Should We Switch To Renewable Energy Free Essay

Research Question

What are the differences between renewable and nonrenewable energy and should renewable energy be promoted?

Thesis statement: The side effect of extracting nonrenewable energy, the advantages of using renewable sources in producing energy and the capacity of both of them are the three main points that have pushed engineers to focus and to improve the field of energy.

The Difference between Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy

Definition of nonrenewable energy B. Definition of renewable energy Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 46) IV. Nonrenewable energy disadvantages and solutions C. Environmental effect (pollution): emission of CO2 and others gases when extracting from fossil fuels Source: (Chakravorty, Moreaux & Tidball, 2008, p. 1128-1129) & (Chakravorty, Leach & Moreaux, 2012, p. 1448-1450) & (Lyon & Lee, 2004, p. 377-379 & 390-391) & (Tahvonen & Salo, 2001, p. 1379-1382 & 1395-1396) D. Increasing price Source: (Marcelo & Fernando, 2010, p. 3-44 & 52) & (Tahvonen & Salo, 2001, p. 1379-1382 & 1395-1396) E. Diminishment of nonrenewable resources Source: (Schumacher, 2011, p. 495 & 496) F. Solutions 1. reducing the extraction of fossil fuels Source: (Schumacher, 2011, p. 495 & 496) 2. switching to renewable or sustainable energy Source: (Schumacher, 2011, p. 495 & 496) & (Touryan, 2012, p. 42-43) V. Renewable energy G. Different forms 3. Biofuel Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 46) 4. Biomass Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 46) 5. Geothermal Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 54) 6.

Hydroelectric Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 48) 7. Solar energy Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 52-53) 8. Tidal power Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 54) 9. Wave power Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 53) 10. Wind power Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 50) H. Advantages of using renewable energy Source: (Touryan, 2012, p. 42-43) VI. The capacity of renewable energy I. Theoretical Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 55-58) Practical Source: (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 55-58)

Future Plans and Projects

K. The USA: future plans in producing renewable energy Source: (Turner, 1999, p. 687-688) The Desertec Concept Project (2050) Source: (Destouni & Frank, 2010, p. 19-21) & (Lilliestam & Ellenbeck, 2011, p. 3380-3391) M. Masdar city Source: (Dan, Kung, Whiteford & Boswell-Ebersole, 2012, p. 1006-1007) Should We Switch From Nonrenewable to Renewable Energy “Science and technology have become the twin gods of the past century and no doubt will continue to remain entrenched in their lofty positions throughout the twenty first century” (Touryan, 2012, p. 41). Although, technological people or engineers are the main persons that we all are grateful for their accomplishments.

In our days, engineers are facing more and more difficulties and many believe that “human intellect will overcome problems of physical limits, thus making the earth’s physical resources essentially inexhaustible” (Touryan, 2012, p. 41), but others do not share the same idea. However, they believe that without petrol (gasoline, diesel, etc. ), most of us would perish. “Our water is pumped to our house by pumps run on petrol. Food is brought to our markets by truck run on petrol. We drive to our jobs and stores in cars run on petrol. Farmers grow crops using machinery run on petrol.

We visit family and friends in distant cities travelling on airplanes, ships, or trains, run by petrol. And so on” (Eerkens, 2006, p. 1). So, everyone can assume that petroleum is so important but “if asked what they would do if there were no more petrol, they often answer ‘our engineer will figure out something’, or ‘it won’t happen during my lifetime so I don’t worry about it’ ” (Eerkens, 2006, p. 1). In spite of that, there are many solutions that have been figured out to this problem which are ignored by a lot of governments in the world because f misunderstandings and ignorance (Eerkens, 2006, p. 1). The problem of nonrenewable energy, such as petrol, is now facing the entire world. So, should we switch to renewable energy? Engineers in the whole world should focus on founding a solution that can replace the extraction of energy from fossil fuels. But, before of that, all the governments should change their strategies by encouraging the growing production of renewable energy; Moreover, we should switch from nonrenewable to renewable energy. “Substantial cost reductions can be achieved for most renewable energy technologies.

Making these renewable energy sources competitive will require further technological development and market deployment and an increase in production capacities to mass-production levels” (Goldemberg, 2012, p. 59).

