Social Media’s Effect On Student Wellbeing Essay Example

SixDegrees was the first well-known social networking site to be launched in 1997. People were able to create a profile and connect with different users using the service. Blogs began gaining popularity in 1999, and the phenomenon has continued to grow in popularity ever since. They exposed consumers to internet devices via email, messageboard posting, and real-time virtual chatting. ushered in the modern era of social networking by bringing it to life. Using social media platforms may engage in dialogue, disseminate information, and publish original material on the web. Social media uses blogging, microblogs, weblogs, networking websites, picture sharing sites, imessage, youtube clip blogs and podcasting, and a wide range of other types of content. There are several reasons why students worldwide have become addicted to social connecting websites and associated applications. Students’ psychological state suffers when they use social media regularly, as shown by studies showing a clear correlation between social media and despair, alienation, and anxiety. The use of social media negatively impacts youngsters’ mental health. Therefore, this paper will affirm that social media has diverse negative impacts on mental well-being.

Differences Between Verbal Communication and Computer-Mediated Communication

Using a computer to communicate is known as “computer-mediated communication.” In contrast to CMC, which includes a wide range of computer-mediated communications (such as teleconference, phone conversations, email communications, and so forth), verbal communication refers to the conversation that occurs only via the act of two individuals conversing verbally (Amando, 2013). As a result, verbal communication refers to conveying information to others. As a result, it may be used in both written and oral communication. Many individuals, however, solely use the phrase to refer to verbal communication. As a result, the depth of the text and the utilization of synchronous rather than synchronous conversation distinguish communicative interaction from spoken communication.

Relationship Between Social Media, Computer-Mediated And Verbal Communications

To avoid boredom during genuine discussions, people turn to their smartphones or other electronic devices to get the quick, vivid reaction that only social networking can provide (Nir, 2014). As a result, fewer and worse-quality talks may take place. There are three ways to communicate ideas in the modern world: verbal conversation, social networks, and computer-mediated interactions.

Besides, the human brain’s response to social media. According to psychiatrists, for example, excessive social media usage may lead to mental health issues since it creates an unwelcome habit for people to engage in (Nir, 2014). A behaviour connection is formed in the brains of social media addicts because of the positive reinforcement they get from their compulsive use of the platform. Youth are particularly fond of social media. On the other hand, many young people feel powerless in the face of their social media addiction. Bad health, poor study habits, and living in a fantasy world are consequences of social media addiction. Many of the world’s issues and solutions may be traced back to social media.

Conversely, because of the dopamine rush from social media, many individuals have begun to live a fabricated existence by fabricating their feelings on the internet. As a result, the brain’s physiological reaction to social media uses changes. People who use social media report higher levels of happiness due to dopamine, a chemical messenger, being sent through the reward circuit in the brain (Trevor. 2018). To get the most out of social media, users need to understand why they love it in the first place. Individuals are compelled to live a life of faking reality, squandering their money and ignoring their genuine concerns. As a result, its users have been depressed when they cannot live up to the standards set by social media. As a way for young people today to stay connected with the people and places they love, social media has become an increasingly common reason for suicide. Using social media may lead to bad behaviours and levels of focus. Social media use has been linked to increased depression, loneliness, low self-esteem, panic attacks, and even insomnia in some users (Nir, 2014). As a result, our ability to focus on one task at a time is hindered by the ease with which social media can be accessed on multiple devices. However, by practising mindfulness while on social media, they can be more mindful of the effects it has on them and improve their self-care strategies.

However, mental health refers toward a person’s intellectual and psychological state. When individuals perceive they’re ostracized out of an engagement online, it may alter their emotions, emotions, and even their bodies. Sleep deprivation is linked to melancholy, memory problems, and poor educational success (Jacqueline, 2022). Social media is addicting. It causes more melancholy and less happiness. Also, comparing one’s life to another’s is psychologically harmful and might cause jealously. Conversely, others believe social networking will assist them. Simultaneously, it affects people’s social life, and thus, having more friends doesn’t mean someone is more social.

