Social Media Use And Social And Romantic Relationships

Social media networks have significantly influenced relationships in the modern world. While platforms like Facebook, X (formerly Twitter), Instagram, Snapchat, and TikTok can be great communication channels to maintain connections and interactions with loved ones, the same sites have been cited for adverse outcomes in social and romantic relationships. Therefore, social media distracts face-to-face conversations, facilitates insecurities and jealousy, and leads to unrealistic expectations. The recent adoption of social media sites has thus not only led to paradigm shifts in how people interact and communicate but is linked to deteriorating social and romantic relationships. In fact, scholars have argued that social media harms romantic and social relationships as it erodes intimacy and Trust (Abril et al., 2022). The paper argues that social media use has led to more adverse impacts on romantic and social relationships than positive contributions.

Hatamleh et al. (2023) argued that the impact of social media on romantic and social relationships can vary depending on the quantity and quality of social media use by the partners. While the effects of social media use can be mediated by components like self-esteem, social comparison, and social support, the impact on relationships is usually harmful. This is especially true for people with low self-esteem who cannot handle the peer pressure brought by the use of social media. This means that people cannot maintain their romantic relationships through social media due to comparisons that leave users feeling worse about themselves or their partners. Similarly, people who lack social support might be negatively affected when they argue with their partners via social media instead of physical confrontations.

A study by Uusiautti & Määttä (2017) revealed several themes or negative implications of social media on romantic and social relationships. The most mentioned theme was that social media networks take time from a relationship. Instead of helping partners strengthen their relationships, participants revealed that social media sites like Facebook are time-consuming. This does not, however, override the fact that social media platforms have eased communication among spouses and family members. Even when the partners or family members are together, their attention is fixed or shifted to social media applications. In such a sense, social media interrupts attention and interactions and alienates relationship partners from each other. One of the participants lamented that people spend more time on social media instead of focusing on their lives or strengthening their relationships. As a result, romantic and other social relationships are threatened by the presence of Facebook, Instagram, TikTok, and other social media applications. Social media has also been found to establish false images about relationships, as couples and family members attempt to maintain specific pictures for the public to view them as perfect friends, acquaintances, or romantic partners. The problem with such images is that the social media representation does not correspond to the actual relationship.

The results of the Uusiautti & Määttä study are consistent with a previous study by Utz & Beukeboom (2011). However, Utz and colleagues revealed how Facebook negatively affects romantic and other social relationships. A literature review by the authors showed that using Facebook increases jealousy among family members and romantic partners. Since Facebook gives users access to each other’s profiles that contain information they could not access before the arrival of social networking sites, the levels of jealousy, especially in romantic relationships, have increased. If romantic partners find their significant other engaging in potential romantic conversations, they become jealous, resulting in potential harm. When one of the partners is physically abusive, they will use the newfound information as a reason to justify their actions and attack them further.

Some partners and family members are too reliant on the need for theories and the opinions of other social media users (Yacoub et al., 2018). This has negatively contributed to romantic and social relationships in the modern world. Friends tend to approve relationships based on perceived satisfaction. When such approval by the friends is driven by their perceptions of the relationship instead of the reality of how successful the connection is, it can be misleading. When couples rely on the opinions of other social media users instead of reality, they are likely to introduce unnecessary issues into their relationships and avoid healthy communication patterns with their family members or partners. For example, several families have created social media accounts and constantly use them to approve their bond and the type of engagement they prefer. Other social media users might think such families are ideal relationships and ignite problems if their families do not act like the ones they see on social media. Similar cases have been witnessed in romantic relationships where top social media influencers create an identity that other couples can only dream of. Such identities will likely cause problems when the couples do not act like celebrities.

Even though social media use has adversely affected romantic and social relationships, these sites have had some positive impacts. One of the positive contributions was mentioned earlier regarding these platforms easing communication between partners, friends, and family members. Studies have further revealed that computer-mediated communication does not only help people maintain close relationships but also helps them form new ones. This is where problems start, especially among romantic partners. Since people can create new relationships, cases of cheating have so far increased. McDaniel et al. (2017) write that romantic partners displaying secure attachment patterns depend on others and establish close and intimate with their partners. However, those with insecure attachment patterns are likely to avoid attachments and can easily engage in casual sex with other people. Social media presents an excellent opportunity for people to interact with more humans and form social relationships, which can facilitate infidelity in marriages and other romantic engagements. This implies that although social media has eased communication, it has promoted positive and negative impacts on social and romantic relationships.

