Failure to get a proper education has significant consequences for everyone, not just uneducated ones. People who lack education have difficulty advancing in life, have inferior health, and are poorer than those with formal education. The following are some of the most severe consequences of a lack of education: bad health, a lack of a voice, a shorter lifespan, unemployment, exploitation, and gender inequity. Developing countries experience difficulties providing quality education to those in need, which forces those eager and thirsty for education to seek it elsewhere (Webb, 2017). Quality education has also been a challenge in developed countries due to racial discrimination, favoring a particular race more than others. In the case of Bridgeport, the community has embarked on a mission through the Village Initiative Project V.I.P. to allow economically burdened students in the area to tour colleges in the area as a means of enabling the students to determine the college they would like to join and also ensure that Black and Latino college admissions are more parallel with their White counterparts. Education has always been critical to the Black community, from desegregating K-12 schools and colleges to running historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) (Entwisle, Alexander, & Olson, 2018). Education has long been the key to social mobility and economic independence in this country. Therefore, the paper focuses on the lack of education among the African American community in Bridgeport as a social justice issue, provides an analysis and the scope of the problem, and applies the theories of Critical Race Theory and Conflict Theory to address the racial issues, inequity, and class inequity respectively.
Social Justice Issue
Even though it’s grown increasingly widespread in recent years, the concept of social justice has existed for hundreds of years. Morgan (2018) states that during the 19th century, individuals began to speak out against unsafe working conditions, exploitation, and other unjust practices. At its root, social justice is concerned with the equitable allocation of opportunities and advantages that apply to everyone in a society. One of these problems is that people of different races do not have the same access to education. There are two types of social justice in education. The first is social justice in action and the degree of equity in the school system. Social injustice occurs when circumstances such as money, gender, and race dictate what education a person may obtain. Students who aren’t fortunate enough to acquire education on par with those of their more fortunate peers are set up for failure for the rest of their life (Entwisle, Alexander, & Olson, 2018). If they can’t make ends meet, they won’t afford health insurance, decent housing, or feel secure in their surroundings. The second kind of social justice in education is how it is taught in the educational system. Students’ worldviews are broadened under a social justice framework by incorporating diverse ideas and questioning beliefs. Social justice education addresses and encourages students to use critical thinking rather than disregard significant real-world concerns such as sexism, racism, and poverty, amongst other things.
Brief History and Explanation
In the United States, early childhood education is becoming an increasingly crucial part of life, predicting future educational performance and career and labor alternatives, economic stability, health, and social changes. African Americans lag well behind other ethnic groups when matched for socioeconomic status in terms of educational attainment. Asian, White, and Latino kids have higher marks than African American pupils on average. A widening achievement disparity impacts the whole nation, not just African American kids, families, and communities. The accomplishment gap may be traced back to the economic and social situations of the past and present. Racism and discrimination against African Americans have had little influence on society’s attempts to alleviate the negative consequences of prejudice and discrimination (Entwisle, Alexander, & Olson, 2018).
To help more children succeed in school and life, instructors must thoroughly understand these elements. Only then can they devise and execute effective techniques. African American youngsters are no different from any other when it comes to children’s potential. The brain circuitry that governs a child’s physical, social, emotional, and cognitive development is shaped by encounters with people and things. African American children, on the whole, enjoy excellent adult interactions and grow to their full potential. Racism/classism and its accompanying economic and social disadvantages are the keys to understanding the underachievement of African American youth. African Americans have been subjected to a long history of legal and unlawful discrimination (Webb, 2017). It is undeniable that poverty is a burden on families. A considerable proportion of African Americans live at a level of economic stress that strains families physically and emotionally, with regular corollaries of hunger, mental and physical sickness, and hopelessness.
As a result of a lack of educational preparation, African American students face an insurmountable achievement gap when they enter the classroom. Students’ educational experiences and prospects in Connecticut and many other states are vastly different when seen through the prism of race. African American children are more likely to be impoverished than White children; hence this harms them. A wide range of social, economic, and governance issues arise due to these inequities. To attract firms and investment, one must have a well-educated workforce. Students who get a high-quality education are better equipped to go after the objectives they’ve set for themselves.
