Situational Leadership: Roles And Importance Writing Sample

Introduction

Sometimes, managers may find that not all employees work equally well and hard. The reason is that various management schemes must be applied to them because each employee is at a different stage of development: both within the company and personally. The solution to this problem is the situational leadership model created by Hersey and Blanchard. Situational leadership is an approach to human resources management based on the assessment of employees and their attitude to tasks and work in accordance with this assessment. This leadership theory’s peculiarity is employee orientation, not decision-making or the workplace (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012). Following the model, it is necessary to evaluate subordinates’ competence and commitment and adapt processes in compliance with their readiness to work before starting the task. Applied to different scenarios, particularly selected C, such a model will prevent micromanagement, help motivate employees, and more quickly achieve the goal.

Main body

According to the situation model, the leadership style can change over time, as it depends on the worker’s readiness and motivation to work and his or her skills. The studied schemes are closely related to the period of employee’s adaptation to the new work. A person who first obtained a job in a specific area is highly motivated, but he or she does not have enough knowledge. After some time, they are more qualified, but their motivation may be low as work becomes routine (Bauer & Erdogan, 2012). Finally, if decent working conditions are provided, and the employees have acquired the necessary skills, they become more independent and responsible professionals. All these factors are taken into account for the evaluation of staff members and, in accordance with it, choosing a style combining support and direction. The following table presents this correspondence highlighting the necessary inputs, the factors dependent on the employee, and outputs, the leader’s contribution.

the leader's contribution

Thus, the directive style is characterized by a high focus on the task and low on people. With this style, the leader gives specific instructions and then monitors the completion of each task. It is based on rigid goal setting and strict orders. The coaching style is a combination of high support to people and providing clear instructions. In this leadership style, the manager directs the work process and controls the implementation of all objectives. At the same time, he or she explains to the employee the reasons for a particular decision inviting the worker to participate in the discussion (Jenkinson, 2018). These models are applied when a person’s skills are not still good enough to work independently.

The supporting model is characterized by a high focus on concentration on people and their motivation. Using this model, a leader can participate in discussions with the team, but they make the decisions on their own. Finally, delegating leadership implies the maximum possible non-interference in the employee’s work, since his or her professionalism and high commitment allow making decisions and taking responsibility. Choosing the right model will bring maximum benefits to both workers and the leader.

Situational leadership also has a lot in common with Robert House’s path-goal theory, according to which employees should know that their work brings the results and will be rewarded. Based on this theory, four leadership models have also been developed – directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented (Evans, 2002). In the first, the leader directs the employees as much as possible, and in the second, he or she makes the working conditions more pleasant as the job is tedious and stressful. Participation involves engaging employees in critical discussions, and the latter type is used when employees are so professional that they can work independently. Applying these theories together will produce a more effective result in human resource management.

According to situation C, a team of software engineers has a broad base of knowledge and skills. Moreover, they are highly motivated and dedicated to the company and its goals. The combination of high professionalism, commitment to work, and the team’s independence suggest delegating leadership. The supervisor’s task in this situation is not to intervene excessively in engineers’ work; otherwise, they may feel pressure, and their productivity will decrease. Applying path-goal theory to case C, it can be argued that leaders should set challenging tasks for such employees and ensure decent rewards for work. These measures will encourage them for further development and remain faithful to the enterprise.

Conclusion

In conclusion, it can be noted that the leadership style depends not only on the personal qualities of the leader and the tasks the company faces but also on the motivation and competence of the employees. Depending on these factors, it is crucial to choose a style that will bring better results. Adapting management to employees’ conditions allows unleashing their potential and developing a commitment to the team. Selecting one leadership style does not exclude the possibility of its changing, as one theory does not exclude another. For this reason, it is essential to show flexibility in dealing with human resources and act depending on the circumstances.

References

Bauer, T., & Erdogan, B. (2012). Organizational Behavior. Saylor Academy.

Evans, M. G. (2002). Path-Goal Theory of Leadership. In L. L. Neider, & C. A. Schriesheim (Eds.), Leadership (pp. 115-139). Information Age Publishing.

Jenkinson, P. (2018). Hersey Blanchard Situational Leadership [Video file]. Web.

A Virtuous Ruler By Niccolò Machiavelli

Since ancient times, numerous philosophers have dedicated their efforts to finding the right ways to become a perfect ruler. The Greek tradition, which formed bases for the political thoughts for centuries, viewed citizens’ happiness and prosperity as the highest virtues. Such ideas were later replaced with Christian morality statements, which were the governing ones in the medieval age. However, the thoughts expressed by Machiavelli provided a completely different set of guidelines, which made him famous and largely criticized all around the civilized world. His dedication to the significance of politics and its consideration as a predominant force over other circumstances turned The Prince into one of the most famous books on this topic. The recommendations provided by Machiavelli indicated a new direction of governing, in which the virtues of power stood above any moral limitations.