Getting socially hooked up with others, on the other hand, can help people cope with stress and anxiety while also boosting their self-esteem, bringing comfort and joy to their lives, and even extending their lives by a few years. This is since not having strong social interconnection can be extremely detrimental to one’s emotional well-being. Nowadays, social media networking sites like Twitter, Instagram, many individuals use Facebook and Twitter to find and interact with others. While each has its benefits, it’s important to remember that digital networks can never replace actual human connection. Face-to-face interaction with others is required to release neurotransmitters that reduce distress and help folks experience stronger, tougher, and much more hopeful.

Contrary to popular belief, consuming excessive hours on social media, it may increase feelings of loneliness and isolation, and even aggravate mental health issues like despair. On the other hand, routine usage may not be an issue as long as persons are conscientious about their actions. Indeed, it has the potential to be useful.

In conclusion, the paper has substantially outlined the importance of why people need to be mindful when using social media. Equally, the essay has done a tremendous job of creating mental awareness for online users. Thus, excessive social media usage may lead to mental health issues since it creates an unwelcome habit for people to engage in. Therefore, social media has diverse negative impacts on people’s mental well-being apart from its significance.


Amando. C, (2013). Virtual Collaboration for a Distributed Enterprise, Rand Corporation.

Jacqueline. S, (2022). “The Social Dilemma: Social Media and Your Mental Health.” Putting People First in Mental Health,

Nir. E, (November 4th, 2014). Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products, Portfolio

Trevor, H (2018). “Dopamine, Smartphones & You: A battle for your time.” Harvard University, May 1st 2018, time/, Accessed February 25th 2022

Social Worker Role Sample Paper

Bellewood & Brooklawn helps Kentucky’s most disadvantaged children and their households heal their hearts and souls. Bellewood & Brooklawn seeks to eliminate disruptions throughout children’s existence, help individuals recover from the impacts of child maltreatment and encourage family welfare through a complete continuum of care spanning from in-home programs and outpatient treatment programs and psychiatric foster services.

Bellewood and Brooklawn offer a complete comprehensive range of services to assist disadvantaged populations in discovering optimism, promoting meaningful changes in their life, and functioning effectively. The facilities provide mental, psychological, and cognitive health services, substance drug rehabilitation, case management, therapeutic intensive treatment centers for adolescents, and psychological foster homes to Kentuckians each year.

Bellewood and Brooklawn merged in 2012, bringing together two institutions with a combined legacy of more than 170 years (Bellewood & Brooklawn, 2021): Bellewood Centre for Kids and Brooklawn Child & Family Support Services. Both facilities arose from the intention of a dedicated few to nourish and offer for youngsters who required the services the most. Today, the institutions that makeup Bellewood & Brooklawn continue to enforce the principle of service delivery in everything they hold to provide better support for disadvantaged minors and their households across Kentucky, thanks to development, innovation, and eventually collaboration.

The Bellewood Centre for Kids opened its doors on February 26, 1849. The Louisville Orphanage was founded in central Louisville by representatives of four Presbyterian congregations who needed to help abandoned and underprivileged children. The first infants were admitted to the Orphanage in 1853 (Bellewood & Brooklawn, 2021). Initially, Bellewood was a self-sufficient neighborhood with farmland of food and animals and staff of caregivers and educators that provided many opportunities for all children. In the years following, Bellewood has grown to offer a comprehensive range of services for mistreated and abandoned children and adolescents, all of which aim to assist each vulnerable child in achieving long-term self-sufficiency. This expansion featured services for psychological foster families, institutional dwelling, independent living, transitory living, and preventative services, as well as four sites around the state.

Bellewood & Brooklawn Objectives

Through a holistic healthcare delivery for underprivileged adolescents and families, the facility restores optimism, instills resilience, further schooling, and encourages religion and religion.

The Independent Living project aims to assist homeless young adults in state custody on their 18th birthday or who are currently in state custody. The program, which serves underprivileged youngsters aged 18 to 21, offers a stable home with all costs covered if the young person works, goes to university, or does both. In addition, the program helps with:

  • Advancement of individual career
  • Learning at a higher level
  • Improvement of self-sufficient living abilities

The project’s primary purpose is to make the transfer from government custody, foster families, or inpatient institutions to actual self-sufficiency as smooth as possible.

The education program to assist the youths is a critical component of maintaining a comprehensive range of services for our adolescents to grow into productive contributors to society. Every adolescent’s mission is to establish the necessary qualifications to become a productive, self-sufficient adult.

