Nursing continues to experience shortages as a result of a lack of the qualified educators, high income, as well as unequal employees distribution. Because of the shortage, nurses are frequently required to work long hours under particularly stressful conditions, which can lead to fatigue, injury, in addition to job dissatisfaction. Nurses who are suffering in these environments are more probable to make mistakes in addition to make medical errors. Patient excellence might suffer as a result, leading to a variety of avoidable complications such as medication errors, emergency room overcrowding, as well as, additional concerning, increased mortality rates. This research intends to find the causing factors to the shortage of nurses, the effects, and solutions to the shortage. “A nursing shortage – a prospect of global and local policies” Marć, et al., (2019) and “Nurse practitioners: A solution to America’s primary care crisis” (Buerhaus, et al., (2018) will be articles to be reviewed in my research.
Discussion on empirical literature
The nursing shortage is a problem that is felt all over the world. It is a problem that, if not addressed, might have serious consequences for the provision of high-quality health care. Recognizing why nurses leave their jobs or leave the profession is critical if efforts to increase retention are to be successful. In both articles about the nursing shortage emphasizes that it is not the same as in the past. Quantities of contributing factors remain constant, including women having more career options. The aging of the nurses, general staffing shortages throughout auxiliary professions as well as support labor, in addition to the universal nature of this shortage are prominent ones from the previous two shortages. Furthermore, fundamental changes with how patients are treated for from a manage care environment are exacerbating the shortage. With shorter hospital stays as well as more acute care in the ambulatory in addition to home settings, there is an unmet need for knowledgeable, highly skilled nurses. A arithmetical analysis may reveal sufficient current figures; however the expertise might just be the source of the problem (Buerhaus, et al., 2018)
There have been cases of nurses leaving the field without exact replacement of the exiting number. This increases the demand for current performing nurses. The currently performing nurses end up being allocated with many patients to cover for the shortages. It, therefore, increases the chances of low level of job, satisfaction and more stress, with such factors driving away from the nurses away from the provision. This is led by the need for self manageability and flexibility from the nurses that make them seek elsewhere (Marc, et al., 2019)
People are living much longer due to the development in modern medical care than before. This provides for more need in care as they age. This has resulted in to increase in the number of people in need of spiritual care with advancement in technology and nurses who can understand and perform with advanced technology. The need for more nurses is created in training with new technology to handle the large number of people evolving with technology development (Marc, et al., 2019)
Both articles comprise and distribute information based on previous research on their respective concerns. They both include a large number of primary sources, peer-reviewed articles, and secondary sources.
The articles reviewed within that paper demonstrate how a lack of adequate staffing leads to poor patient outcomes. In the Buerhaus et al., 2018, United States Spiritual care nurses are understaffed in the hospital. Quantitative the number of retiring nurses exceeds the number of new nurses recruited. Nurses suffer from inefficiency and fatigue as a result of understaffing. And in the article Marc and colleagues, 2019, USA Hospitals have a shortage of nurses. Qualitative nurses are looking for work flexibility elsewhere, which is causing understaffing. The desire for a flexible nursing environment results in a small number of staff to handle a large number of patients (Marc, et al., 2019)
Hospital nurse understaffing on spiritual care, by Buerhaus, et al.,
As per Buerhaus, et al., 2018, even though spiritual care is a fundamental component of very holistic nursing, nurses’ spiritual care understanding as well as abilities are frequently insufficient to meet patients’ spiritual care needs. As a result, nurses are in desperate need of the appropriate training to improve their capability to provide spiritual care to patients. This study enrolled 92 nurses through a voluntary sign-up process at a cancer diagnosis hospital within a single province. Using a coin toss, the nurses were separated into two main groups: the reading group (45 populace) plus the control (wait-listed) group (47 populace). Relying on their regular nursing education, the study group established one spiritual care group training assembly every 6 months; this training primarily consisted of expert lectures, cluster interventions, clinical practice, as well as case sharing. For like 12 months, the control group attended monthly nursing tutoring sessions prearranged through the hospital.
