally. The team leader should always be prepared to tackle such an occurrence.

The greatest challenge is to educate both new and existing employees on when to access personal data, for whom, and under what conditions. Continuous seminars should be available to create awareness of the importance of maintaining data protection at all times. Employees should be reminded of the existing legal actions against those who disclose personal information without proper procedures. (Lufthansa training 2009).

Conclusion

In general, data protection in relation to the airline industry is a complicated issue. It is made more complicated by the various acts concerning the same by different governments. There is a contradiction between the policies. For example, there exists an agreement between US and the EU that personal data of the passengers should be availed whenever necessary, on the other hand the law gives right to safeguarding of personal information. Corruption may also lead to disclosure of personal information by the employees handling such data. The world should seek to establish better rules and regulations to safeguard the personal data of passengers while at the same time working to curb terrorism. (2008).

Works cited

Cirrus Airlines, Privacy and data security, 2008, Web.

Elizabeth H. Johnson. Data protection law in the European Union. 2007. Web.

Ethics, Privacy, and Data Protection, 2007. Web.

Edward Hasbrouck’s, US require passenger details from international airlines. The Practical Nomad, 2005.

John Leyden. Airline passenger data deal struck 2006. 

Lufthansa airline. Access to reservation information by US homeland security authorities. 2009. Web.

Lufthansa, Data protection introduction, Power point presentation. 2009.

Simon Rogersburg. “Privacy and new data protection act”. Ethical IMIS journal Vol.9 No.6, 1999. Web. 2009.

Privacy news highlights. EU-Art 29 working party issues opinion on transfer of PNR to US authorities. 2008. 

“Freedom not Fear”: Worldwide protests against surveillance 2008. Web.

Linda D Koontz. Privacy: Key challenges facing federal agencies. 2006. 

Wyatt Kash, U.S, EU agree on data protection framework. 2008.

“The Adventures Of Huckleberry Finn” By Mark Twain

Introduction

Samuel Langhorne Clemens, born in Florida Missouri on November 30, 1835, is commonly known by his pen name or author’s alias as Mark Twain. Mark Twain is the author of the book “The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn”. This novel accomplished the esteemed title of “The Great American Novel”. This Great American Novel was published in the year 1884.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn begins from where Twain’s earlier novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer leaves off. It begins with the lead character Huckleberry Finn affectionately called Huck, throughout the novel. In this novel Tom sawyer plays a very minor role as compared to Huck, he guest appears in the beginning chapters and then disappears till his reappearance in the later chapters. Huck and Tom have come into money by discovering a healthy treasure. At this point Huck has been adopted by a lady called Widow Douglas she appears alarmed at Huck’s ill manners and seeks to accomplish the task of civilizing and disciplining him. However, Huck is a very wayward and free spirit and finds her brand of civilizing distasteful and confining. Thus with the partnership of the ever imaginative albeit surly at times Tom Sawyer runs away.

Personality Analysis

Here the evolution of Husk’s personality is clear, he is now a young adult who needs an occasion to spread his wings and fly the coop. He wants to be independent and put his talents and potential to use. Chances are that his drunken father has pushed him to the edge of what he is going to consider next. He needs to be rid of his fetters chaining him to his past with his drunken father and present with the confining chain that is his adoption by the Widow Douglas.

Huck, in his youthful spirit, decides to join Tom and a few of his buddies in a gang of robbers, who will call themselves “The Tom Sawyer’s Gang”. However, before becoming a gang member an oath must be taken in blood. That if any member seeks to violate the secrets of the gang, his family will meet an untimely end. But seeing as Huck had no proper family, just a drunken father who he did not care about nor did he see much. We see Huck so drenched in his zest at this point in the evolution of his character that as a replacement he offers up Miss Watson, who is the sister of Widow Douglas. Once the oaths of initiation had taken place, the ground rules were decided upon. Ransom, kidnapping, robbery, and if the situation called for the grim event of murder, so be it.

However, after one month of unsuccessful operation, the gang dissolved and each member goes his way. Further down the line, he meets up with Jim the slave who is heading to freedom and the state of Illinois, and an accident with a steamer and their raft separates Huck and Jim.

From all the above, Huck comes forth as a very independent adolescent who even when met with sadness and grief can pick himself up and move forward, betrayed by those who he thought were friends, but who turned out to be common frauds. Huck despite all this moves forward to free his friend Jim. That is his newfound objective. Sowing a streak of loyalty and bravery to rescue his friend and keep him safe. However, a turn of events brings about the facts that Jim’s employer Miss Watson had died and left Jim a free man in her will and testament. Furthermore, Huck is freed of the fetters chaining him to the burden of his Father whose dead body was found floating in the Mississippi River. Huck then although saddened by this news, decides that he cannot face further civilization by Tom’s family announces that he will escape to the Indian Territory. We see Huck here saddened one of the few times he feels sadness in the book. And once more, his sadness causes him to change his way and to head out in a new direction towards life (Twain, 1981).

Works Cited

Twain, M. (1981). The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Bantam Classics.

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