Ideally, there are increasing suspicions over the interactions partners engage in. With some people addicted to social media, their overreliance on different platforms to communicate has constantly raised fears that they could be searching for more romantic partners. At the same time, suspicions over the type of friendships children develop with their peers via social media means that there is a worrying trend of people using social media to recruit children into suspicious groups and activities such as child pornography.


Although the use of social media has brought tremendous benefits in communication and other interactions, it is evident that the different platforms have been associated with adverse effects on romantic and social relationships. Most people are now involved in cheating due to the availability of channels to connect with other people besides their romantic partners. Similarly, levels of jealousy have increased since social media users now have more access to information they could not access before the development of social networking sites. Friends and family members can now compare their group of friends and family setups with other social media influencers. This has left many people feeling awful about their friendships or family members, which can result in problems like the ones witnessed in romantic relationships. When people rely on the validation of their social media followers and friends, they will likely create relationship problems.


Hatamleh, I. H. M., Safari, A. O., Habes, M., Tahat, O., Ahmad, A. K., Abdallah, R. A. Q., & Aissani, R. (2023). Trust in social media: enhancing social relationships. Social Sciences12(7), 416.

McDaniel, B. T., Drouin, M., & Cravens, J. D. (2017). Do you have anything to hide? Infidelity-related behaviors on social media sites and marital satisfaction. Computers in Human Behavior66, 88-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.09.031.

Utz, S., & Beukeboom, C. J. (2011). The role of social network sites in romantic relationships: Effects on jealousy and relationship happiness. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication16(4), 511-527.

Uusiautti, S., & Määttä, K. (2017). Will social media strengthen or threaten romantic love? Journal of Social Sciences6(4), 709-725.

Yacoub, C., Spoede, J., Cutting, R., & Hawley, D. (2018). The impact of social media on romantic relationships. Journal of Education and Social Development2(2), 53-58. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1490763.

Strategic Analysis Of Universal Solutions Ltd In The UK Social Media And Soft Technology Sector


This report explores Universal Solutions Ltd’s (USL) external and internal environment and offers a recommendation concerning an entry strategy that best suits USL and the social media and soft technology sector. The report is split into several parts that examines the UK external environment concerning the social media and soft technology business and the USL’s internal environment using tools.

Analysis of the UK external environment

PESTLE Analysis

Perera (2017) explains that a PESTLE analysis is among the most utilised tools in the assessment of the external environment. According to Perera (2017), these factors entail social, economic, environmental, legal, political, and technological influences. This tool can be used in several distinctive scenarios and can direct firm managers in strategic decision-making. Besides, as Perera (2017) highlights, a PESTLE Analysis can be utilized to realize how future problems could affect a firm and presents information that could assist in identifying considerable drivers of change that could be utilized in creating scenarios of choices.

Application of PESTLE Analysis to USL

Political factors

According to Odey (2021), the impact of Brexit on human resources is a key political factor in the UK that might impact the social media and soft technology business. The UK has been affected by skill shortages in particular services for years (Odey, 2021). Many sectors, including the social media and soft technology business, have been reported to have the highest shortages of skilled manpower, a situation that has been exasperated by Brexit.

Economic factors

Corporate tax and unemployment rate are key economic factors in the UK that could affect the social media and soft technology business. As of 2023, the corporate tax was 25%, an increase from 19% in 2022 ( news, 2023). Such an increase in corporate discourages investors from investing in the UK, threatening the social media and soft technology business. on the other hand, the unemployment rate (4.3%), affects customer spending on social media services (Statista, 2023).

Social factors

A growing population is a key social factor that influences the UK. Currently, the UK population is 67,852,315 individuals, an increase from 67,736,802 individuals in 2023 (Worldometer, 2024). Such an increase represents a growing consumer market for social media and soft technology businesses.

Technological factors

Technological advancements and tech investment are major technological factors influencing the UK. Research institutes and private businesses work on the expansion of technology to earn a competitive advantage in the UK market (Odey, 2021). The government has also invested a lot in the tech industry as it contributes a lot of income to the UK’s GDP, presenting an opportunity to USL.