A spiritual care learning protocol for nursing staff based onto the concept of the mutual growth through patients improves the spiritual well enough plus spiritual care qualifications of nurses.
Nurse understaffing in hospitals by Marc, et al.,
In the study of Marc, et al., 2019 general growth changes have resulted in a systematic enhance during the old population and a decrease in births, both of which have had an impact on health policy in addition to healthcare systems within various countries. The transitions are required into global health care as a result of both processes. Nursing care, which has been hit by a human resources disaster, is a strategic area in this circumstance (Marc, et al., 2019)
This article is focusing on national listings as well as strategic documents for the nursing policy within Poland, such as Increasing average age of the nurses as well as midwives prepared via the Polish Main Council of Nurses also Midwives, as well as big data, international reports, as well as a literature review on medical in addition to nursing challenges.
The nursing department can turn current nurses into recruitment agents (Buerhaus, 2018). The more a nurse is exposed to the career, improves the understanding of nursing requirements, and using them as recruiters will provide the best necessity in health care provision.
In conclusion, spiritual care in nursing is an essential requirement to saving lives. Under-staffing in the field results in dissatisfaction with the patient and fatigue to nurses. However, measures such as advancement in technology and long-term training of nurses will increase the number of nursing staff. Incentives can also be applied in the nursing department to lure more people into nursing thus increasing the number of staff.
|Database search||Date of search||Search items and strategy||Years||No. of sources found|
|Google scholar||20/02/2022||Hospital nurse understaffing on spiritual care||2018-2022||1000|
|Google scholar||20/02/2022||Nurse understaffing in hospitals||2018-2022||1100|
Study Table of Literature Summary
|Author, year, and Country||Purpose||Study design||Results||Findings||Comments|
|Buerhaus et al, 2018, USA||Hospital nurse understaffing on spiritual care||Quantitative||Number of retiring nurses higher than the recruiting of new nurses||Understaffing leads to inefficiency and fatigue to nurses||Further study can be conducted to get a deeper understanding of the understaffing|
|Marc et al, 2019, USA||Nurse understaffing in hospitals||Qualitative||Nurses are seeking work flexibility elsewhere leading to understaffing||Seeking of flexible nursing environment lead to low number of staff to handle a large number of patients||Electronic sources of data in hospitals can provide information on nationwide nurse understaffing|
Buerhaus, P. (2018). Nurse practitioners: A solution to America’s primary care crisis. American Enterprise Institute, 1-30.
Marć, M., Bartosiewicz, A., Burzyńska, J., Chmiel, Z., & Januszewicz, P. (2019). A nursing shortage–a prospect of global and local policies. International nursing review, 66(1), 9-16.
Should COVID-19 Vaccines Be Mandatory Free Essay
Coronavirus pandemic outbreak in 2019 posed significant health challenges worldwide as fatalities increased daily. Nonetheless, medical research practitioners around the globe revamped their efforts to seek a lasting solution to curb the pandemic. As a consequence, a number of vaccines were produced to help combat the prevalence of the pandemic (Berezow). However, the administration of vaccines has invoked debate in almost every corner of the planet as people argue whether its administration should be made mandatory. In some quarters, the availability of the vaccine presents an opportunity for families to protect themselves, while others see it as a way of governments controlling the population (Reiss). The disease has resulted in rock downs and other movement restriction measures, and as such, the integration of vaccines provides hope for the future. However, vaccines have been developed within a short duration, raising the worldwide concern of its efficacy, safety, accessibility, and public health ethics. In this paper, I will argue, despite the immense benefits of the COVID-19 vaccines, they should not be mandatory for the entire population.
