Similarities And Differences Of Alpine Skiing And Snowboarding Sample Paper

Winter sports events are one of the most awaited activities every year. Most people go to specific parts of the world in order to spend a vacation in which they could experience sports or activities which they could only enjoy during this season. During the winter season, most people are interested in doing sports activities that requires snow some of these are snowboarding, skiing and others. However, one of the questions being asked by curious individuals is: What is the difference between snowboarding and downhill skiing?

Downhill skiing or also called as the Alpine skiing is known to be an entertaining and sporty activity which involves sliding down hills which are heavily covered by snow through the use of long ski material which is mainly fastened each foot. Most of the times, alpine skiing is only available in places where there are well developed locations such as ski resorts where in the slopes are manipulated and groomed in order to facilitate the excitement of skiing.

Alpine skiing was formally developed during 1889 in Switzerland. The sport had developed from another type of sport which is cross country skiing. During that time, most skiing infrastructures were in the progress of change and development such as the towing, ski lift infrastructures in various mountain resorts.

In terms of the technique in skiing, there are number of technical challenges which are faced by an individual. In order to fully enjoy the experience of skiing, the individual must know how to gain control with his or her skis. Skiers must be able to learn the basic of turning left or right. Normally, these techniques are called “snow plough or snow plow” in order to sustain comfort, speed and stopping. However, the much advanced skiers exercise the more difficult methods. Some of these are the parallel turn. Such technique involves making the ski materials in a similar position while balancing the weight division of both foot sequentially to attaining a particular action or direction. Another technique is carving which involves rolling of the knees from side to side. While doing such act, the person must be able to maintain the poster of his or her upper body while the hips are opposite the downhill direction.

On the other hand, snow boarding involves different types of techniques. Although both sports involve snow and slopes, both engage varieties of techniques and required materials. The very first snowboard was made and manufactured in the state of Utah during the early years of the 1970’s. Unlike skiing, snowboarding requires a snowboard to be utilized in order to enjoy the activity. The board could similar to a skate board however a snowboard does not have any wheels underneath instead it has a smooth finish which allows the snowboard to glide on the snow. In addition, the snowboard has to have materials to hold the legs of the person which will provide protection.

Some of the most popular techniques in snowboarding are the freeride, dry slope, freestyle and free carve. The freeride is mostly known technique which is known to only require a person to ride the snowboard and slide down the terrain. In doing the freeriding, there are possible aerial tricks which could be combination of freestyle techniques. The second type is the dry slope which are slopes made by human beings that allows avid snowboarders to do the activity during the summer. Most of these slopes are found in the regions of England and Europe. The freestyle is a style where in the surface or terrain which is being utilized by the snowboarder are rails, handrails, boxes, quarter pipers, mailboxes, half pipes, table tops and etc (Jenkins, 2005). The main goal of this style is to create aerial jumps. Last style is freecarve which is similarly compared with skiing. It is similarly compared with carving or turning the knees left and right in order to attain the action.

In conclusion, snowboarding and skiing are different from each other. Although both are snow sports they have different required gears and materials. Snowboarding could be done in other terrains unlike skiing which is only compatible with snow terrains and ski resorts. Moreover, techniques and actions are also quite similar to one another. Thus, both are enjoyable sports activities that could be enjoyed by those who love sports as well as the snow.


Jenkins, L. 27 December 2005.  “Three Revolutions Have Equaled a Transformation in Snowboarding.” Retrieved March 7, 2009 from

Consciousness, Waking Consciousness, Altered States Of Consciousness, And Daydreaming

According to Douglas, Ross, and Markman (date), consciousness seems to be at the very center of what it means to be a human being” (p. 15). The authors state that consciousness is assumed to play a “causal role” in processing input received by the brain and has an effect on behavior (Douglas, Ross & Markman, date). It is probable that consciousness is “an emergent property of our nervous system [that] derives from properties of groups or aggregates of nerve cells” (Douglas, Ross & Markman, date, p. 31).

The waking consciousness is in control when human beings are alert and aware of their surroundings. It permits self-awareness and introspection, allowing individuals to develop independently from instinctive constraints. Through our waking consciousness, we interact with the world.

An altered state of consciousness occurs when the brain functions outside of its normal patterns. This alteration can occur due to the introduction of drugs, a lack of oxygen reaching the brain, trauma, or other events that interrupt normal function. However, some altered states of consciousness are relatively normal,” such as dreams and psychosis which come from the regular functioning of the brain or its defenses.

Daydreaming is essentially an altered state of consciousness.” However, it is a state in which the waking consciousness can relax, manage conflict, or sort through issues concerning an individual’s relationships and personal beliefs (WebMD, n.d.). Daydreams perform these functions and others, making them a useful function of the human mind. Unlike “regular” dreams and altered states of consciousness, daydreams are a function of the waking consciousness.


  1. Medin, D., Ross, B. H., & Markman, A. B. (2005). Cognitive psychology. Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
  2. WebMD. (n.d.). Why does daydreaming get such a bad rap? Louise Chang (Ed.). Retrieved August 24, 2007 from

Compare And Contrast Confucianism With Taoism


Kung Fu Tzu, also known as Confucius, founded Confucian Philosophy. He believed that during times of violent social change, tradition or ‘li’ can restore society to its original and stable state. By doing so, society can accept only what is beneficial for it. Additionally, ‘li’ can train even the lowest person to become a ruler by following a model through rituals and education. This is considered the ultimate form of human development.


‘Tao’ means ‘the way’ or ‘path’. This philosophy was founded by Lao Tze. It is about man’s search for his place and fulfilling his role in the natural scheme of things. To go beyond this role, for Taoists, is to cause chaos, frustration, and a sense of incompleteness. To discover our place in the ‘Tao Te Ching’ (The Way and Its Power), we must look inside ourselves and nature for the answer. Another very important teaching of Taoism is ‘Wu Wei’, or doing nothing. Applied, it means letting things take their natural course.


  1. Both philosophies believe in the Doctrine of the Golden Mean, which states that if a condition becomes extreme, it will eventually turn around. This gives hope and courage to persevere.
  2. Both schools of thought seek knowledge or education. For Confucianism, it is a means for a person to understand their place in the order of things, while for Taoism, it is empowering.
  3. Confucianism and Taoism both seek harmony in the world. Confucianism achieves this through its ethical teachings, while Taoism does so through the concept of ‘Wu Wei’.


  1. Conventions: Confucianism believed that children should learn the important and necessary rules and ethics of society for a successful life. On the other hand, Taoism believes that it is the responsibility of older generations to restore natural conduct in society before it was destroyed by new norms.
  2. The ‘Tao’: In Confucianism, the Tao of Man is considered as the correct path towards leading a moral life. However, in Taoism, it refers to the cosmic way and process or natural order.

Confucianism and Taoism are more complementary than contradictory. They have been a great part of Chinese culture and the Chinese mind. A person is not complete if they only have one, but not the other.


  1. Capra, Fritjof. (1995-2001). The Tao of Physics: Chinese Thought, Confucianism, and Taoism. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from
  2. Taoism and Confucianism. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from
  3. Robinson, B.A. (July 4, 2004). Confucianism: Founded by K’ung Fu Tzu. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from
  4. Robinson, B.A. (October9 ,2006). Taoism (a.k.a Daoism) Western Traditions.Retrieved February1 ,2007from

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