# Shakuntla Devi: Mathematician And A Calculating Genius Of India University Essay Example

Shaktuntala Devi, an extraordinary mathematical prodigy hailing from India, was born on November 4th, 1939. One of her notable accomplishments took place on June 18th, 1980 at Imperial College in London. In a mere span of 28 seconds, she effortlessly solved the multiplication problem involving two numbers each consisting of 13 digits – specifically, multiplying 7,686,369,774,870 by 2,465,099,745,779. Despite being raised in a modest family residing in Bangalore city within the state of Karnataka, Shaktuntala Devi’s father initially pursued a career as a trapeze and tightrope artist before transitioning into a human cannonball performer at a circus.

At the age of three, it was discovered that Shakuntala Devi is a calculating genius while playing cards with her father. Rather than using trickery, she was able to beat him by memorizing the cards. To learn more about the life history of Shakuntala Devi, read on this biography. At the University of Mysore, when she was six years old, she showcased her calculation skills. She continued to prove her success by demonstrating the same abilities at Annamalai University when she was eight years old.

Contrary to concerns expressed by some, Shakuntala Devi did not lose her ability to calculate as she grew older, unlike other child prodigies such as Truman Henry Safford. In fact, in 1977, she mentally calculated the 23rd root of a 201-digit number. Then, on June 18, 1980, she effortlessly multiplied two randomly selected 13-digit numbers, 7,686,369,774,870 and 2,465,099,745,779, in just 28 seconds. This impressive feat was accomplished at the request of the computer department at Imperial College in London.

Shakuntala Devi, a well-known Indian mathematician, is known as the Human Computer for her incredible talent in solving complex mathematical problems. Her correct answer to a multiplication sum was 18,947,668,177,995,426,462,773,730. This extraordinary feat has earned her a spot on the 26th page of the famous 1995 Guinness Book of Records. Shakuntala Devi is widely regarded as a genius and is highly respected in the world of mathematics.

In 1977, Shakuntala Devi mentally extracted the 23rd root of a 201-digit number, completing the task 12 seconds faster than the Univac-1108. Her extraordinary mental ability earned her a place in the 1995 Guinness Book of Records. Shakuntala Devi’s deep interest in enhancing human learning capacity led her to develop the concept of Mind Dynamics. Born on November 4, 1939 in Bengaluru, she came from a renowned Brahmin priest family and started performing card tricks with her father at the tender age of three.

Shakuntala Devi, who received her early lessons in mathematics from her grandfather, quickly excelled in complex mental arithmetic and was acknowledged as a child prodigy by the age of 5. Demonstrating her exceptional abilities, she amazed a large assembly of students and professors at the University of Mysore. By the time she turned 8, Shakuntala Devi showcased her talents once again, this time at Annamalai University.

### Contributions of Shakuntala Devi

In 1977, Shakuntala Devi mentally found the 23rd root of a 201-digit number without any mechanical aid.

In 1980, on June 18th, Shakuntala solved a multiplication problem given to her by the computer science department of Imperial College, London. The problem involved multiplying two 13-digit numbers: 7,686,369,774,870 and 2,465,099,745,779. Shakuntala amazed everyone by solving the question in only 28 seconds and her answer was 18,947,668,177,995,

426

462

773

730.

This extraordinary achievement earned her a spot in the Guinness Book of World Records. Since then,

she has been touring worldwide to perform for students as well as prominent leaders like Prime Ministers,

Presidents,

Politicians,

and Educationalists.

Shakuntala Devi, the author, has written several books including Figuring: The Joy of Numbers, Puzzles to puzzle You, More Puzzles to puzzle you, The Book of Numbers, Mathability: Awaken the Math Genius in Your Child, Astrology for you, Perfect Murder, and In the Wonderland of Numbers. In her book In the Wonderland of Numbers, Shakuntala Devi explores the story of a girl named Neha and her love for numbers.

Shakuntala Devi, known for her books “Astrology for You” and “The World of Homosexuals,” is not only a renowned author but also an accomplished astrologer. She offers remedies based on birth date, time, and location. Her clientele includes famous individuals from diverse domains.

### Indian Mathematicial Shakuntala Devi Biography

Shakuntala Devi, who is also known as the Human Computer, is a famous Indian mathematician renowned for her extraordinary skills in solving complex mathematical problems.