The COVID-19 vaccines should not be made mandatory since their efficacy and safety over the long term usage have not been sufficiently determined. According to an article developed by Berezow (2021), prior to the mandatory issuance of the vaccines. He asserts that people need to know that the vaccine is effective and efficient in the long term and not just in the short term (Berezow). Other vaccines such as MMR and DTaP have been proven to confer protection over a lifetime. Notably, the coronavirus vaccine’s long-term protection is yet to be determined. Additionally, Berezow (2021) asserts that there have been a significant number of clinical trials leading to the development of many doses for administration, stressing that the vaccine is safe. Nevertheless, he holds that vaccines show rare side effects, and as such, the general public is curious to know the side effects prior to making it mandatory (Berezow). Even though the determination of the side effects will take a significant period of time, it is worth the wait. The state governments that are after making it mandatory for the citizens to receive COVID-19 jab ought to address the efficacy and safety of the vaccine irrespective of the time it will take to offer the public health assurances.
Secondly, the COVID-19 vaccines should not be mandatory as there are not enough doses for everyone, mistrust, and legal barriers. According to Reiss (2020), the level of COVID-19 vaccines supply topples the demand around the world. Currently, the number of vaccines required is extremely low compared to a country’s population. As such, a limited capacity in producing the vaccines has raised the question of who is supposed to be prioritized for vaccines rather than making it mandatory (Reiss). The only possibility of mandating the vaccine is when it will be broadly accessible for all, and since it will take a significant period of time, the pandemic may have withered, revoking the need for making the vaccine mandatory. Those prioritized hinges on various factors such as life and its quality. The vaccine’s effectiveness and benefits largely depend on the relevant public and their perception of the benefits (Alberto et al., 350). The notion of saving as many as possible from coronavirus involves ensuring life quality healthcare system protection, and protecting the essential services for the general population, disregarding the need for legislation.
Mistrust surrounding the vaccine development and issuance makes it futile for the vaccine to be easily accepted by everyone. According to a poll done by Gallup in the United States, approximately a third of the population would decline free issuance of the vaccine even though approved by the FDA and ready (Reiss). Even though this can be attributed to lack of information and the spread of false information, there is increased skepticism and concerns on the rationale behind why various states opt for mandatory jabs. This has been escalated by masks, and social distance politics and enforcement amid mistrust will increasingly elevate the vaccine uptake resistance. In the united states, mandatory vaccine, especially among adults, faces significant legal issues, and their issuance will likely result in legal battles in the court of law (Reiss). Therefore, before making the vaccine mandatory, the states should ensure the public has sufficient information concerning vaccines to build trust and minimize the likelihood of legal battles challenging the mandate.
Another reason why COVID-19 vaccines should not be made mandatory is that the sanctions will not increase their uptake. Previous research carried out under the watch of the European Union about epidemics and pandemics revealed that vaccines uptake does not increase following the government’s mandate. In countries where the vaccination process is mandatory, it does not result in increased coverage. Based on assertions of the Nuffield Council of Bioethics, mandatory vaccination is essential for contagious and serious infections, and even though coronavirus is highly contagious, it is not classified as a “high-consequence infectious disease” as its fatality rate is low and the availability of a plethora of methods that can curb its spread (Alberto & Jain). The virus is strongly associated with the population’s age, developing differing perceptions concerning vulnerability. According to research, among the adults above eighty years, the fatality rate is 7.8%, while among the children who are nine years and below, the rate is 0.0016%. In such a case, forcing vaccination on those that are not vulnerable, healthy, and at low risk can be disputed based on public health ethics.
The positive benefits of the vaccine can only be realized through consolidated efforts, prioritizing the vulnerable groups, educating the public, elimination of barriers, and delivery system rather than making it mandatory. Jain, an “NIHR Academic Clinical Fellow in Public Health Medicine,” gave an example of the devastating efforts polio caused in 1990 in India. He stated that an average of seven hundred children were getting paralyzed every day. However, two decades later, the virus had already been eradicated (Alberto & Jain). He stresses that the efforts did not require legislation but rather collaborative efforts to curtail the infection. The government ensured the local delivery system to vulnerable communities was revamped through investment while political leaders collaborated with the religious leaders leading to the fruition of their efforts. As such, there is no justification for mandatory COVID-19 vaccines as the roll-out will take a significant period of time, requiring communication and trust in the process (Alberto et al. 350). Increased transparency concerning the development of the vaccine is essential in elevating the fight against the pandemic. Even though institutes monitor the vaccine development process, the public needs transparency, especially on clinical trial data, to gain their trust and help them make an informed decision concerning its uptake.