References

  1. Chakravorty, U. , Leach, A. , & Moreaux, M. (2012). Cycles in nonrenewable resource prices with pollution and learning-by-doing. Journal of Economic Dynamics & Control, 36(10), 1448 – 1461.
  2. Chakravorty, U. , Moreaux, M. , & Tidball, M. (2008). Ordering the extraction of polluting nonrenewable resources. The American Economic Review, 98(3), 1128-1144.
  3. Dan, Z. , Kung, M. , Whiteford, B. , & Boswell-Ebersole, A. (2012). Analysis of sustainable materials used in ecovillages: Review of progress in bedzed and masdar city. Journal of Wuhan University of Technology: Materials science edition, 27(5), 1004-1007.
  4. Destouni, G. , & Frank, H. (2010). Renewable energy. Ambio, 39, 18-21.
  5. Eerkens, J. (2006). The nuclear imperative: A critical look at the approaching energy crisis. (Vol. 11, pp. 1-18). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
  6. Goldemberg, J. (2012). Energy what everyone needs to know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  7. Lilliestam, J. , & Ellenbeck, S. (2011). Energy security and renewable electricity trade—will Desertec make Europe vulnerable to the ‘‘energy weapon’’?. Energy Policy, 39(6), 3380–3391.
  8. Lyon, K. , & Lee, D. (2004). Nonrenewable resource extractions with a pollution side effect: A comparative dynamic analysis. Natural Resource Modeling, 17(4), 377–392.
  9. Marcelo, A. , & Fernando, S. (2010). Solow meets Leontief: Economic growth and energy consumption. Energy Economics, 32(1), 43 – 53.
  10. Schumacher, I. (2011). When should we stop extracting nonrenewable resources?. Cambridge University Press, 15(4), 495-512.
  11. Tahvonen, O. , & Salo, S. (2001). Economic growth and transitions between renewable and nonrenewable energy resources. European Economic Review,45(8), 1379 – 1398.
  12. Touryan, K. (2012). Renewable energy for a sustainable future: a Christian imperative. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 64(1), 41.
  13. Turner, A. (1999). A realizable renewable energy future. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 285(5428), 687-689.

Taming Of The Shrew Analysis

“Taming of the (right) Shrew analysis” The play “Taming of the Shrew” by Shakespeare, introduces several themes, among them the theme of disguise. Most of the characters are in disguise, and play a role within a role. When we first encounter with the two sisters in the play, their roles and differences seem are evident, Kate is the sharp tongued bad tempered shrew, while Bianca is initially? presented as gentile, quiet, and obedient.

As the plot reveals later, the true nature of Bianca is much the opposite;, evidence for her true self is revealed throughout the play, leaving her husband and father amazed of the discovery by the end of it. At In the final act, Bianca’s refusal to heed her husband’s summons is the final proof for her disobedience;, she is no longer wearing the disguise of the obedient Bianca, and by this she demonstrates her own shrewdness. Bianca’s disguise allows her to conceal her true nature, while maintaining the status of the good daughter with all the benefits included.

Being her father’s favorite, Bianca takes advantage of that position, she draws good attention by good behavior, from man and her father. , Tthrough this, to she evokes her sister’s jealousy and anger “Sister, content you in my discontent. Sir to your pleasure humbly I subscribe” Bianca emphasizes her sister’s bad language, and her own obedience, this in order to stand out as the better daughter, woman, and match for marriage (Shakespeare I. i. 81-82).

Bianca’s status upsets her sister Kate and evokes her jealousy, causing her to rage out at Bianca, again demonstrating her bad behavior as opposed to Bianca’s good behavior. But Bianca’s true nature begins to? is emerge ing when she is tutored by her suitors, “I’ll not be tied to hours, nor ‘pointed timesBut learn my lessons as I please myself,” a clear statement of her own terms, showing disobedience, she will not be told what to do (Shakespeare, III. i. 19-20).

While Bianca’s true character is starting to show, Kate’s character is suppressed, she is forced to marry Ppetruchio and has no options to set regarding terms or conditions, neither not any option to object. Kate is humiliated on her wedding day, Petruchio is late, and when he finally appears he is dressed ridiculouslyes. , Kate is taken by her new husband only to be tamed; she is starved and prevented from sleeping. Kate is being tortured while Bianca enjoys courting and flirting, especially with Llucentio, ”I tell you sir, she bears me fair in hand,” Tranio cknowledges her deceptive nature and her loose behavior, what makes Bianca not wanted by him for marriage, a shift in position between the two sisters (Shakespeare, IV. ii. 3). AThe final proof ofto the shift in positions between the two sisters is shown through Bianca’s refusal to appear atto her husband’s summons in the final act, reinforced by Kate’s unexpected arrival and obedience, followed by a speech regarding woman’s true role.