Current Nature, Scope, and Impacts of the Problem
African American students in Bridgeport, Connecticut, face several disparities and significant educational gaps, which leaves black students underprepared for future success. A report by Harris & Hussey provided a comparison between two school districts: Fairfield and Bridgeport. Both school districts spend more than the national average on their pupils, which is comparable. They teach their students to take the same statewide exams. As with almost other instructors in the state, their teachers consistently get great honors on evaluations. However, the school districts range significantly in finances and educational quality. Fairfield is mainly made up of white residents, and the white suburbs surrounding it have an average household income of $120,000. 94% of kids complete high school on time because of the financial resources and moral support from family and friends (Morgan, 2018). The graduation percentage in Bridgeport, the state’s most populated and one of its poorest communities, is 63%. As one of their instructors recently testified in a dispute over unequal school financing, fifth graders in Bridgeport — where most residents are black or Hispanic — typically read at the kindergarten level. In the Connecticut Coalition for Justice in Education Funding v. Rell, Judge Moukawsher of the State Superior Court in Hartford said that the state was letting students in disadvantaged districts stagnate while their wealthy neighbors soared.
According to the judge, education spending in California is governed not by necessity but by the political influence of individual lawmakers. He also slammed the state’s teacher assessment system and stated the state’s high school graduation criteria are almost useless. The consequences of a lack of education are just as serious as the circumstances that prohibit a person from obtaining a high-quality education (Harris & Hussey, 2017).
Those who lack education or have only completed elementary school are more likely to be employed in low-paying positions or to be unable to get a job at all. The best professions are reserved for the well-educated, and education is the primary means of achieving this due to rapid technological development and the dwindling number of conventional occupations. It is the determining element in whether or not an individual can adapt to the changing labor market and find work that suits their skill set. Gender disparity is also a consequence of a lack of educational opportunities (Entwisle, Alexander, & Olson, 2018). The capacity to make personal judgments based on knowledge gained through education is essential for men and women. It is difficult for the uneducated to integrate into society and are often excluded. Because they lack the resources that come with education, they cannot participate in as many social activities as educated individuals, who can do so with ease.
Application of Theoretical Framework
Critical race theory (C.R.T.) is built on the idea of systemic racism, which is the foundation of C.R.T. When discussing systemic racism, the discussion refers to how the government has unfairly targeted people of color in housing, employment, criminal justice, and education. In the United States, racism and white supremacy have been enshrined in legislation, from enslavement through Jim Crow laws to disproportionate incarceration and violence against African-Americans. Families may be impacted for generations even though specific discriminatory laws or practices are no longer in place (Taylor, 2019). Rather than training in diversity and inclusion, C.R.T. is a technique that began in the law academia and has expanded to other academic areas.
Many of C.R.T.’s tenets apply to education, including a commitment to social justice; the centering of the experiential knowledge of people of color; and the use of multiple approaches from a variety of disciplines to analyze racism in historical and contemporary contexts, such as women’s studies, and sociology. As enslaved people were taught to read and write in quiet ports, the movement for equal rights for African Americans started differently. When it comes to access to high-quality, well-resourced schools with competent instructors, metropolitan centers have become battlegrounds in the battle for equality (Taylor, 2019). Segregated schooling is a powerful and contemporary example of institutional racism in education.
Education may benefit significantly from implementing conflict theory, which holds that conflict is the most significant part of human connection. Conflict theory in education focuses on how conflict theory works, especially in educational environments like schools and classrooms. In general, those who are better off financially are more likely to get a higher education and finish it with fewer problems. As a result, conflict theorists argue that tensions arise between these social classes. According to conflict theorists, there is a possibility that conflict in public schools sustains social hierarchies. The hypothesis may be used in education to understand better how pupils in the public school system are impacted by social structure. Identifying the many social groupings, regardless of their financial background, ethnicity, or gender, might lead to hypotheses about the conflict among them (Ferrare & Phillippo, 2021). Because of this hypothesis, researchers may identify and seek to remove the structures that deny underprivileged children equal access to a good education. Children from low-income homes may lack the materials and technology to succeed in school. Their parents and guardians may work long hours, leaving them little time to assist their children with their homework and actively engage in their education.