Shakuntala Devi, a renowned mathematician and calculating genius from India, is often called the “Human Computer” because of her remarkable ability to solve complex mathematical problems without any mechanical aids. However, Shakuntala Devi herself disagrees with this nickname, firmly believing that the human mind is superior to any computer. Her deep interest in pushing the limits of human learning and cognitive capacity led her to develop the concept of “mind dynamics.” Throughout her career, Shakuntala Devi has amazed and mesmerized audiences worldwide with her extraordinary talents.

### Early Life of Shakuntala Devi

Shakuntala Devi, born on November 4, 1939 in Bengaluru, came from a renowned Brahmin priest family. Her father entertained audiences with his magic tricks in educational institutions. Shakuntala Devi, even at the tender age of three, joined him in performing card tricks. Her grandfather was the one who initially taught her mathematics. By the time she was five years old, Shakuntala Devi had already mastered complex mental arithmetic and was acknowledged as a prodigious child.

She demonstrated her talents to a large assembly of students and professors at the University of Mysore a year later. At the age of eight, she also displayed her talents at Annamalai University. In 1977, Shakuntala Devi mentally extracted the 23rd root of a 201-digit number without any mechanical aid. Additionally, on June 18, 1980, she demonstrated the multiplication of two randomly selected 13-digit numbers (7,686,369,774,870 and 2,465,099,745,779) that were chosen by the Computer Department of Imperial College, London.

Shakuntala Devi’s remarkable speed in solving and answering a question earned her a spot in the Guinness Book of World Records. She provided the correct answer, 18,947,668,177,995,426,462,773,730, in just 28 seconds.

### Professional Life of Shakuntala Devi

Through her expertise, she also encourages young minds to explore the realm of mathematics. She believes that a child’s curiosity and openness during infancy and childhood are unparalleled, and that these young minds should be nurtured by providing them with the proper educational methods and inspiration to develop the inherent strengths found in every child.

Shakuntala Devi, a renowned mathematician and author, has traveled extensively to perform for various audiences including students, Prime Ministers, Presidents, Politicians, and Educationalists. One of her world famous books `Figuring: the Joy of Numbers` covers some of her methods of mental calculations. In addition to that, she has also written other popular books such as Puzzles to puzzle You, More Puzzles to Puzzle you, The Book of Numbers, Mathability: Awaken the Math Genius in Your Child, Astrology for you, Perfect Murder, and In the Wonderland of Numbers.

## History Of Paul Gindiri

Paul Gindiri, as he was popularly known in Northern Nigeria, was a confrontational preacher from his conversion until his death in 1996. He saw himself as an Apostle Paul to his generation. As such, he hardly used his surname, Gindiri, the name of his hometown, or his native name, Gofo, given to him by a Fulani neighbor. He was not given to diplomacy in his preaching and attacked both Muslims and bad political leaders in Nigeria, a country he saw as a battleground between Christians and Muslims.

When a Muslim governor gave Muslims a space in the public motor park along Bauchi Road in Jos, Paul Gindiri demanded that Christians also be given a piece of land in the same area to build a church. The governor gave a comparable piece of land to the Christians who built a church there. Even though no one worships in the building (as of 2004), Paul Gindiri had made his point: what is good for the goose is good for the gander. Paul Gindiri was one of the greatest Christian revivalists of all time in Northern Nigeria. His revivalism came at an auspicious time.

The Gindiri spiritual revivals of the 1970s spread like wildfire on the Plateau and throughout central Nigeria. The churches were hungry for the Word, and huge crowds gathered at Paul Gindiri’s crusades. Many Christians in Northern Nigeria owe their spiritual renewal to these crusades. Paul Gunen Gindiri was born to Gunen Saidu Sedet and Magajiya Naru on March 3, 1935, in Punbush (Kasuwan Ali), a village near Gindiri among the Pyem of Mangu Local Government area of Plateau State in central Nigeria. Magajiya Naru was Sedet’s second wife.

Paul Gindiri was the second son among fourteen children (seven boys and seven girls). Both parents were traditionalists. The Pyem (or Fyem) are proud of their history. They consider themselves immigrants from Gobir in the Sokoto Emirate in the northwest of Nigeria. They emigrated from there and settled in Bauchi, but then the Jihad spearheaded by Usman dan Fodio in the early nineteenth century pushed them out of Bauchi. They then settled in Pyangiji and dispersed to various other locations. One of their principal settlements is Gindiri, where the SUM missionaries began to settle in 1934.