Legal and environmental factors

The UK holds several regulations and laws for firms operating in the nation. Such laws include the Employment Act of 1996 which protects workers and the Equality Act of 2010 which protects individuals against discrimination (Odey, 2021). Thus, the social media and soft technology business must comply with these regulations while operating in the UK. Additionally, the UK has taken several steps to lower environmental pollution by educating people about environmental issues and to act responsibly. Thus, the social media and soft technology business will be required to act responsibly while operating in the UK market.

Entry strategies

The opportunities and limitations for USL to choose various entry modes and a recommendation regarding an approach that best suits USL and the social media and soft technology sector.

Joint venture

According to Almenar-Llongo et al. (2021), a joint venture is a normal way of merging the expertise and resources of two otherwise unrelated firms. It encompasses contractual conformity between two or more corporations stating that each party will collaborate for a precise amount of time with the same goal (Almenar-Llongo et al., 2021). In other words, two or more companies agree to function together with mutual ownership for shared benefits. firms utilize this entry strategy due to the low risk associated with it. Thus, a major opportunity for the USL to select this entry mode is access to new markets and greater resources, such as finance and technology (Almenar-Llongo et al., 2021). Another opportunity for USL to select this entry strategy is reduced political and economic risks in a host country since both partners share costs and risks. USL could also access new expertise and knowledge, including skilled personnel. However, a key limitation of a joint venture is the existence of a risk that USL could give up its authority and its goal could not match its partner’s goal since the partners could anticipate different things from the joint venture, as Muñoz de Prat et al. (2020) explain.

Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)

According to Ercilasun et al. (2020), FDI denotes an internationalization approach where the organization creates a physical presence overseas via a direct possession of productive assets like plant and equipment, buildings, labour, technology, and capital. Therefore, a key opportunity for USL to select FDI is that by investing directly in another nation, USL could bypass the tariffs and other trade barriers between its home nation and the target market (Ercilasun et al., 2020). Another opportunity for USL is the creation of a competitive market. According to Ercilasun et al. (2020), FDI enables the entry of overseas firms into the local market. This move assists in developing and maintaining a strong competitive atmosphere which further assists in breaking down the local monopolies. Nevertheless, a key limitation for the USL in selecting FDI is that the FDI could generate social tensions, especially when the USL’s objectives differ among local communities. Another limitation is that USL will not reinvest its profits back into the host nation, leading to huge capital outflows from a host nation, as Ercilasun et al. (2020) note.

Merger & Acquisition

According to Reddy (2014), a merger is when two firms agree to join together to attain one’s objectives at the expense of the other’s resources in addition to the expense of the predecessor’s resources. Acquisition is when an acquiring company retains a considerable possession interest in the target company by purchasing the target’s equity or assets. Thus, a key opportunity for USL to select this entry strategy is the low risk compared to a new investment as the acquisition results might be more precisely and easily projected (Reddy, 2014). Another opportunity is improved distribution capacities. A merger or acquisition could expand USL’s geographically, increasing its capability to deliver services on a broader scale. Nevertheless, USL could encounter increased legal costs since unifying two firms is a legal business that often needs the engagement of numerous key professionals (Reddy, 2014). Merging USL with another firm could also be difficult due to different organizational cultures, management systems, and relationships.

Based on the evaluation of several entry modes, the recommended approach that best fits USL and the social media and soft technology sector in the UK is a joint venture. This is because according to Almenar-Llongo et al. (2021), this entry strategy will permit USL to access resources, and skills and understand the UK culture.

Systems including health and well-being, materials and energy, cities, and food and agriculture. They represent over 60% of the actual economy and are vital in distributing the Universal Goals. Furthermore, the report approximates the establishment of about 380 million new jobs connected to these four sectors over the coming 10-15 years due to the association of business plans to the SDGs. Thus, to fully seize such opportunities, USL must pursue environmental and social sustainability as passionately as it pursues shareholder value and market share (Business & Sustainable Development Commission, 2017). Additionally, financiers are becoming more anxious about businesses’ sustainability risk profiles and comprehending sustainability-associated business opportunities. Besides, they have indicated a concern about the SDGs and firms proactively encouraging the attainment of the SDGs (Business & Sustainable Development Commission, 2017).