Description of Local Agency
Bridgeport, CT has initiated a program known as the Village Initiative Project (V.I.P.) aimed at paving the way to a brighter future by exposing the underserved students to college life and preparing them for skills beyond the classroom. The program allows minority students to determine the kind of college they would like to attend and increase the number of minority students who progress to colleges and universities. V.I.P. enjoys the collaboration and support of volunteer counselors who stimulate the desire and maintain the enrollees’ interest in attending college and preparing them for life after high school. V.I.P. seeks to provide opportunities for minority students through social change strategies such as a five-day college tour aimed at benefitting economically burdened students aged 14-18 in Bridgeport. The agency operates both at the micro and macro levels with the help of staff, a collection of alumni from all walks of life, and volunteers.
Analysis of the Agency
V.I.P., since its inception, has been of much help to minority students at Bridgeport, CT, and the nation at large. The program has been able to help many students by enabling them to gain knowledge, foster growth, and expose them to numerous learning opportunities through college tours. The agency is an integral part of the students at Bridgeport and the community because it prepares them for college and prepares them for life.
There are fewer guidance counselors, tutors and psychologists, lower-paid teachers, decrepit school buildings, and larger class sizes in school districts like Bridgeport than in affluent neighborhoods. Connecticut’s public school systems are controlled by local municipalities and supported by local property taxes, resulting in a wide range of disparities. This domino effect occurs in the education system if there is not enough money, resources, and opportunity for pupils. As a result of a shortage of instructors, students in impoverished districts are more likely to have substitutes, have less time to work on computer projects because they must share computers, and are suspended more often. Teachers and guidance counselors would have more time to deal with disobedient pupils in a more affluent neighborhood. Because of this, schools in the region should get enough funding, and pupils should be given equitable access to educational opportunities.
Suggestions/Implications for the Future
As the number of pupils of color increases, segregation will continue to be a problem. There is a need to expand on current plans, build an even better system of voluntary interdistrict transfers, and ensure that any transfers do not deepen racial and ethnic segregation. It is time for Connecticut to loosen its limit on magnet schools. A charter school shall be subject to the state’s diversity rules and standards, including objectives, recruiting tactics, public information, and transportation policies that promote diversity, including various linguistic backgrounds. The emphasis should be on allowing more racially and economically separated children to attend schools with higher success levels and better ratings from the state department of education, which are more likely to include white and Asian students as pupils in their student body (Webb, 2017). To avoid further segregation and promote integrated education, the public must be aware of the issue. Nonwhite civil rights and community groups should analyze current trends and engage in the political and community processes connected to school boundary modifications, school site choices, and other significant policies that affect school integration or segregation. School boards can either promote integration or fight against it, and it is up to the communities to give unwavering and outspoken support for this cause.
The educational experiences of African-American and other “minority” kids in the United States remain significantly segregated and unequal, notwithstanding rhetoric about equality in the country. Very few Americans know that our educational system is one of the most unequal in the industrialized world and that pupils from various socioeconomic backgrounds are often given vastly different learning chances. Studies reveal that schools with large numbers of low-income and “minority” pupils have lower instructional resources within these districts than other schools in the district, in addition to financing systems allocating less money to disadvantaged urban areas. It has taken Bridgeport, CT, a long time to go through significant racial transition, but that shift is well underway. Race and economic segregation are substantial issues in the school district. Young people’s well-being and society depend on a solid education system. Everyone has the opportunity to develop and succeed in their careers and positively impact the community if they are given equitable access to education. With the Village Initiative Project (V.I.P.), Bridgeport hopes to level the playing field for minority students by exposing them to real-world experiences outside of the classroom, providing low-cost tours of college campuses, and providing a variety of additional benefits.
Entwisle, D., Alexander, K., & Olson, L. (2018). Children, schools, and inequality. New York: Routledge.
Ferrare, J., & Phillippo, K. (2021). Conflict Theory, Extended: A Framework for Understanding Contemporary Struggles Over Education Policy. Educational Policy.
Harris, E., & Hussey, K. (2017). In Connecticut, a Wealth Gap Divides Neighboring Schools (Published 2016). Nytimes.com. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2016/09/12/nyregion/in-connecticut-a-wealth-gap-divides-neighboring-schools.html.
Morgan, H. (2018). What every educator needs to know about America’s homeless students. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues, and Ideas, 91(6), 215-221.
Taylor, E. (2019). Critical race theory and interest convergence in the desegregation of higher education. In Race is… race isn’t. Abingdon: Routledge.