In the pre-colonial period, the Pyem acted as middlemen in the slave trade between their immediate neighbors, especially the Maghavul and the Ron, and the Hausa/Fulani of the Bauchi emirate. Paul Gindiri’s father and his siblings had Maghavul names because their ancestors had moved out of Gindiri and settled among the Maghavul in Kumbun. Later, some of Paul Gindiri’s clan returned to Gindiri, while the others stayed back and were assimilated into the Maghavul ethnic group. Before Paul was born, his father had moved from Gindiri and resettled in Punbush.

Paul Gindiri probably heard the gospel from the first Pyem converts, Akila Wantu Nachunga, and Mallam Tagwai. He enrolled in the mission primary school and studied for only four years because his father refused to continue paying his school fees, preferring that he stay at home and help him on the farm. After Paul dropped out of school, he took an appointment in the mission compound as an apprentice mason. Richard Bruce has shown how the Pyem converted to Islam or Christianity through social contacts in colonial times.

We are not certain if Paul Gindiri became a Christian through his apprenticeship in Gindiri but, in any case, a permanent spiritual transformation took place later. Not satisfied with his apprenticeship, Paul confided in his mother that he was going to the city to learn how to drive. He arrived in Jos in 1949. With no money to pay for driving tutorials, Paul took a mining job in the Amalgamated Tin Mines of Nigeria (ATMN). While working there, he enrolled in the driving school and not only learned driving but also automobile mechanics, skills that were invaluable assets to him later on.

He got his driving certificate in 1951. As a motor mechanic/driver, it was not difficult for him to get a job. He worked for big organizations such as the National Institute of Trypanosomiasis at Vom, a few kilometers southwest of Jos, and later, the Tin Mining Association, a tin mining camp southwest of Jos with headquarters in Barikin Ladi. Paul Gindiri was a good mixer; he soon got involved with non-Christians, especially Hausa/Fulani Muslim youths. His association with these Hausa youths helped him to improve his Hausa, which he spoke more fluently than his mother tongue.

He probably became a Muslim himself, though only nominally, because he also became a heavy drinker. Paul also had problems with womanizing, smoking, and occult practices. In 1960, Paul decided to marry Lami, his fiancée, whom he had courted for six months. He brought Lami to Jos. Lami had been raised in a strong Christian home, so as soon as she realized that her husband was not a Christian, she started to pray for him intensely. Paul Gindiri did not attend church, but Lami began to attend the Evangelical Church of West Africa (ECWA), the first ECWA church in Jos called “Bishara 1” (in Hausa), which was close to their home.

Eventually, Lami was baptized in the church and became very active in the women’s fellowship. Every fellowship period, Lami would ask the other women to support her in prayer for her husband. The turning point in Paul Gindiri’s life occurred when he was working with the British Engineering West African Company (BEWAC) as a driver and a salesman. He had gone to Minna, one of the major towns in northwestern Nigeria. On the first night in a hotel in Minna, Paul Gindiri, under the influence of alcohol, almost killed a rival over a prostitute by smashing his head with a bottle.

Luckily, the man did not die; otherwise, Paul might have spent the rest of his life in jail. When he returned to Jos, Paul Gindiri vowed not to drink. The resolution was perhaps strengthened by a dream he had one night. In the dream, he saw Jesus who told him, “Listen. I am Jesus. I had earlier appeared to you and called you to become mine. Now I am appearing to you for the second time. I was the one who brought to life the man you hit to unconsciousness in order to give you a chance to repent. From today onward, you should never again drink alcoholic beverages. All the sins you have been committing must be stopped forthwith. Failure to repent will make me appear a third time, and I will take your life and cast you into hell fire.”

Paul Gindiri took the message of this dream very seriously, and his life never was the same after that. After the dream, Paul Gindiri bought two Hausa Bibles and two Hausa hymn books for his wife and himself. ECWA Bishara 1 had a revival service, and Lami invited her husband. The preacher that day seemed to speak directly to Paul who thought Lami had gone and talked to the preacher about him.

The next Sunday, another preacher said similar things that convicted him. He could hardly wait for the altar call and was the first and only one who raised his hand in response. After his conversion, Rev. Kure Nitte, the pastor of the church, disciplined him. To show his conversion was genuine, Paul Gindiri publicly confessed his involvement in occult practices. One particular Sunday, Paul Gindiri brought all the objects he had used in his occult practices, and they were burned on the church premises.