Bianca’s change of behavior at the end of the play is not sudden it was hinted anticipated throughout the play, and verified by the end. For most of the play, Bianca succeedsed in disguising herself as obedient, and enjoying the position of being her father’s favorite. Although assigned with certain qualities at the beginning of the play, the two sisters eventually switch roles, and Bianca is stripped from of her disguise of obedience, and overshadowed by her sister Kate.

Guinness 4 Ps + History ( Detyailed Assignment)

Guinness 4 ps + History (Detailed assignment) * History of Guinness * What is The Marketing Mix * The 4ps of the Marketing Mix * 4ps on Guinness * Bibliography * Acknowledgments The history of Guinness The history of Irish Guinness Stout began with Arthur Guinness who was born in Celbridge, County Kildare on the 17th of September 1725. Beer already ran in his family as his father is said to have brewed beer for the Archbishop’s estate workers. Arthur had big ideas and dreamed of having a brewery under his own name in the big city. In 1759, he purchased a dormant brewery in Dublin with ? 00 that had been left to him from his godfather the Archbishop. In the 1770’s, Arthur Guinness was brewing ale however he decided to try his hand at the new Porter, which resulted in more of a success than other Dublin brewers. Before the close of the 19th century, the Guinness brewery was the largest in the world. By this time, Guinness was introduced into markets as far as America, Australia, the Far East and Africa, often with cooperation from local brewers, making the brand the global icon it is today. The specific recipe of this world famous product is still a closely guarded secret.

It is made from a combination of water, barley, malt, hops and yeast. Despite myths the water does not come from the River Liffey. It is from Lady’s Well in the Wicklow Mountains. In 1998, The Guinness Storehouse opened as a visitor attraction. It is now Ireland’s leading site and welcomes over 750,000 visitors every year and has recently celebrated its three millionth visitor. Guinness Draught is available as Guinness Original, Extra Cold, Extra Smooth and, most recently as Guinness Red. Made from the same raw ingredients as Guinness Draught, Guinness Red uses lightly roasted barley to create a substantial beer with a distinctive red colour.

The legacy that Arthur Guinness left behind was the most popular and well known stout in the world and it’s most important secret ingredient was Arthur Guinness himself. The Marketing mix What is the marketing mix? The marketing mix is one of the most Famous marketing terms there is. The marketing mix is also called the 4Ps. The 4Ps are price, place, product and Promotion. The concept is simple, the offer you make to your customer can be changed by varying the mix elements. So for a high profile brand, increase the focus on promotion and desensitize the big price tag on these products. Price

Price Price is the amount the consumer must exchange to receive the product. The company’s goal in terms of price is really to reduce costs through improving manufacturing and efficiency, and most importantly the marketer needs to increase the perceived value of the benefits of its products and services to the consumer that is buying the product. Place Place Place refers to having the right product, in the right location, at the right time to be purchased by consumers. This proper placement of products is done through middle people called the channel of distribution. How manufacturers store, andle, and move products to customers at the right time and at the right place is referred to as physical distribution. Product Product A product is any combination of goods and services offered to satisfy the needs and wants of consumers. Therefore a product is anything tangible or intangible that can be offered for purchase or use by consumers. A tangible product is one that consumers can actually touch, such as a computer. An intangible product is a service that cannot be physically touched, such as computer repair service. Promotion Promotion Promotion is a communication process hat takes place between a business and consumers through advertisement. Therefore in order to be effective, businesses need to plan promotional activities with the communication process in mind. There are four basic promotion tools: advertising, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling. Each promotion tool has its own unique characteristics and function. Price The price of any product nowadays is very important to a consumer. This is the same for Guinness, now that the country is in one of the worst recession it has seen in decades people now watch every cent that goes through their pocket.

Instead of going out for a social drink in a pub, people now go to an off license to buy their beverages at a cheaper rate and just invite people to their home to socialise to save money. Sales of Guinness fell by 6% compared to the figures of January 2011. It said that Guinness remained the best selling beer in Ireland, but sales declined due to the lower sales in pubs. Diageo (the company that own Guinness) said that despite the low sale of Guinness in pubs, their packaged bottles and cans have increased dramatically due to the off license trade. It is said that Guinness & Co. akes almost €2 billion annually. According to the Central Statistics Office, In 1947 the average price of a pint of Guinness was, in today’s terms, just 4 cent a pint. The average price in January 2011 was €4. 10 across Ireland. Depending on what part of the country you are in the price of a pint of Guinness can go dramatically up or down, for example the price for a pint of Guinness in ‘The Country Squire’, a small pub on the outskirts of Cork city, is €3. 90 while I have personally discovered on a recent trip to Dublin, in some pubs near the city centre the price went up to as much as €5. 0 a pint. Place Guinness is sold in over 150 countries all over the world, and is brewed in over 100. Despite Guinness being associated mostly with Ireland, a staggering 40% worldwide sales of Guinness is sold in Africa. In Ireland Guinness is brewed in the famous St James’s Gate in Dublin, this is one of Ireland’s most popular tourist attractions. The first delivery of Guinness outside of Ireland was 6 and half barrels that were shipped to England back in 1759. Back in 2000 overseas sales overtook sales in Britain and Ireland for the first time, accounting for 50. 6% of total worldwide sales.