Webb, L. (2017). Educational opportunity for all: Reducing intradistrict funding disparities. NYUL Rev, 92, 2169.
Social Media And Lack Of Privacy Sample Paper
Social media has presented different platforms where families and friends can connect despite other geographical locations. Social media users relate to various platforms using their devices and share moments or ideas in economics, politics, or even business. Although social media has made the world a smaller place, it has fallbacks. This paper will look at how social media has hugely caused a lack of privacy.
Social media users tend to post issues concerning their private lives or public matters. For years now, social media privacy has been an issue. There are numerous reports about data breaches, causing social media users to be more cautious about their privacy. The data breaches have led to a lack of trust and raised suspicions among the users whether they have lost control over their information.
The number of social media users is rising, making them vulnerable to different forms of security breaches. When private information gets unauthorized, the impacts can be grave. According to Pew Research center (2017), about 13% of online users in the U.S. have reported their accounts hacked by unauthorized users. These hacks can cause redirects and malware of various types, which would cause vulnerability to evil deeds.
Sharing private information may cause judgments by the public. Social media users can ruin or build their reputations, depending on their activities on these platforms. They can do this through their relationships and influence from other people using similar platforms. Therefore, some people can be subject to unfair judgments or misunderstandings resulting from a small portion of one’s story (Rahman et al., 2019).
The different types of social media threats include phishing, data mining, and malware. Phishing is among the most common ways criminals gather private information from social media users. Phishing attacks come in calls, emails, or text messages from a legitimate institution. The statements or calls may trick users into sharing sensitive and private information like passwords or bank information.
Data mining is extracting helpful information from a large data set. Online users open new social media accounts almost every day, meaning that every social media user leaves a stream of data. Social media platforms require personal information such as name, date of birth, personal interests, or location (Rahman et al., 2019). Similarly, different firms use the information to obtain data based on how, where, and when users are active on their platforms. The data obtained will enable companies to understand their target markets and improve their advertising methods. It can be worse as firms may share the data with third parties without the users’ knowledge. Finally, malware is suspicious software designed to attack computers and gain information that they contain. If malware is successfully installed in a user’s computer, then all the information and data can be stolen (Rahman et al., 2019). Social media platforms are potential delivery systems for various malware. Compromising one account can spread the malware to friends and contacts by taking charge of the account.
To conclude, social media privacy continues to be in question as different forms of hacking and data breaches are introduced. The youths and young people are the most vulnerable to such insecurities as they never take the matter seriously. Also, these youngsters are more influenced by their peers than adults or parents, hence exposing them to insecurities. Social media users are urged to avoid sharing sensitive information or conceal information that they do not feel comfortable sharing.
Americans and Cyber Security. (2017, January 16). Pew Research Center.
Rahman, H. U., Rehman, A. U., Nazir, S., Rehman, I. U., & Uddin, N. (2019, March). Privacy and security—limits of personal information to minimize loss of privacy. In Future of Information and Communication Conference (pp. 964-974). Springer, Cham.
Social Media Effects On College Students Free Essay
The use of social media is highly prevalent among college students, which raises continuous public concerns regarding its implications on social interactions. Therefore, understanding the neural underpinnings of social media sheds light on the diverse impact of social media on its user, both positively and negatively (Abbas et al., 2019). College students use different social media platforms, including Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, WhatsApp, YouTube, and TikTok, among other popular social media platforms. At any given time, over one billion registered users globally are active on social media, whereby nearly three-quarters of them are adolescents and young adults in college (Al-Rahmi & Zeki, 2017). Even though social media use is quite beneficial for college students, as it helps them connect, interact, and network with friends, colleagues, and potential employers/business partners, it has a wide range of negative implications on its users (Ansari & Khan, 2020). Peer pressure may cause both negative and positive consequences on college-going students.
The research study investigates how social media causes negative pressure among college students, leading most to a life of misery and pain instead of the benefits mentioned above. The study’s findings are significant because they will expose the negativity of social media use among college students and inform the suitable approaches to use to contain these social pressures. The researcher will achieve this by synthesizing various literature materials on the implications of social media on college students, testing the following hypothesis as the null and alternative hypotheses.
H1: Social media causes peer pressure among college students.
H0: Social media does not cause peer pressure among college students.