Individuals, including their households, are supported by social services during trying situations, and vulnerable groups, such as youth and adolescents, are protected from danger. Their job is to aid in the improvement of people’s existence. They function as advisers and champions while maintaining professional connections. They may be forced to use their competent decision-making when rendering complex judgments that are not always favorably welcomed by individuals they attempt to assist.

As a care worker, one will serve individuals, households, and community members in various contexts while adhering to current legislative requirements. Workers could serve in people’s homes, learning institutions, healthcare facilities, or on the grounds of other government and non-profit institutions. Social workers usually concentrate on assisting children and families or assisting disadvantaged people. It’s a difficult job that periodically attracts considerable attention, which may be detrimental when things go wrong.

As a result, the state has been taking additional steps to promote and build a strong case manager staff. Social work associates are often used to assist licensed social workers. They also collaborate with other healthcare practitioners. Social workers have a legal obligation to follow the law and the authority to execute their duties (Bellewood & Brooklawn, 2021). Social workers within non-statutory positions interact with a comparable client population and are not accountable for upholding the law. They will work in the charitable sector or specialized professions like helping substance abuse addicts homeless individuals and dealing with mental health concerns. They could also engage in crisis intervention positions, preventing societal conflict from arising to the point when legal facilities are needed.

The Family Support Program offered by Bellewood & Brooklawn has been a family-based, short-term crisis response charity that enables households in crisis by strengthening leadership and family operations while keeping kids protected. Bellewood & Brooklawn understands that detaching children from parents can indeed be stressful, so they try to avoid it as much as possible by using treatment methods and assistance.

The initiative aims to assist at-risk households by acting constructively to ensure the safety of children and continue to stay in their households. The Department of Social Services must recommend individuals, be at a danger of child separation or have a kid in foster homes going back home, and live in one of the following Kentucky areas to be eligible for family support offerings: The FPP throughout Kentucky has indeed been effective in minimizing-entry into out-of-home supervision, speeding up resettlement, and boosting family wellbeing. This initiative is supported in part or entirely by national, CHFS, or even other regional money.

Comprehensive Home Services

Young individuals receive the Comprehensive In-Home programs at their residential places, neighborhood, or organization offices. Such outpatient treatment facilities are within reach for Medicaid-eligible children and teenagers suffering persistent behavioral and cognitive issues. The programs are intended to help households avoid out-of-home assignments and hospitalized procedures.

The Intensive In-Home technique is required to concentrate on habits in the context of their occurrence — at family, in the neighborhood, or at learning facilities. Among the services provided are:

  • Treatment of the case
  • Individual and group counseling are available.
  • Foster care program

Professional solutions can aid in the improvement of particular traits and the overall wellbeing of the household. Children and teenagers who use one or even more in-home programs are immediately enrolled in Bellewood & Brooklawn’s innovative delivery of services, which includes outpatient psychotherapy. The at-risk youngster would never feel alone or misinformed since each young teen they support is assigned their caseworker.

The following services are available at Bellwood & Brooklawn:

  • Case management facilities tailored to individual needs: For a holistic approach to care, our care coordinators connect critical local mental health programs, private providers, and parental support services.
  • Psychotherapy: Therapists tailor treatment for emotional and behavioral challenges, such as trauma, delinquent behavior, impulsivity, anxiety, school-related difficulties, and pain and anxiety.

The social worker’s role in the state has been to unite families and develop the necessary procedures to unite the families. The typical week of a social worker depends on the daily needs and number of cases to attend. Most challenges social workers encounter are language barriers, inadequate resources, and lack of cooperation among community workers. The disadvantaged groups in society are involved in the program where they must make decisions regarding their situations. Understanding families’ challenges and working with disadvantaged groups need strong interpersonal and communication skills to address identified gaps. As a social worker, time management, communication skills, being open and accountable are essential skills.