Turning to Muslim passers-by who had stopped to watch the fire, Paul Gindiri roared at them, “It is your religion that has cheated me and led me into all these evil deeds. Your religion has no truth and unless you repent, you are bound for hellfire!” Paul Gindiri was subsequently baptized into the ECWA Bishara 1 in 1962. He became an elder in the church ten years later and acted most of the time as treasurer until his death. Later, Paul Gindiri enrolled for private tutoring in evangelism under Rev. J. A. Jacobson, a SIM missionary. He was trained in basic Arabic.

With this basic training, he began to preach in the streets of Jos, specifically to Muslims. On weekends, Paul Gindiri would preach in Muslim communities and in the Jos market where there were many Muslim traders. He was glad to learn that there was a SIM missionary, Dr. Andrew Stirrett, whose passion was the conversion of Muslims and who had made the Jos market his preaching center from the 1920s until his death in 1948. Paul Gindiri also found the newly established New Life for All (NLFA) suitable for his type of ministry to Muslims. The NLFA was founded by the Rev.

Gerald Swank, another SIM missionary, for mobilization of all church members in the churches in northern Nigeria for evangelism, especially to Muslims. Paul Gindiri founded the Gospel Team as a branch of NLFA, which was under his control. NLFA became synonymous with Paul Gindiri to such an extent that he was called Sabaon Rai (i.e., New Life). A song was created and sung at all preaching sessions. This song became Paul Gindiri’s favorite. In Hausa, Rai domin kowa… Ku zo ku karbi Sabon Rai Kaka ni ma zan yi domin Nima in sami Sabon Rai Idan ka mutu ka kare Ina zaka?

Gidan with Ni na tuba zan bi Yesu Yesu bani Sabaon Rai English translation Life for all Come and receive New Life What shall I do To receive this New Life If you die, you are gone Where would you be? Hellfire I have repented I’m following Jesus Jesus, give me New Life Paul Gindiri was so full of zeal to preach the gospel to everyone, especially to Muslims, that he resigned from his job with BEWAC and began his own private transportation business. The transportation business was so successful that it gave birth to a stone-crushing company, which developed into a multi-million naira venture.

This self-employment gave Paul Gindiri the opportunity to preach whenever he wanted, rather than just on weekends. The business also provided him with the financial resources to fund the activities of the Gospel Team. For instance, virtually all the motor vehicles used by the Gospel Team for outreach were bought by Paul Gindiri. Paul Gindiri was a polemicist. Whenever he preached to Muslims, he had the Bible in one hand and the Qur’an in the other, trying to prove to them that Islam was a false religion. Sometimes Muslims would listen to him in silence; sometimes, they would react violently.

Paul Gindiri was always happy when he was “prosecuted” by Muslims because that made him a modern apostle Paul. Like the Paul of the Bible, Paul Gindiri would triumphantly list the number of times Muslims had persecuted and stoned him. Most of the time when he was in Muslim-dominated cities, Paul Gindiri would ask permission to preach on the premises of the emir’s palace. His requests were often granted, but soon his confrontational preaching would invite violent attacks from Muslim extremists. Many Christian leaders opposed Paul Gindiri’s method of evangelism, which they felt was not diplomatic or tactful.

But in spite of his tactless preaching, Paul Gindiri had Muslim converts, one of them Mohammed Davou Riyom, who wrote Paul’s biography. Most Muslims in Jos and elsewhere in northern Nigeria might have disliked Paul Gindiri’s manner of preaching, but they admired his honesty, his transparency in business, and his high moral integrity. Christian leaders also disagreed with Paul Gindiri’s refusal to obey the government’s ban on public preaching made to curb inter-religious violence. According to Paul Gindiri, no government could stop the preaching of the gospel of Christ.

He further argued that if any preachers needed to be banned, it was the Muslim preachers, especially the members of the Izala sect, who instigate trouble while preaching. Paul Gindiri could be called the architect of the theology of Christian self-defense in Nigeria. In the 1980s, Christians fled whenever they were attacked by Muslim fanatics and hoodlums and even stood helplessly by while hoodlums burned their churches. Some lost their lives in road accidents while fleeing. Paul Gindiri reinterpreted Matthew 5:39, where Jesus said, “But I tell you, Do not resist an evil person. If someone strikes you on the right cheek, turn to him the other also.” Paul Gindiri argued that Christians in Nigeria, especially those in northern Nigeria, had given Muslims both the right and the left cheeks and did not have a third to give. So Christians had to stand and defend themselves and their churches. In one of his sermons, Paul Gindiri declared, “Only Christian self-defense is our solution to this aggressive pursuit by Muslims. The Christian community is tired of being pursued by evil men. Right from 1960, we have been running, but in 1991, we have stopped running.”