Despite the highlighted reasons why the COVID-19 vaccine should not be mandatory, there is an increased risk of being infected among healthcare practitioners and ordinary people. As such, various healthcare facilities ought to incorporate protocols to prevent the increased prevalence of the disease to the most vulnerable groups. Adopting mandatory vaccination would be effective for certain groups, given the vaccines’ wide range of benefits. The ethical reasoning behind mandating the vaccine hinges on preventing harm to others. It minimizes the risk of infection and infecting others and consequently killing them. Various vaccines such as Moderna and AstraZeneca have been approved with an effectiveness of 92.5% in preventing and stopping the likelihood of the virus spreading. Besides, the pandemic has invoked mandatory lockdown and, similar to mandatory vaccination, aims at protecting the people at risk of the infection (Alberto & Jain). Alberto, a “Senior Research Fellow, Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics,” argued that even though mandatory lockdown results in enormous individual and societal costs, it would be inconsistent for the general public to accept lockdown but reject vaccination (Alberto & Jain). He holds that mandatory vaccination promises a greater good at a smaller cost than mandatory lockdowns. The researcher associates mandatory vaccination with mandatory seatbelts, which have proven to minimize the number of fatalities. They are widely adopted despite the small risks they possess, and similar to the pandemic, the vaccine should be likened to a seatbelt to protect each other. The infection is highly contagious with an easy method of transmission, and the adoption of mandatory vaccination policies would avert its progress.
In conclusion, the COVID-19 vaccine should not be mandatory. This is because the efficacy and safety of the vaccine are yet to be determined. The long-term effects have not been evaluated adequately since it was developed within a short time. Also, mistrust and legal issues pose significant barriers to the uptake of the vaccine to the general public. The benefits of the vaccines can be realized through collaborative efforts between the communities, investment in logistics systems to ensure easier distribution, massive sensitization of the public, and increased transparency on trial data and long-term effects of the vaccines. Nonetheless, the adoption of vaccines should be made mandatory on a specific population such as those vulnerable and healthcare professionals who are frontline soldiers (Alberto et al. 354). The vulnerable can easily be overwhelmed by the disease, while the physicians can easily spread to the patients making it futile to contain the pandemic.
Berezow, Alex. “Should COVID Vaccines Be Mandatory?” American Council on Science and Health, 5 Feb. 2021, www.acsh.org/news/2021/02/05/should-covid-vaccines-be-mandatory-15324
Giubilini, Alberto, Julian Savulescu, and Dominic Wilkinson. “Queue questions: Ethics of COVID‐19 vaccine prioritization.” Bioethics 35.4 (2021): 348-355.
Giubilini, Alberto, and Vageesh Jain. “Should COVID-19 Vaccines Be Mandatory? Two Experts Discuss.” The Conversation, 25 Nov. 2020, theconversation.com/should-covid-19-vaccines-be-mandatory-two-experts-discuss-150322.
Reiss, Dorit. “Why a COVID-19 Vaccine Shouldn’t Be Mandatory.” Bill of Health, 15 Sept. 2020, blog.petrieflom.law.harvard.edu/2020/09/15/covid19-vaccine-mandate-compulsory/.
Situational Leadership By Hersey And Blanchard Sample Assignment
This study examines Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory (1969). In this study, the leadership styles of selling, participating, and delegating are examined. Leaders’ abilities to lead are contingent on the context in which they find themselves (Vecchio, 2017). Specifically, Hersey and Blanchard spent a significant amount of time studying how followers’ qualities influence leadership behavior. They discovered that as the abilities and willingness of their followers varied, so did the leadership style of those in charge. Because people’s skills and desire to follow might evolve, a leader’s connection with their followers is likely to go through several stages. Selling, Participating, and Delegating leadership styles are discussed in detail on these pages. As a result, Hersey and Blanchard developed a method for dealing with different types of followers at various phases of development (Blanchard et al., 2019). Managerial Grid model Blake and Mouton’s “care for people” component can be seen in leaders’ supportive actions. Like with directive behavior, followers’ preparation or development level determines the proper level of this relationship-focused strategy.