The ideal distribution strategy for Guinness would be that of a retailer channel i. e. from the manufacturer to the retailer, to the consumer. This will ensure competitive prices in the market place, due to distribution savings been handed down to the consumer. Another advantage would be using a push distribution strategy, where the manufacturer may use aggressive personal selling and trade advertising to convince a wholesaler or retailer to carry and sell their merchandise. The wholesaler will then convince the retailer to stock the goods. The people that do this for Guinness are called ‘reps’.

Guinness has reps that go around to pubs all over Ireland, their job being to convince them to buy products off of Guinness and to buy as much stock as they can possibly sell. Product Most people have the same perception of Guinness as being just a pint of black stout you buy in a pub. The fact is that there are many different varieties of Guinness. Some of which include: Guinness Special Export| Guinness Foreign Extra stout| Guinness Extra Smooth| Guinness Draught| Guinness Extra Cold| Guinness Extra Stout| Guinness Bitter| Malta Guinness| Guinness Mid Strength|

Guinness Red| 250th Anniversary Guinness| Guinness Black Lager| Known popularly as the ‘black stuff’ many people are surprised when they hear that Guinness is not actually black at all but more a ruby red color. This is because of the method used to prepare the Guinness, the barley is roasted in much the same way as coffee beans are roasted and this is what gives it that unique shade. We are all familiar with the famous creamy white head that comes with each pint of Guinness. This smooth creaminess is achieved y the tiny bubbles created by nitrogen as the beer surges from the tap and slowly rises from the bottom of the glass as the pint settles. According to Diageo the “perfect pint” of Guinness should take 119. 53 seconds. This is due to the ‘Double pour’, On the way to the tap, the beer is passed through a chiller on the tap and is forced through a five-hole disc restrictor plate which is at the end of the tap, this increases the fluid pressure and friction which forces the creation of small bubbles that form a creamy head.

The glass is then rested until the initial pour settles, then the remainder of the glass is then filled with a slow pour until the head comes over the top of the glass creating a mushroom like effect. Guinness insists that having the right glass is essential to get the perfect pint, which is why they have had the same shaped glass for over a decade. In April 2010 Guinness redesigned the Guinness glass, the new glass is taller and narrower than the last one. As Guinness is not aware of how the public will react to the change it is not a quick process, it is planned that the new glasses will gradually replace the old ones.

Promotion Without communications with customers it would be hard to keep a product ‘alive’ in other words what could happen is that that product would reach the decline stage in the product life cycle or the company would not get any profit. Guinness has strong communications with its customers. Obviously the Guinness target market is to everyone who is over eighteen years old, but in fact Guinness is more popular between middle age and old people groups. It is reported that one third of 18 to 24 year olds have never tried Guinness before, it is strongly associated as being an “old man’s drink”.

Guinness has a very strong advertising campaign. Guinness sponsors a lot of campaigns, they sponsor the RBS Six Nations which hundreds of thousands of people tune into every week. They also sponsor such events as the Guinness Jazz festival which is held in Cork every year. The Gaa have teamed up with Guinness in a part of an advertising campaign, which in the All Ireland final in 2010 between Kilkenny and Waterford drew the biggest audience in any RTE sporting event. Even while the American president Barrack Obama visited Ireland he sampled the famous Irish stout which did not hurt the promotion for Guinness.

Perhaps the biggest promotional event held by Guinness commemorates the famous Arthur Guinness. In every city in every country all over the world on the 23rd of September at 17:59pm, the world lifts a pint of Guinness in memory of Arthur Guinness. On this day people flood bars to catch the atmosphere that surrounds the day. Usually on this day Guinness is given away at a very cheap rate, Guinness may not profit from giving away their product so cheaply on the day but due to the television programmes, ad campaigns and simple word of mouth this form of promotion, in the long run, is phenomenal.