Bellewood & Brooklawn. (2021, September 14). Community-Based Services. Bellewood & Brooklawn. Retrieved March 3, 2022, from

Social Workers Approaches Writing Sample

Of all the total crimes committed in the UK, 18% are domestic abuse-related (Cleaver et al., 2019, p.140). Social working is the profession where trained personnel help susceptible people and communities to walk through challenges posed to them. A social worker’s primary roles include promoting the social welfare of the vulnerable groups, assisting individuals in overcoming challenges, and advocating for equal social and economical treatment of diverse groups. Social workers offer emotional and physical support to enable individuals to meet their spired needs (Weiss‐Gal, 2017, p. 285). Research shows that domestic abuse is the principal problem social workers encounter (SafeLives, n.d). in the UK, cases of domestic abuse aimed at women are very; 1.2 million females were subjected to domestic violence, equating to a staggering 30% (Local Government Association, 2015, p. 13). Social workers have employed various theories to study and correct domestic violence focused on mothers.

This assignment aims to assess the different approaches social workers can incorporate when shielding mothers against domestic violence. It will also evaluate the consequences of each course. The assessed methods include; the feminist perspective theory, signs of safety in social work, the must approach for intervention, and the domestic abuse legislation timeline.

Feminist theory

Feminist theory emerged in the 1970s when the world experienced increased women’s movements (Butler, 2020, p. 353).  The approach describes domestic violence as a men intimidation towards women. It insists that modes of domestic violence vary just like other criminal cases, and they include; rape, sexual assault, female genital mutilation, marital rape, and infanticide. The theory argues that unequal power between men and women in the marriage setup is the biggest driver of domestic violence levied on women. Butler (2020, p. 355) says the female gender is victimized due to male patriarchy, male power, and status in the family. The economic interdependence of women on men in several families also causes domestic violence and women’s subordination. The approach asserts that society condones the aggressive male behaviors while relishing the calm nature of women, thus cultivating domestic abuse on women (Ferguson, 2017, p. 269). Although women can also cause violence to men, Ferguson (2017, p. 270) claims that there is no need to give as much attention as men’s violence since it is not dominant in society.

Treating domestic violence on women involves the use of The Duluth model. The model was formed after frequent domestic violence and homicides were reported in Duluth (Wilson, 2019, p 3). In Minnesota, increased domestic violence forced the community and governmental agencies to seek a permanent and effective solution comprising police officers, courts, and humanitarian representation. The following questions guided the Duluth Model; why women were the target of violence, the impact of male violence on the relationships balance, the perceived remedies of violent actions, why men feel they have power in marriages and relationships, and the community take on domestic violence. The model focuses on the power dynamics in unions, representing the difference between men’s and women’s power socialization. The model’s goal is to educate the male gender on their roles in the family or relationship. It also enlightens men on how societal endorsement of patriarchal privileges is unfair to women and imposes healthy relations with females.

Consequences of The Feminist Theory

Espousal of the feminist theory in social work has led to improved treatment of women in their residential units (Finke, 2018). Women now have the freedom to file and get a divorce and make pregnancy-related decisions, including accessing family planning services. Finke (2018) is glad that through the feminist approach, there are clear set rules that give women equal chances of wealth ownership. On the other hand, borrowing from Harvard Psychology Professor Steven Pinker, the approach has decreased the possibility of men being killed by their female partners/wives (Wendell, 2017, p. 329). The course has streamlined human rights and gender equality in representation, workplaces, and governmental services. In an unhappy relationship or marriage, the approach facilitates easier moving out, thus enabling women to stay where they find amity and contentment. And the process has improved women’s confidence; they undertake their errands knowing they have a supportive channel.

Sign of Safety

Signs of safety approach was innovated in Australia in the 1990s to offer protection services to children (CommunityCare, 2021, p. 1). Different organizations have far used the method worldwide to solve domestic misunderstandings. It is focused on strengths and solutions and emphasizes building relationships with both families and other professions. The signs of safety approach concentrate on what works in the prevailing scenario. It works with the family to create child protection plans.

Implementation of the model involves five main stages (Baginsky, 2020, p. 160). Firstly, ask questions to identify any present strengths and safety acronyms. This entails interrogating the family to recognize positive areas that can be relied on. The first conversation reveals all of these facets, enabling the social worker to distinguish the background of the violence. Secondly, the social worker maps each assessment’s strengths, harms, intricate aspects, and safety. Mapping is done to distinguish the elements to emphasize the imperative rudiments clearly. After the mapping, precise analysis is formed and shared with the family. The study enlightens the family on professional uncertainties based on the threat declarations and safety goals.