Peer pressure refers to the internal or external force or influence in an individual to do something or act in a particular manner to feel accepted and valued by friends (Boyle et al., 2017). Peer pressure is a common feature among members of the same group, usually triggered by the social nature of human beings, which makes their desire to belong to specific groups, cliques, or cycles in society (Fox & Bird, 2017). Furthermore, belonging to a particular group or social clique brings about a sense of satisfaction for the individual, whether the group they join is good or bad. However, peer pressure is bad because it may result in either positive or negative outcomes because most people cannot cope with peer pressure (Hogue & Mills, 2019). Coping well with peer pressure requires one to get the right balance between being oneself and belonging or fitting in with a group. The prevalence of social media has enhanced the level of peer pressure college students encounter, considering the high numbers of students using social media platforms.
Peer Pressure and Decision-Making
Abbas et al. (2019) peer pressure has pushed teenagers for generations with the need to conform to their surroundings and fit in with their colleagues, friends, and classmates. The rapid rise of social media and its prevalent usage among college-going students has only made things more volatile by making the students more exposed to online peer pressure and pressure from their social worlds. Al-Rahmi & Zeki (2017) shared similar findings, stating that college students are most likely to fall under the pressure of their peers or coercion by their friends in the hopes that it would earn them some social price. However, these perceptions are far from the truth, as most of the decisions they make while attempting to fit into these groups and cliques are poor and may leave them scarred for life. Ansari & Khan (2020) corroborated the above claims, stating that most college students have made poor decisions in joining the wrong company, doing bad things, and even getting a criminal record because of the poor choices attributed to peer pressure.
Boyle et al. (2017) noted that peer pressure created through social media significantly influences college students. This is pointed out from the fact that social groups are more common on social media platforms compared to the social world, as they get exposed to content from other college students from different parts of the world, not necessarily confined to content from their school. Fox & Bird (2017) supported the above claims, stating that, like other social groups, social media groups also demand those wishing to join them to perform some activities or undergo a specific process to show their commitment or passion for joining the group. However, most of these ‘ritual’ or ‘initiation’ processes are not always good and push college students into breaking the law to get the approval of their peers. Hogue & Mills (2019) further noted that aside from having to fulfill some crazy demands from their peers to belong, social media also creates peer pressure among college students through the comparative perspective.
Keles, McCrae & Grealish (2020) noted that most social media users use their platforms to create content about themselves or those around them. In most cases, college students post pictures about themselves and the fun activities and achievements that they’ve had, such as good grades, good girlfriends or boyfriends, expensive shopping, exquisite lunch dates or dinner, and luxury holidays, among others. Talaue et al. (2018) shared similar findings, stating that such posts create pressure among their fellow coursemates in college, especially those that have not achieved or accomplished similar heights as them. Students with a high level of comparison perspectives will be badly affected by such posts, pushing them to make poor decisions to fit in. Walker et al. (2021) identified this as the indirect form of peer pressure where an individual pushes themself to belong to a particular group even without the other group stipulating the conditions that they must fulfill to join the group.
Weinstein (2018) stated that because of the peer pressure that students get from social media use, some of them end up faking a life on social media, which is different from their real lives so that they too appear to be accomplished on social media even when they are doing very poorly. Abbas et al. (2019) shared similar findings, arguing that there was a lot of fake life on social media, which had permeated into real life, whereby people packaged and presented themselves to be doing very well and successful in life was not their actual status. This is primarily attributed to the massive pressure they encounter through social media platforms. Al-Rahmi & Zeki (2017) noted that some go an extra mile of obtaining what they must to get the social recognition and belonging they desire through inappropriate means, simply because of the peer pressure arising from social media platforms. In most cases, they involve themselves in illegal or immoral activities that would guarantee them quick money without much struggle.
Implications of Peer Pressure
Ansari & Khan (2020) stated that many college students are willing to put their health and safety at risk to achieve the gratification from their peers that they too deserve or have what it takes to belong to their social circles. In most cases, the risks taken have far-reaching implications on their health and well-being, both during their college years and through their future. Boyle et al. (2017) argued that some of the pressures these college students experience include shoplifting, drinking alcohol, trying drugs, and making mature decisions not meant for teenagers, such as being a parent before gaining financial stability/security. Fox & Bird (2017) noted that these decisions have long-lasting implications, such as becoming an alcoholic in the future simply because one was forced to drink alcohol by their peers, or being addicted to drugs because they were forced to taste by their peers, or struggling with family planning challenges because one became a parent unprepared.
