Small Farming And “traditional” Agriculture In The Caribbean Essay Example

In today’s modern world, traditional practices are becoming less common, even in agriculture. Agricultural geography used to focus on “natural resources” and “basic human needs,” but it is now considered outdated due to the era of “signs and space” in the economy (Lash & Urry, 1994). The widespread promotion of new chemicals, machinery, and “modern” farming methods can be seen everywhere. Prioritizing quantity over quality has led to the replacement of smaller farms with diverse crops but lower yields by large monocropping farms. Sacrificing small-scale farms and their traditional methods seems necessary to cater to the majority.

This paper aims to examine whether modern agriculture is the most suitable choice for the Caribbean. While modern agriculture provides higher yields, it raises concerns about sustainability and its environmental impact. In the Caribbean, agronomic practices have mostly remained unaltered since slavery, making this discussion particularly significant. Monocropping is a notable feature of modern agriculture, where large farms cultivate a single crop. However, this technique is primarily employed for cereals and grains due to their ability to yield more crops and offer a broader selection of high-yielding varieties.

The implementation of modern farming techniques in developed nations has resulted in changes to the dietary habits and caloric intake of their populations. As noted by Science2.0 (2011), around 60% of our calorie consumption is derived from corn, rice, and wheat. Additionally, contemporary agricultural practices involve the extensive use of chemicals such as fertilizers, weedicides, and pesticides to maximize crop yields. Farmer Wendell Berry emphasizes the significance of examining these inputs rather than solely focusing on output: “To celebrate output without questioning input is like rejoicing in the water flowing out of the dam without wondering whether any water is flowing in to replace it” (Meadows). These chemicals not only have long-term detrimental effects on soil quality but also present potential health risks when we consume treated food.

Caribbean small-scale farmers have consistently resisted pressure to abandon their traditional methods in favor of new ones, despite ongoing pressure from modern agriculturists. The resistance is due to flaws in how modernization initiatives are presented to the farmers. Those who introduce innovations must adapt their rational approach to accommodate the subjective rationality of the farmers. Understanding the decision-making processes of small-scale farmers is important; many have valid reasons for not adopting innovations or discontinuing certain practices. In Jamaica, small-scale farming is crucial for economic development as it serves as a significant economic activity for rural farmers.

The text emphasizes that agriculture has a broader role beyond national food security, including self-sufficiency and increased domestic food production. Farmers’ choices regarding adopting modernization innovations are influenced by factors like indigenous knowledge, environmental awareness, changing economic and physical conditions, as well as family and community traditions. Traditional farming methods are crucial to the cultural ecology of Caribbean islands. Small-scale farmers in the Caribbean depend on seeking advice and sharing ideas within their communities to effectively address challenges, which may become hindered with the introduction of new technologies.

Most farmers based their decision not to modernize on both perception and a lack of information about the systems. The information was not presented clearly in easily-understood ways (Beckford, 2002). While the world-trend in agriculture is moving away from small farms, they fail to consider the numerous advantages of small-scale farming. Small farms have a diversity of ownership, cropping systems, landscapes, biological organization, culture, and traditions. This diversity is a great superiority over the monocultures of large-scale farming. Diversification and small-scale commercial production can increase yields, income, and opportunities from fragmented land holdings. Small-scale farming also utilizes sustainable farming methods that are environmentally friendly and do not damage or degrade the soil like the harsh chemicals used by large farms.

Moreover, small farmers are more likely to integrate crops and livestock and intercrop various crops on the same field, resulting in a more efficient use of space and time compared to large monocultures. Intercropping has proven to reduce the spread of plant disease and pest infestation, stabilize production, increase income, improve efficiency and labor, and optimize the use of resources under conditions of intensification and low technology (Dorsey, 1999). However, the excessive use of these chemicals may potentially lead to another Dust Bowl. Additionally, small-scale farming promotes community empowerment as decentralized land ownership tends to create more equal opportunities for rural people.

In addition, landowners who rely on local individuals, businesses, and services are more likely to be responsible. Small farms are also crucial to the economy because there are lower import costs on food when most suppliers are local. Moreover, people feel a personal connection to the food they consume through farmers’ markets and community-supported agriculture, among other initiatives. These provide consumers with a sense of security in knowing the origin of their food and the impact its production has on the landscape and environment (Rosset, 2000). This is particularly important today as people are increasingly concerned about consuming healthy foods and being aware of the cultivation or rearing process. Furthermore, research shows that small farms surpass large farms when considering total output instead of just yield. Small-scale farmers in the Caribbean have valid reasons to reject modern agricultural innovations involving unfamiliar hybrid crop variations and intensive chemical treatments.