The Main Domains

Roy (2020, p. 10) insists that in assessing children’s lives, three main domains are involved in implementing the model; their worries, happiness, and dreams. Children will be asked to talk about what makes them worried in their lives, sources of joy, and what they wish for. Altogether, they employ the three-house slant; house of worries, house of good things, and the house of dreams. The assessment will then incorporate four main questions; what is your biggest fear concerning the child, what works well in the family, what is supposed to be done to ensure the child’s future is safe, and on a scale of 0-10, where zero means no safety while ten means maximum safety.

A family plan is then presented as follows.

What are we worried about? What is working well? What needs to happen?
Previous events have created worries and impacts on the children, including family happenings that complicate the existing problems. Events that are already happening maintain the child’s safety and ability to meet requirements. Identification of strengths What the social workers need to witness to be convinced the child’s safety has been attained. They turn into family strategies and goals.

Scale: 0                                                                         10


Danger                                                                       Safe

Consequences of Safety in Social Work

Conferring to the report of a study steered by Signs of Safety (n.d), the implications of the approach were overwhelming. Parents testified that their roles are now clear to them, and their children’s expectation has promoted harmony in the previous conflict-flooded homes. The approach also upheld transparency in making decisions at home, reducing the possibilities of misunderstandings. Signs of Safety also reported that social workers gained more skills and became more concerned about the child’s well-being. The approach suggestively invigorated accurate and improved evidence presentation. The use of scale and simple tables to display information explained the position of the families quickly, leaving them more informed and advised the necessary course to assume. And, families led a safe life since all the possible menaces were acknowledged and necessary actions were taken.

Domestic Abuse Legislation

Numerous attempts have been made to define domestic violence but ended in vain. Domestic violence/ abuse has no universal connotation nor a precise definition. Consequently, the abundant descriptions help understand the nature of domestic crime and the whole phenomenon. Domestic abuse can therefore be any act that destroys or devalues the dignity of a family member, more so women since they are the most targeted. Although the laws do not provide that domestic abuse is a criminal offense, the acts that result in domestic abuse are regarded as crimes (Wydall et al., 2018, p. 170). According to the CPS, domestic abuse cases are being prioritized in the UK, Wydall et al. (2018, p. 171) claiming they are among the severe cases.

According to Buckinghamshire (n.d), the Domestic Violence Protection Orders (DVPOs) were fully implemented in Wales and England in 2014. The orders offer protection to domestic violence victims with the help of police and magistrates immediately after the manifestation of domestic abuse. The DVPOs can ban the accused from accessing their residence for up to 28 days to allow the victim to have a personal space to make up their mind (Buckinghamshire, n.d). Initially, domestic violence cases could take a long time since the police needed to investigate the report, allowing the perpetrator to be released on bond. Still, the outcomes take less time with the Domestic Violence Disclosure Scheme. The scheme was also formed in 2014 (Buckinghamshire n.d) maintains. It allows the public to get information about the person they are with or their spouse relationship partners. Therefore, the social workers can seek legal action on behalf of the domestically abused mother, the perpetrator will be prosecuted, and compensation presented to the complainant where necessary.

Consequences of legislation

Although legislation is an approach to solving domestic violence, sociologies like Ferguson (2017, p. 284) argue that laws on domestic violence create more disparities between the individuals related. The legislation creates more hostility between parents and has far more impacts on the children. For instance, if a father gets jailed for suspected domestic abuse to his wife while ongoing investigations, it will create tension for the children. It may lure the accused to act differently if he is found single. Additionally, some cases require the services of lawyers to represent each party (Avila, 2018, p. 15). Hiring a lawyer may be too expensive, considering the abused may be dependent. It, therefore, results in financial constraints and some cases, leaves the abused with bad debts. Additionally, the amended laws account for domestic violence cases that are not more than six months old (Fitz-Gibbon & Walklate, 2017, p. 2090). This rule makes it easier for perpetrators to escape the arm of the law since, after the expiry of the six months, the case is classified as void. And also, legislation has helped reduce the number of domestic violence cases from 269,000 to 200,000 (Robinson, 2021, p. 120). The strict amended laws have significantly discouraged domestic abuses in the whole UK.