When operating in the UK, USL needs to consider the triple bottom line requirements or three P’s”: people, planet, and prosperity theory. According to Correia (2019), the triple bottom line requirements guarantee that the company focuses its consideration outward. This implies considering the sustainability of supply chains and the effect of the firm’s operations on the communities that it works in and enhancing them to guarantee prosperous results for all involved. Additionally, USL could have a higher positive influence on the planet when operating in the UK (Correia, 2019). Rather than concentrating on paper profit, the company could quantifiably establish how its operations will favourably change the planet and the people it will engage with. This, in turn, will inspire worker retention and lower attrition, as Correia (2019) highlights. Employees could be more likely to trust an organization if its environmental effects are communicated. Moreover, favourable working situations comprising days off to volunteer, training, and competitive salaries could keep workers around, lowering the costs of recruitment.


The report has explored Universal Solutions Ltd’s (USL) external using a PESTLE Analysis and internal environment using SWOT and VRIO tools and offered a recommendation concerning an entry strategy that best suits USL and the social media and soft technology sector. From the PESTLE analysis, key factors influencing the UK include Brexit effects, unemployment rate, population growth, technological improvements, and employment laws. Based on the internal analysis, intense competition from sector leaders like Twitter threatens USL’s market development. Nonetheless, the company has a strong financial performance that could enable it to successfully expand into the UK market. Thus, a recommended entry strategy is a joint venture since it will enable USL to access resources, expertise, and markets.


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Correia, M. S. (2019). Sustainability: An overview of the triple bottom line and sustainability implementation. International Journal of Strategic Engineering (IJoSE)2(1), 29-38. DOI:10.4018/IJoSE.2019010103

Ercilasun, M., Akyüz, A., & Döner, A. S. (2020). Foreign Direct Investment Strategy in International Marketing: The Case of Turkey.

Muñoz de Prat, J., Escriva-Beltran, M., & Gómez-Calvet, R. (2020). Joint ventures and sustainable development. A bibliometric analysis. Sustainability12(23), 10176.

Odey, L. (2021). An Evaluation of Challenges Affecting New Technology Startups in the United Kingdom Today: A Pest Analysis. Bournemouth University. DOI:10.13140/RG.2.2.24136.24329

Perera, R. (2017). The PESTLE analysis. Nerdynaut. Available at:

Reddy, K. S. (2014). Extant reviews on entry-mode/internationalization, mergers & acquisitions, and diversification: Understanding theories and establishing interdisciplinary research. Pacific Science Review16(4), 250-274.

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Strengthening Cybersecurity: A Comprehensive Prevention And Response Plan


When good internet is necessary, there is a need to make online safety better. Having strong safety rules for a group is essential, but they could be better. An excellent plan to quickly fix problems and get help is critical in tough times. Businesses can use this plan to navigate the confusing law rules. It also states what security steps should be taken and how to act if their data is at risk. This plan is more than an early step in a world where lousy internet stuff constantly changes. This is very important for companies to prepare for the uncertain world of online safety. This essay will discuss the prevention of compliance quandaries, effective response strategies, building a security-conscious workforce, soliciting feedback for continuous improvement, adapting to emerging threats, harnessing threat intelligence, agile organizational management, implementing the NIST cybersecurity framework and developing a business continuity plan.

Preventing Compliance Quandaries

To stop problems with following rules, there is a need for careful talks and agreements with auditors. Being open is very important, and one should not take shortcuts that make things easier but should put security at risk. For example, in talks about checking legal rules for transactions, a bank can share fancy computer systems that find strange activity signs. This shows they care about safety while still doing important business tasks well. It’s crucial to balance following rules and running smoothly so that companies meet what is required by law and keep their computer safety high. This helps protect both doing things the right way and staying functional.

Effective Response Strategies

Quick and explicit action is significant in the fast-moving time after a security break. Making things clear and talking simply is very important, and it’s needed to ensure everyone knows the problem, how it’s being fixed, and any possible issues (Cichonski et al., 2012). Companies need to make rules about what happens when they get hacked, with easy-to-understand steps. This means talking clearly with influential people and getting ideas from good practices in the business world. Good response strategies involve admitting the mistake and giving steps to the affected people. By quickly dealing with the problem, companies can prevent harm to their image. This shows they are dedicated to responsibility and ready for online security issues.

Building a Security-Conscious Workforce

Making a team that cares about security is crucial to strengthening a company’s online protection. Training courses should follow the rules and make people deeply understand cybersecurity actions. Fake phishing practices, regular training, and news about new dangers help workers keep their organization safe. By encouraging a mindset of caution, workers become the primary guard against possible security breaks. This strengthens the organization and allows workers to become careful protectors of essential details, which adds a lot to building strong cybersecurity.