Hogue & Mills (2019) stated that teenagers who are adversely affected by peer pressure from their friends are commonly insecure, less confident, and want to have the approval of others before they can make a decision that has an impact on their lives. In most cases, the decisions made aim at pleasing others, as opposed to making good for themselves. Keles, McCrae & Grealish (2020) supported the above findings, arguing that giving in to peer pressure provides teens more control over their social life and a feeling of belongingness or fitting in. some go as far as doing cosmetic surgeries to achieve the physical appeal and beauty that their peers demand to initiate them into their social circles. Talaue et al. (2018) noted that teen peer pressure combined with social media becomes particularly harmful because there is no control over the limit or extent of exposure and vulnerability a college student encounters through online platforms.
Walker et al. (2021) established that peer pressure to use alcohol and drugs was perceived as typical only in social gatherings and school settings. Still, social media created a system that encourages college students to imbibe narcotics and substance abuse by seeing the activities of their friends and colleagues posted online. Weinstein (2018) also noted that social media triggers feelings of social anxiety and unrest for most college students, which can push them into making poor decisions if not checked, as the adolescents seek to gain more control over their social status and acceptance of their peers. In most cases, the peers influenced the growth of problematic behaviors among the youth. Hogue & Mills (2019) noted that when a peer wanted to join a group, he/she had to act or behave in a manner approved of members of the group, whereby some of the behavioral expectations were bad or misleading, such as a group routine to smoke cigarettes, to drink alcohol, to use drugs or banned substances, or engage in crimes. In this regard, a college student will have to learn and practice bad behaviors just to belong in a peer group.
Positive Peer Pressure
Abbas et al. (2019) argued that much as social media is blamed for creating negative peer pressure among college students, there are cases where social media creates positive peer pressure among these vulnerable groups. However, this is mainly dependent on the crowd or group that one associates themself with, as a good crowd exposes individuals to good behaviors and encourages positive habits. Al-Rahmi & Zeki (2017) noted that some peers could provide exposure to healthy lifestyles and act as role models to their colleagues on how to lead a positive life. Positive effects of peer pressure include a sense of belonging, support, increased self-esteem, increased self-confidence, enhanced sense of self, and introduction to positive interests and hobbies. Ansari & Khan (2020) added that the key to finding positive peer pressure depended on the social groups that college students chose to identify themselves with, and as such, selecting groups that cared about their well-being and social health ensured positive outcomes in terms of controlling the impact of social pressure.
Role of Parents and Guardians
Boyle et al. (2017) stated that many college students had made poor decisions that destroyed their entire lives because of the peer pressure they encountered through various social media platforms. In this regard, parents and guardians still play a critical role in guiding students on how best to deal with peer pressure from social media so that they don’t make the wrong decisions. Fox & Bird (2017) supported the above claims, stating that the biggest challenge that most college students encounter is to find a group of peers who encourage them to make sound decisions and form healthy habits, as it is usually the first time for them to live independently and far from their homes. Hogue & Mills (2019) added that parents and guardians should not assume that simply because their college students are now mature enough to live in the school with their peers, they no longer need the guidance and correction that they used to provide when they were still studying from home (Keles, McCrae & Grealish, 2020). The trend should continue to encourage them to learn how to discern between good and bad company, good and bad influence, such that they end up choosing the right social groups that guarantee positive peer pressure instead of negative peer pressure.
The synthesis of the literature review materials revealed supported the thesis statement by indicating how social media causes peer pressure among college students. Findings from different scholars indicated that peer pressure was a common development among college students. This was a phase in their lives when they learned to be independent of the influence or guidance of their parents and guardians. Most moved to study far away from their homes. The college students had to make independent decisions regarding their social lives, such as the friends and company that they had to keep while in college. In this regard, they encountered peer pressure to interact with or seek to belong to specific groups within their social circles. The prevalence of social media platforms by college students further exacerbated peer pressure among these college students through online platforms. Therefore, the findings from the literature review confirm the null hypothesis that social media causes peer pressure among college students, thereby disregarding the alternate hypothesis that social media does not cause peer pressure among college students. Further research is required to weigh in on these literature review findings and confirm the accuracy of the hypothesis as applied to college-going students.
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