Social Epidemiology Of Type 2 Diabetes: Ecosocial Perspective Essay Example

Abstract

Social marketing plays an important role in promoting urgent issues in the healthcare field. In this project, increased diabetes prevalence is the major social issue for consideration. Various demographic and social factors contribute to disease development, prediction, and management. The target audience is the representatives of racial minorities, namely Blacks, Native Americans, and Hispanics, who have poor awareness of diabetes. They need to understand what it means to be diabetic and if it is possible to predict this condition in their lives. The diaTrive Foundation is the organization that implements an educational intervention for local citizens to educate them and explain how to manage diabetes within the budget of $50,000.

Background, Purpose, and Focus

Despite multiple intentions to manage and predict diabetes, the prevalence of this complex and chronic condition continues to increase. At this moment, more than seven billion people have already been diagnosed with diabetes, and a higher part of patients are racial minorities, including Blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans (Aguilar, 2019; Pinchevsky et al., 2020). There is no clear explanation of what causes this disease, but excess weight, physical inactivity, and family history are the main contributing factors (Pinchevsky et al., 2020). Educational and occupational statuses significantly affect people’s predisposition to diabetes (Hill-Briggs et al., 2020). Not many individuals recognize their roles in predicting this serious condition. Thus, the purpose is to improve the population’s awareness of this health problem and develop easily accessible programs to educate people and promote healthy lifestyles at schools and workplaces.

Situation Analysis

The diaTribe Foundation is a non-profit organization that aims at solving diabetes-related challenges today. The team believes cultural and political shifts could reduce diabetes burdens, promotes new educational programs, and advocates for action and lifestyle changes (The diaTrive Foundation, n.d.). This organization implements interventions to understand diabetes better and helps the population do the same. The following strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats allow describing the current position of the diaTribe Foundation.

Strengths

  • Experienced and respected governance (Kelly L. Close, the Founder, relies on her personal experience as a type 1 diabetic patient)
  • Diverse membership (male and female employees who complete various purposes)
  • Strong cultural values (improvement of human lives damaged by diabetes or pre-diabetes)

Opportunities

  • Effective marketplace (diabetes becomes global epidemic)
  • Programs and services (education and cooperation are enough)
  • Effective partnerships (readiness to cooperate)

Weaknesses

  • Resource shortage (based on donations)
  • Poor brand awareness (not many people know this organization)

Threats

  • Care fragmentation (diabetes-related services are limited)
  • Limited funding (no regular financial resources)

Target Audience

The main target population of this social intervention is the representatives of racial minorities (Blacks, Native Americans, and Hispanics) who are at higher risk of having diabetes. It is expected to attract students (15-20 years) and adults (25-35 years), but if a person of any other age is willing to join, this choice is appreciated. Pinchevsky et al. (2020) reveal that better-educated individuals are eager to support their health and may be earlier referred to the disease course. They are usually eager to cooperate and join communities to share similar interests and values. More than 15% of diabetic patients have cardiovascular problems, about 50% develop renal complications at a young age, and approximately 18% are at mortality risk (Aguilar, 2019; Pinchevsky et al., 2020). Geographic access to care services defines the quality of care and diabetes management (Hill-Briggs et al., 2020). Online communication, conferences, and dialogues may be distantly organized for all participants. Membership size does not matter in this case because people who face diabetes need to know they can be supported.

Marketing Objectives and Goals

The target audience will be influenced in two directions: improved awareness of diabetes and positive lifestyle changes (physical activity and dietary habits). The objective of the current marketing plan is to attract people’s attention and help individuals better understand diabetes and take healthy action. There are two SMART goals to quantify desired behavior outcomes and change knowledge:

  1. In six months, people demonstrate their awareness of diabetes causes, outcomes, and management techniques due to visiting one-hour meetings once a week with lectures and free communication;
  2. In six months, participants can control their weight (no obesity) by following healthy diets and completing regular physical activities.