A high defectiveness and supportiveness characterize the Selling leadership style. Hersey made the case that this approach is necessary for followers who are willing but unable to complete work in the traditional manner (Blanchard et al., 2019). For followers to assume more responsibility for their actions, the leader’s style should boost their self-confidence and competence. Followers, according to Blanchard, were enthusiastic at the beginning but have now lost their confidence due to a lack of expertise. To help the ‘Disillusioned Learners,’ a leader who is more concerned with supporting behavior is needed (Henkel & Bourdeau, 2018). This style aims to get people on board and clear about what’s going on. It aligns with followers who have little or no expertise with the activity but are enthusiastic about the leader-driven skill development process and eager to teach (Goodson et al., 2019). Like selling style, practical application of this strategy relies on direct observations by the leader, which lead to concentrated performance feedback conversations and increased dialogues.
The selling style applies in situations where the follower cannot complete the task but is willing to proceed on handling it (Hersey and Blanchard, 1969). Under this situation, the follower (employee) may not have the skills to tackle the task. More emphasis is placed on the relationship, and minimal consideration is placed on the task (Hersey and Blanchard, 1969). The selling style gives employees the confidence to work on the task even if they don’t have the skills to handle it (Hersey and Blanchard, 1969). According to Clark (1981), an enhancement is realized in the teaching environment of the educators and learning setting of students when situational leadership style is applied. As per Tatlah and Iqbal (2012), selling is critical in promoting good performance among students in the school setting. Selling leadership style also encourages good behaviors among students as society expects them.
All individuals can benefit from the participating leadership style. High levels of support and minimal levels of directive behavior characterize this communication style (Blanchard et al., 2019). Leadership and follower contact can be enhanced by listening, praising, and a high degree of interaction. Only when necessary to motivate and develop a subordinate will the leader offer feedback, not comment on the work performance (Hersey et al., 1979). A follower in development may have shown task proficiency, but they’re still afraid to try it out on their own (Vecchio, 2017). When a follower is regressing, it’s because they know they can do the job well, but they’ve lost interest or drive to do so. In either case, the leader must ask open-ended questions to help the follower identify the source of the problem and develop a viable solution.
The final leadership style assumes that followers will behave low-supportive and low-directive. When an employee is capable and willing to carry out tasks independently, and with a great deal of responsibility, it’s called a ‘hands-off approach (Ireh & Bailey, 2019). This can be done while still ensuring that the follower is not burdened with too much responsibility or that the leader does not entirely remove himself from the vicinity of the follower. Leaders should therefore keep an eye on and monitor these types of followers, even if it’s just for the sake of keeping an eye on and monitoring them (Vecchio, 2017). The goal of delegating style is to build/enhance taskmaster and self-confidence. It works best with people who have a lot of experience doing the job well, and a high level of intrinsic motivation encourages them to keep up the excellent work. Delegating style communication often begins with inquiries from the leader that allows for a wide range of responses from the follower (Nicholls, 2015).
According to Hersey and Blanchard (1969), delegation leadership is a follower-driven leadership approach. The follower obtains the ability to carry out tasks at the expected level with much confidence and has the self-drive to do so. The follower, therefore, remains accountable to the superior. Supported by Bass (1990), delegation shows the empowerment that one (usually considered a junior) has received or obtained from the up-line to take responsibilities for specified tasks. The superior directs the activities of the junior and further vests the power to make decisions to him, implying the delegation of authority. Later affirmed by Staw and Sutton (2000), the delegation has a close relationship with empowerment, further associated with self-efficacy. Delegation as a leadership style helps create and enhance the mastery and autonomy of tasks. The approach offers psychological empowerment to followers. Despite the follower obtaining the experience to perform the task expectedly, there must also be an inner motivation that pushes one towards the commitment to success.