Soliciting Feedback for Continuous Improvement

To keep improving, companies need to ask for comments on their rules about security regularly. This means organizing things orderly, like surveys, discussion groups, and regular talks to know what people think. Surveys, focus groups, and open discussions can find problems, and they also offer ways to improve everyday life by making people work together on shared tasks (Anoruo, 2019). For example, a healthcare group could do secret questionnaires among workers to determine their thoughts on keeping patient information safe. This loop-back feedback system gives essential clues. It allows for the quick change of security tools and keeps up with evolving online threat problems in the best way possible.

Adapting to Emerging Threats

In a changing online world, businesses must look at their safety steps to see new threats, weaknesses, and ways to stop them. Frequent testing is essential as it shows flaws that weren’t initially considered. A good plan to manage risks, including robust processes for backup and recovery, is necessary as it helps deal with unexpected problems. For example, a bank might pretend to be hit by fake attacks, which will help them find weak spots and ensure they are firm against new dangers. This steady change ensures businesses stay ahead of online attackers, creating a safe place as cybersecurity problems change.

Harnessing Threat Intelligence

Adapting to threat intelligence is crucial to businesses in the current times. Threat intelligence is critical to adapting to the dynamic nature of cyber threats (Schneier, 2015). Once new threats are identified, organizations must swiftly communicate and report findings. Operational managers, stakeholders, and affected individuals should be promptly notified through diverse channels such as targeted email alerts, internal memos, and, if necessary, strategic press releases. This transparent and swift communication strategy mitigates potential damage and fosters a proactive organizational culture. Organizations bolster their ability to anticipate, respond, and neutralize cyber threats by effectively harnessing threat intelligence, ensuring a robust defense against digital risks.

Agile Organizational Management

Effective cybersecurity response depends on good organization management. In dealing with growing dangers, those in charge need up-to-date information, fast decision-making power, and a flexible way to implement plans. Companies can quickly change their security steps, thereby making them ready for new threats that may come up soon. Cyber groups can quickly make changes, helping businesses stay one step ahead of bad people online. This lowers potential harm and keeps essential things safe. Putting agile ideas into managerial ways enables you to maintain a strong defense against cyber threats in our always-changing digital world.

Implementing the NIST Cybersecurity Framework

Using the NIST Cybersecurity Framework is crucial for strengthening and making an organization safer. The Framework is voluntary guidance based on existing standards, guidelines, and practices for organizations to manage and reduce cybersecurity risk better. By matching work parts, steps of action and big ideas with NIST rules, groups make an orderly way to protect against computer security risks (Keller, 2018). This plan gives a complete approach, offering common words for managing risk. It helps find out, shield from and spot cyber threats. It deals with their reaction and getting back on track after the attack. Following the NIST rules helps keep a company’s cybersecurity strong and follow industry best practices. This makes it easier to deal with changing threats, keeping essential things safe from harm.

Developing a Business Continuity Plan

Making a Business Continuity Plan (BCP) is needed to lessen the effect of system problems. A company must do more than tell situations; BCP should also be checked and changed often. The best way is to try different situations until the terrible plans are fixed and the strategy is adjusted. The BCP should include information storage, ways to recover data and other daily tasks. When these parts are combined, teams can handle changes well, and they will be able to act fast and work together in this way. Every business needs a solid plan for when things go wrong. Two significant benefits are keeping a company’s essential tasks safe and helping to bounce back from unexpected problems quickly.


Finally, these active and fast-acting ways show how companies are strong in handling the complexities of internet security. This is a big way to fix many problems in our connected world. It does this by carefully collecting talks from experts, implementing robust plans to stop threats, and providing powerful training to improve workers’ jobs. The system uses feedback tools, plans ways to reduce risks, and helps businesses run smoothly. Companies can benefit from this live plan as it keeps them from possible weaknesses and guides them toward a flexible and safe future. To ensure your business follows the law and stays secure, it’s essential to stick with these rules, even though computer issues are constantly changing. So, hackers find it harder to break into your company’s work.


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Keller, N. (2018, February 5). Getting Started. NIST.

Schneier, B. (2015). Data and Goliath: the hidden battles to collect your data and control your world. W.W. Norton & Company.