Target Audience Barriers, Benefits, the Competition, and Influential Others

Although people are aware of social, economic, and personal factors contributing to obesity and diabetes, they continue making wrong or inappropriate decisions. Perceived barriers include easily accessible fast-food restaurants, a lack of sports grounds for physical activities, and fewer educational ads about diabetes and the existing threats. People should have an opportunity or a unique benefit to understand what can promote diabetes, the primary signs of this condition, and the steps to be taken. The participants of the offered intervention address such forces as personal choices and preferences: instead of visiting a local fast-food restaurant, they go to the nearest sports ground or eat vegetables/fruits and drink fresh juices. Others who have an important influence are families, friends, and community members who share the same lifestyles and interests.

Positioning Statement

We want to see racial minorities of all ages as individuals who are properly aware of diabetes as a serious health problem and manage obesity as a critical diabetic factor by communicating, visiting meetings, and choosing healthy diets and physical activities.

Marketing Mix Strategies

The core product of the offered approach among the target audience is no diabetes to be diagnosed if basic healthy behaviors and choices are made. The actual product is what the organization offers to people – regular meetings, education, and information about local sports courts for free visits. The augmented products include individual communication, printed guidelines for personal use, and illustrative books about diabetes management and healthy lifestyles.

Any educational intervention is associated with certain monetary and non-monetary costs. At this moment, it is offered to work within the offered budget of $50,000. The current project covers time costs (salary for people who educate participants), products (diagnostic kits, monitors, printed brochures, and books), and professional training for the company’s employees. Attracting new partners on a voluntary basis can be applied to reduce costs. Cooperation with local Black communities allows for finding more people who need additional help with diabetes education and management. Not all individuals understand when to address professional health care, and the task is to talk and inform about diabetes-related threats. The promotion of knowledge is a core strategy for the diaTrive Foundation. Real-life contact and finding effective media channels need to be supported. For example, at least two billboards should be located in the city to inform the population about the threat and contact information. One of the easiest ways is to randomly offer coupons for meetings and distribute them on the streets.

Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation

The purpose of the evaluation plan is to analyze if improved education for ordinary citizens and the promotion of healthy lifestyles reduce obesity as the main diabetes risk factor. The intervention stakeholders are the employees of the diaTrive Foundation, who analyze annual reports about obesity rates within the local community. The representatives of racial minority groups introduce the major input of the program: they complete self-reports to demonstrate their current level of knowledge, dietary habits, and physical activity interests. The program’s output is also based on self-reports and observations of the organization. The differences in numbers will be measured to reveal a change and if it is positive or negative. The outcomes will be checked in terms of the current numbers of diabetic or pre-diabetic individuals (Blacks, Native Americans, and Hispanics) and their overall knowledge about diabetes. Finally, the expected impact is that people know what diabetes is, how it can be predicted, its primary signs, and what steps to take to control the disease.

Budget

At this moment, it is planned to educate at least 100 individuals who address the diaTrive Foundation during the first month of the program initiation. In the table below, there are approximate numbers to be considered for budgeting the educational intervention:

Title Per Unit Total Number General Cost
Personnel month salary

Educator

Technician

Advertiser

Nurse

$3,000

$2,500

$1,500

$2,500

4

1

1

2

$8,000

$2,500

$1,500

$5,000

Guideline creation and printing $10 100 $1,000
Flyer printing $5 500 $2,500
A1C Test Kit $50 150 $7,500
Arm blood pressure monitors $50 50 $2,500
Books about diabetes management $15 100 $1,500
Billboard rent $4,000 1 $4,000
Travel for consultants $3,000 $3,000
Training courses for employees $2,000 4 $8,000
Office support/unexpected purchases $3,000
Total $50,000

Plan for Implementation and Program Management

Key Activities Responsibility/Lead Timing Budget
Invitation of participants (advertisement, flyer distribution, public attention) Advertiser One week $10,000
Preparations for education (training programs, guidelines, and educative material) Educators and nurses One month (before the intervention begins) $10,000
Education sessions (pre-intervention measuring, self-reports, communication, and observations) Educators and participants Four weeks $15,000
Monitoring activities (blood pressure, sugar level, and BMI) Nurses and technician Four weeks $10,000
Tests, check-ups, and post-intervention measuring Educators, nurses, and participants One week $5,000

References

Aguilar, D. (2019). Improving outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of the American Heart Association, 8(4).