Research has shown that ancient customs of indigenous peoples are now recognized and supported as “modern.” These customs, known as “Principles of Permanence,” allowed for year-round crop production without harmful chemicals that damage the environment. Additionally, these principles not only protect natural resources but often replenish them. Under the term “ecological agriculture,” this traditional practice is considered the most effective approach to promoting sustainable development. It can also more efficiently and inexpensively remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere compared to artificial methods. Therefore, traditional knowledge and practices play a crucial role in addressing challenges related to conserving biodiversity, promoting sustainable development, and mitigating climate change.

Caribbean farmers should resist the pressures from large companies in “developed” nations and continue to utilize traditional small-scale farming methods. This is because, in terms of sustainability, quality, economics, and overall productivity, traditional small-scale farming surpasses “modern” large-scale farming.

Advantages And Disadvantages Of Science

We are living in the age of science. Television, cinema computer, electricity, airplane, train, bus, telephone, mobile telephone, radio etc. From morning till evening we use things which are given I us by science. Science has given us electricity. Without electricity we cannot spend even a minute of our life! Medical science has controlled many diseases like T.B, Cholera and Small Pox. These diseases were incurable earlier. Many people used to die of these diseases. Duet scientific inventions, a lot of progress has been made in the agriculture sector. With the blessings of science, we can fly in the air and talk to a person who is sitting thousands of miles away. But science has also given atom bombs, hydrogen bombs, nuclear bombs, tanks, missiles etc. This has raised the threat of a nuclear war. Science can be a blessing to mankind if it is used for the benefit of mankind.

ADVANTAGES – Science has brought about several outstanding advantages to mankind. The vast improvements made in the field of medicine have served to lengthen our life expectancy and to reduce the rate of infant mortality. The discovery of mechanization, better seeds, better techniques of irrigation and pest control, has worked to increase productivity levels on farms. In transportation, railway, modern ocean liner, jet plane, and motor vehicle have made our lives more comfortable and provided great possibilities for modern commercial development and industrialization. The invention of the computer has assisted the process of calculation in laboratories.

DISADVANTAGES – science has been responsible for pollution and has given us the nuclear bomb which threatens our very existence. But in this also the fault lies not with science, but rather with mans intention to misuse the discoveries of science. Science is not inherently good or evil. It is a way to acquire knowledge systematically, which is only a tool.

Rhetoric On Barack Obama Speech Analysis

The inauguration address of a president has various objectives: articulating their future objectives, motivating the nation, and aiming for a long-lasting impact. President Obama’s speech, although it did not have iconic JFK moments, used a metaphor of “journey” and repeated the phrase “We, the people” to maintain its consistency. The president connected religion with the discussion on climate change, underscored the government’s function as a united entity representing the people, integrated gay rights into our societal principles, and indirectly alluded to gun control as a way to safeguard our children’s wellbeing.

Barack Obama, the 44th president of the United States, made history by becoming the first African American to hold this prestigious position. His inauguration speech was a momentous occasion that captivated a wide audience and became one of the most important moments in American history. In his speech, Obama skillfully utilized rhetorical devices and appeals that resonated deeply with the American people. Notably, he employed pathos to recognize the struggles experienced by numerous individuals, such as losing their homes, jobs, and businesses.

This is important because it explains why Obama is motivated to improve the United States. This emotional appeal uses pathos. Another rhetorical appeal used by Obama is ethos. “I appreciate President Bush’s service to our country.” This demonstrates that Obama acknowledges and respects Bush’s contributions, but now it is Obama’s turn to lead. This appeal to ethos highlights Obama’s sense of respectfulness.

In this paragraph, President Obama utilizes rhetorical devices such as allusion, metaphor, and parallelism to deliver a powerful and memorable message. He alludes to the country’s founding documents by referencing Seneca Falls, Selma, and Stonewall, emphasizing the importance of equality. The purpose of employing these devices is not to draw attention to them or showcase cleverness, but rather to enhance the potency of the message. Obama’s use of metaphor is evident in his statement about forty-four Americans taking the presidential oath, symbolizing change. With these techniques, Obama effectively communicates his ideals.

The main point of this paper is that President Barack Obama made history as the first black president to ever take office in the United States. His speech was enhanced by a lot of rhetorical appeals and devices. In line with Obama’s typical style, his inaugural address effectively used rhetorical devices and figures of speech. He used metaphor to remind listeners that some inaugurations happened during “still waters,” while others happened in “raging storms.” Likewise, he talked about the “long, rugged path towards prosperity and freedom.”

Obama employed antithesis in order to emphasize the nation’s core principles when stating that our economy relies “not solely on the magnitude of our gross domestic product, but on the extent of our prosperity . . . .” He also utilized this literary device to caution global leaders that “your people will evaluate you based on your ability to construct, not on your capacity to demolish.” The speech proved to be both challenging and healing, as it reminded the audience of the hardships we face while urging us to confront these obstacles courageously. Furthermore, it fostered unity by embracing individuals from diverse backgrounds and religions within the United States and abroad.

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