The first significant aspect of Machiavelli’s views of the ruling is related to its origins and support means. Reviewing principalities, he mentions that they can be hereditary or acquired. Although the first case usually provides for a smooth transition of power, Machiavelli disapproves of it, noting that it eliminates the “causes of innovations” (Machiavelli 7). Therefore, rising from an unprivileged status is a better option as it removes any dependence and ensures the willingness to change. Moreover, conquering a city, a prince does not need to respect its traditions and should replace them with his norms. The implementation of this leads to the issue of building foundations for further governing. Machiavelli considers it preferable to enter into alliances with people rather than aristocracy, but the bases for such cooperation are different from the traditional ones (26). Citing the example of Cesare Borgia, he indicates that killing members of the previous governing class is an optimum strategy for a ruler. Finally, he mentions committing crimes as an acceptable way to gain power. Combined, this creates a picture of a person acquiring and maintaining his ruling status by all available means.

Another aspect which actually constitutes the essence of Machiavelli’s principles is denying any moral standards. He states the necessity for a prince “to learn to be able not to be good” and use this skill when the circumstances dictate (Machiavelli 61). Posing a ruler above the ordinary citizens and their desires, the author approves of any actions required to gain control over people. He mentions that it is acceptable to be sometimes cruel, fierce, or dishonest, depending on the goals to be achieved. Liberal views should not be among the governing principles since “a prince cannot, without damage to himself, use the virtue of liberality so that it is recognized” (Machiavelli 63). Moreover, even the merit of faith is depicted as a debatable one. Although it is a laudable and, sometimes, beneficial quality, “the princes who have done great things are those who have taken little account of faith” (Machiavelli 69). Betrayal and deceit constitute acceptable ways for obtaining the advantages of alliances with friends and overcoming the opponents. Therefore, Machiavelli views moral norms as a limitation, which should be avoided.

The last virtue which completes an image of a ruler depicted in The Prince is being powerful. It is necessary to have well-trained forces and not rely on some mercenary or auxiliary troops as their members can quickly betray and escape from a battle. Machiavelli mentions that “there cannot be good laws where there are not good arms,” indicating the prevalence of force over any legal constructs (48). He even suggests that the art of war should be the only one deserving the attention of a prince, and it should always be mastered. Discussing how to keep the citizens loyal, Machiavelli states the preference of fear over love since the threat of punishment is more potent than friendship (67). Thus, the recommendations for creating the foundations for long and successful governing are focused on using the force and oppressing the ones not willing to obey. Finally, he mentions the ability “to carry on great enterprises” as an obvious way to be held in esteem, citing the examples of famous conquerors (Machiavelli 87). All this indicates a high appreciation of power as a driving force for respect and prosperity.

The combination of characteristics mentioned above paints a grim picture of a ruler abusing citizens and pursuing only his own goals. The domination of power without any moral limitations provides a perfect foundation for widespread terror and cruelty. However, this image should not be interpreted outside the context of Machiavelli’s work. It was the time of “Italy’s dividedness, extreme poverty due to wars between republics and princes, the Pope’s intervention, and application to foreign kingdoms” (Hacifevzioğlu 849). Addressed to Lorenzo de’ Medici, The Prince contained guidelines intended to be used in a critical political and social situation. This brings an entirely different attitude towards Machiavelli’s recommendations since the use of power was essential to unite the country and save it. It can be viewed as a reflection of reality and a transitional step for further government enhancements. Such an external framework and the author’s willingness to step away from the traditional values allow The Prince to occupy a unique place among all political books.

Works Cited

Hacifevzioğlu, Ahmet Umut. “The Power of a Statesman: The Ideal Leader According to Machiavelli.” Turkish Studies, vol. 13, no. 10, 2018, pp. 845–855.

Machiavelli, Niccolò. The Prince. Translated by Harvey C. Mansfield, 2nd ed., The University of Chicago Press, 1998.

UHealth: Organizational Cultures Of Excellence

Introduction

In modern management, organizational culture is one of the main strategic tools that allows to orient the work process and direct the aspirations of employees to shared goals, and, in addition, to form general corporate views. Elements of organizational culture are a guideline for management decision-making, establishing control over employee behavior and relations when assessing production, business, and social situations. It is essential to understand that the formation of organizational culture is not an instant process but takes time. This essay will address aspects of organizational culture, values, and mission in terms of UHealth, a Miami-based health organization in Florida.