Moreover, the adopted communication style with delegation leadership style flows from the follower to the leader. This emanates from the leader’s questions and the instructions provided. Such helps followers share their perception of how they view things and how they ought to be handled. Typically, learning environments encounter various situations which further dictate the leadership approach employed.
Delegation is essential as it helps in promoting individual feedback-seeking behavior. Moreover, feedback is necessary as it allows individuals, including students and teachers, to improve on their areas of weakness. Zhang et al. (2017) stated that delegation motivates juniors to improve their skills and expertise. Additionally, delegation enables followers to exercise self-direction and control. An individual gets to develop self-efficacy and self-determination views. Besides, effective leadership enhances a school’s performance. According to Xiong Chen and Aryee (2007), when authority and responsibilities are delegated to juniors, they get to feel trusted and influential. The author’s further state that the followers’ self-esteem gets boosted through delegation, making them believe that their superiors see them be competent at the delegated tasks, able to give expected results, and need satisfying. Generally, with this perception, Sashkin (1984) states that the followers can enhance their work quality. Through the leadership roles, learning institutions often face multiple management challenges.
Bass B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision. Organ. Dyn. 18 19–31. 10.1016/0090-2616(90)90061-S https://www.sciencedirect.com/sdfe/pdf/download/eid/1-s2.0-009026169090061S/first-page-pdf
Blanchard, K. H., Zigarmi, D., & Nelson, R. B. (2019). Situational Leadership® after 25 years: A retrospective. Journal of Leadership Studies, 1(1), 21-36.
Clark, N. A. (1981). Educational leadership: A field test of Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory. Doctoral Dissertations 1896 – February 2014. 3646. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/dissertations_1/3646
Goodson, J. R., McGee, G. W., & Cashman, J. F. (2019). Situational leadership theory: A test of leadership prescriptions. Group & Organization Studies, 14(4), 446-461.
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1976). Life cycle theory of leadership. In H. Boles (Ed.), Multidisciplinary readings in educational leadership (pp. 188-199). New York, NY: MSS Information Corporation.
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. H. (1969). Life cycle theory of leadership. Training & Development Journal.
Hersey, P., Blanchard, K. H., & Natemeyer, W. E. (1979). Situational leadership, perception, and the impact of power. Group & organization studies, 4(4), 418-428.
Henkel, T., & Bourdeau, D. (2018). A field study: An examination of managers’ situational leadership styles. Journal of Diversity Management (JDM), 13(2), 7-14.
Ireh, M., & Bailey, J. (2019). A study of superintendents’ change leadership styles using the situational leadership model. American Secondary Education, 27(4), 22-32.
Nicholls, J. R. (2015). A new approach to situational leadership. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
Staw, B. M., & Sutton, R. I. (Eds.). (2000). Research in organizational behavior. Elsevier. https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=Research+in+Organizational+Behavior&author=E.+A.+Locke&author=D.+M.+Schweiger&publication_year=1979&#d=gs_cit&u=scholarqinfofJFMBDokoW0Jscholar.google.comoutputcitescirp0hlen
Tatlah, I. A., & Iqbal, M. Z. (2012). Leadership styles and school effectiveness: Empirical evidence from secondary level. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 69, 790-797.
Vecchio, R. P. (2017). Situational Leadership Theory: An examination of a prescriptive theory. Journal of applied psychology, 72(3), 444.
Xiong Chen, Z., & Aryee, S. (2007). Delegation and employee work outcomes: An examination of the cultural context of mediating processes in China. Academy of Management Journal, 50(1), 226-238. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.594.4968&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Zhang, X., Qian, J., Wang, B., Jin, Z., Wang, J., & Wang, Y. (2017). Leaders’ behaviors matter: The role of delegation in promoting employees’ feedback-seeking behavior. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 920. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5461250/