Hill-Briggs, F., Adler, N. E., Berkowitz, S. A., Chin, M. H., Gary-Webb, T. L., Navas-Acien, A., Thornton, P. L., & Haire-Joshu, D. (2021). Social determinants of health and diabetes: A scientific review. Diabetes Care, 44(1), 258-279.

Pinchevsky, Y., Butkow, N., Raal, F. J., Chirwa, T., & Rothberg, A. (2020). Demographic and clinical factors associated with development of type 2 diabetes: A review of the literature. International Journal of General Medicine, 13, 121-129.

The diaTrive Foundation. (n.d.). Our mission. diaTribe. Web.

Cash Flow As Business Performance Measure

Chapter 15 of Financial Intelligence discusses that cash flow is one of the most versatile measures of business performance. Understanding cash allows seeing how well a company is doing at turning profits into cash, spotting early signs of trouble, and knowing how to manage cash flow to keep it stable. It is cash, not profit, that keeps a company alive, and cash flow is the most critical indicator of its financial health, allowing it to cover all expenses (Tay, 2019).

Chapter 16 reveals that profits often do not match cash in, as the money may come from loans or investors and will not appear on the income statement. Another kind of earnings-cash mismatch is when the company’s bank balance grows monthly, although the company is losing money.

Chapter 17 discusses how cash flow can be challenging to understand for several reasons, such as operator category labels, positives, and negatives do not always match, and challenges in seeing the relationship between a cash flow statement and other financial statements. The chapter covers the different types of cash flow, their sources, and uses and provides tools for understanding cash flow statements.

Chapter 18 deals with the relationship of cash with other financial elements and statements. It reveals how accountants use an income statement and two balance sheets to calculate cash flows. For example, the reconciliation of profits with cash changes in receivables, and depreciation. Examples of companies are also provided to understand cash flows better.

Chapter 19 demonstrates that knowing the financial situation helps understand what is happening now, where the business is headed, and what top management’s likely priorities are. Managers should focus on both profit and cash. The impact is usually limited to operating cash flow, one of the most critical metrics in accounts receivable, inventory, expenses, and giving credit. The general point is that cash flow is a key indicator of a company’s financial health, profitability, and shareholders’ equity.

To conclude, part four toolbox states that a hot new metric on Wall Street is free cash flow. The section indicates ways to calculate free cash flow, the most common approach is simple subtraction: Free cash flow operating cash flow less net capital expenditures. Healthy free cash flow gives the company a good opportunity. To do this, companies with weak free cash flow must attract external financing.

Reference

Tay, K. (2019). Financial Intelligence: The DNA of Business and Investments. Partridge Publishing.

The Belmont Report: Ethical Principles

When it comes to the basic ethical principles that are integral to the behavioral and biomedical conduct centered around human subjects, these are outlined by the Belmont Report that was published in 1979. According to the report, there are three such principles: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice (U.S Department of Health and Human Services, 2018). I believe that respect for persons is the foundation for a specialist’s successful work performance when interacting with people in any area, and especially in the area of nursing practice. In terms of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, a professional nurse has to be aware of the extremely vulnerable position they are in and often their subsequent inability to be self-determined. Therefore, one has to do their best to protect such people as they fall under the category of those with diminished authority. That means, for instance, making it impossible for patients to practice things that can harm them or other people.

Reference

U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). The Belmont Report: Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research

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