High Reliability and Organization Culture

With the increasing concern of the population about their health and the emergence of new pathogenic forms of infection, a raised need to establish a highly reliable medical facility structure that guarantees safety and an evidence-based approach to care. Moreover, when organizations have to conduct their commercial or non-profit activities in a politically and economically unstable world, there are high risks and unanticipated organizational failures that have the potential to harm financial well-being (Elsmore, 2017). For this reason, a healthcare institution is obliged to develop its own organizational culture to meet modern demands with high reliability and quality.

In the medical world, there is a growing tendency for reputable physicians to abandon their personal beliefs to move towards objective data and results. To maintain a culture of reliability, the leadership inculcates specific values in subordinates that postulate the prohibition of mythological forms of treatment and the priority of proof. A highly reliable organization is a rather complex structured model in which there is an endless interplay of included elements (Vogus & Singer, 2016). Each employee must understand the responsibility that rests on their shoulders and the consequences that actions can have. That is why any emerging problem in such an environment is addressed in a comprehensive and multifaceted manner to minimize the risk of subjectivity.

UHealth

UHealth Center is, in fact, an academic medical institution that provides not only care and treatment but also training for young professionals. In its mission, UHealth claims “to be a state-of-the-art academic medical center that serves the South Florida community and beyond” (“Mission & Values,” n.d.). In other words, they claim to be a city-forming medical enterprise whose activities will spread geographically. On this basis, UHealth’s core values include providing high-quality and compassionate care, encouraging innovative ideas and solutions, ensuring diversity and involvement among employees, and nurturing the next generation of professionals. UHealth has a well-developed organizational culture aimed at high quality and reliability to fulfill the described areas, which is similar to a modern medical center. Non-scientific and unproven forms of treatment are not widespread among the company’s employees, and the emphasis is on creating a corporate professional image of the institution. Moreover, the management stresses the importance of the diversity of ideas, which is necessary for forming a complex structure of the organization. When a heterogeneous and diverse stream of ideas is combined with the mission of UHealth, innovative ideas and solutions are born.

Culture and Climate

UHealth’s corporate culture has a unique feature: it manages to combine the fundamental principles of modern medicine and the atmosphere of academic and continuous professional development. For this reason, the company’s patients can, if they wish, undergo treatment not only using measures taken and studied but also using experimental developments that have passed a full diagnostic examination and guarantee safety (“Why choose UHealth,” n.d.). UHealth does not have a specialist who is independent or left alone because the culture aims to form teams that stimulate the personal growth of the doctor or nurse. The already mentioned environment of diversity and involvement among employees meets the requirements of modern management and helps to concentrate more creative ideas.

As in any sophisticated structured company, UHealth has several departments, each of which is controlled by its leader. This model guarantees high results in the context of reliability, as it assigns personal responsibility and encourages a diverse approach to management. To maintain the independence and objectivity of the leadership style, the CEO does not remain in office for a long time but gives way to more competent colleagues (Chang, 2020). Nevertheless, the high turnover among CEOs may seem suspicious to applicants, investors, and clients (Dimopoulos & Wagner, 2016). In this case, even with all the results achieved, consumers may choose another, more stable institution. For this reason, it is recommended that UHealth review its CEO appointment policy or provide accessible and detailed explanations to describe why more than three CEOs have changed in the last three years.

Conclusion

A high degree of reliability is a key priority for a modern medical facility that claims to be highly popular with its clients. The organizational culture allows regulating the disorderliness of connections and responsibilities that exist between employees of the organization. Maintaining corporate ethics and a correct leadership style that motivates subordinates to follow the company’s mission play a significant role in this. UHealth is built on the integration of an academic environment and quality medical care to guarantee its patients a high degree of reliability and proof of the methods used.

References

Chang, D. (2020). UHealth CEO to retire. University of Miami president to lead health system temporarily. Miami Herald. Web.

Dimopoulos, T., & Wagner, H. F. (2016). Corporate governance and CEO turnover decisions [PDF document]. Web.

Elsmore, P. (2017). Organisational culture: Organisational change? Organisational Change? Routledge.

Mission & values (n.d.) 2020, Web.

Vogus, T. J., & Singer, S. J. (2016). Creating highly reliable accountable care organizations. Medical Care Research and Review, 73(6), 660-672. Web.

Why choose UHealth (n.d.) 2020, Web.

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