We have been backed into a corner and have no choice but to turn and confront our enemies. Paul Gindiri’s theology goes beyond what was taught by missionaries; it is contextual and deeply ingrained in the minds of Christian youths in northern Nigeria today, explaining their militancy in times of religious misunderstanding and conflict. This theology gained wide acceptance and was adopted by the Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN), an ecumenical group that includes almost all churches in Nigeria. Paul Gindiri was also a critic of inept governments and institutions in Nigeria, particularly the military.

He was unafraid to attack corruption in both the government and the church and was incensed by what he saw as the government’s manipulation of religious sentiments to stir up tension, as well as the plans by Muslim military leaders to turn Nigeria into an Islamic state. Therefore, his messages to Muslims alternated between their depravity and the need for salvation through Jesus, and a condemnation of the government’s dishonest machinations to Islamize Nigeria. His courageous attacks on falsehood and dishonesty in the government and the church earned him respect and admiration from many people, including both Christians and Muslims.

Paul Gindiri and his wife Lami had seven children: Musa, Iliya, Dauda, Yakubu, Joshua, Victoria, and Wudeama. Their only daughter, Victoria, died in a car accident while traveling with her father to one of his preaching outreaches in November 1990. Musa, Paul Gindiri’s first son, has taken over the family business and is also an evangelist (as of 2004). Paul Gindiri enjoyed good health until March 31, 1993, when he suffered a stroke that paralyzed him. Although he recovered, he was diagnosed with prostate cancer while undergoing physiotherapy, which eventually led to his death on April 8, 1996.

### Reference:

1. Musa A. B. Gaiya. Sources: Gyang Luke Dung, Paul G. Gindiri: The Firebrand Evangelist, Jos: New Life For All, (2002).
2. Richard Bruce, “The Growth of Islam and Christianity: The Pyem Experience” in Elizabeth Isichei, Studies in the History of Plateau State of Nigeria (London: Macmillan, 1982).
3. Mohammed Davou Riyom, Mr. Paul G. Gindiri (Jos: privately printed, n.d.). “The Man Paul Gindiri,” funeral eulogy (1996).
4. Cosmos B. Wule and Simon D. Mwdkwom, “Paul Gindiri: A Veteran Evangelist” (unpublished research paper submitted to the Faculty of Arts, 1998).
5. Interview with Mejei Gunen, Paul Gindiri’s younger brother, in his house, Dogon Dustse, Jos, November 22, 2004.
6. This article, received in 2004, was researched and written by Dr. Musa A. B. Gaiya, Senior Lecturer in Church History at the University of Jos Department of Religious Studies, Jos, Nigeria, and a 2003-2004 Project Luke fellow.

## Child Labor In 1800s

Imagine you’re a six year boy, who instead of going to school for an education, you’re working fifteen hour shifts in dangerous working conditions just to help support your family. This was the case in the 1800’s for children living in the United States. For years the glass-bottle industry had been taking advantage of children by having them work in terrible conditions. Some of the concerns surrounding child labor were the long hours, hazardous working conditions, and the strenuous work for a low wage. To begin with, the children were made to work long shifts without any break.

The children had to maintain a high-speed pace under a heated atmosphere. If one hour of trotting in pure air tires a healthy fourteen year old, one can only imagine how exhausted the children were in these conditions. Also, the “blower dogs” as they were called, worked in an unsafe environment. Many of the boys were reported to have burn marks from working in such extreme heat. These young boys were also taken advantage of because they were just paid forty cents a day, and gave the money they earned to their “guardians. ”

There were many things that could have been done to solve the problems of the blower dogs. A solution for the long hours they worked could have been done to solve the problems of the blower dogs. A solution for the long hours they worked could have been a law that states children cannot work for more than six hours. Another solution could have been a law passed raising the amount of the children’s wage, to ensure the boys earned a fair wage. Also the factories should not have allowed children to work in areas where they could get harmed, to ensure their safety.

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