System Theory

System theory suggests that human behavior is inclined by home environment, family, friends, social sceneries, a fiscal class that works together. Each member of the family is a subsystem. The focal subsystems are parent-parent, parent-child, and child-child. Primarily, the happenings in the parent-parent correlation affect both the parent-to-child and child-to-child association. Ruben (2018, p. 97) claims that these and other factors influence individuals’ actions and thinking; therefore, examining them to detect ineffective aspects and undertaking corrections can help correct behavior. In this theory, social workers look at the social systems that affect the behavior and correct them. Ruben (2018, p. 97) contends that usually, discrepancies will always occur between parents and children, but extreme cases of these misunderstandings may result in abuse. In the family setting, abuse may be through words, emotions, or actions rendered to the wife by the husband. Children also can abuse their parents, especially their mother, because they witness her being accused, and therefore, they feel it is an everyday act.

Liberating and correcting domestic abuse may also include the system theory approach. A study shows that raising a child in a poverty system depressingly affects their rational and decision-making abilities. Social workers integrate a four-stage domestic violence correction plan; engaging, assessing, intervening, and evaluating. The engagement stage refers to the social worker and the client (Howe, 2017). The duration taken depends on the nature of the case. The social worker needs to maintain a friendly nature and exhibit high listening qualities to accurately get the gist of the problem. The worker may maintain eye contact, empathy, excellent rhetoric questions, and lively listening. Secondly, assessing involves reviewing the shared information and formulating necessary stratagems in the subsequent stage. Howe (2017) advises that raising the client’s confidence is necessary at this stage. It can be achieved by highlighting their strengths and areas they should be proud of from the narration of their issues. Thirdly, the intervening stage involves a combination of the preceding two stages. Devising the specific objectives and strategies to ensure goals are met. The social worker is tasked with monitoring the strategies to ensure clients expected services are delivered. The client should hereafter implement the proposals. Lastly, the evaluation stage is a continuous process from the third stage. Evaluation is crucial to ascertain the success threshold (Howe, 2017). The client gives feedback and may request a repeat if they feel unsatisfied.

Consequences of Systems Theory

The systems theory offers a deep understanding of the problem, assessing the background to domestic abuse, hence creating lasting relationships between client and social worker resulting in more accessible and faster decision making (Lewis, 2017, p. 170). Relishing a good relationship encourages openness, and my help prevents future abuses from happening. Systems theory creates confidence and self-realization in the victim. And understanding the different causes and dimensions of individuals thinking and actions helps promote harmonious relationships and marriages.


The various theories above show that the offender is not solely reliable to their action. Instead, environmental, economic, social, physical, and cultural factors propel them to execute domestic violence. Therefore, the behaviors of the perpetrators towards mothers largely depend on uncontrollable factors. The concept of domestic violence is so enormous its understanding requires a multidimensional method enlightening the discussed contributory factors. Social workers effectively solve these abuses; therefore, more training on handling such cases is imperative.


Baginsky, M., Hickman, B., Moriarty, J., and Manthorpe, J., 2020. Working with signs of safety: Parents’ perception of change. Child & Family Social Work25(1), pp.154-164.

Buckinghamshire: 6.2 Domestic Abuse: Guidance and Procedure | Buckinghamshire Safeguarding Children Board Procedures Manual

Butler, J., 2020. Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and feminist theory (pp. 353-361). Routledge.

Cleaver, K., Maras, P., Oram, C., and McCallum, K., 2019. A review of UK-based multi-agency approaches to early intervention in domestic abuse: Lessons from existing evaluation studies. Aggression and violent behavior46, pp.140-155.

CommunityCare. 2021: Signs of Safety – Community Care

de Avila, T., 2018. Facing domestic violence against women in Brazil: advances and challenges. International journal for crime, justice, and social democracy7(1), p.15.

Finke, L.A., 2018. Feminist theory, women’s writing. Cornell University Press.

Fitz-Gibbon, K. and Walklate, S., 2017. The efficacy of Clare’s Law in domestic violence law reform in England and Wales. Criminology & criminal justice17(3), pp.284-300.

Ferguson, K.E., 2017. Feminist theory today. Annual Review of Political Science20, pp.269-286.

Howe, D., 2017. An introduction to social work theory. Routledge.

Lewis, J.S., 2017. Carl Rogers and the Person-Centered Approach Social Work Applications Now and for the Future. Human behavior theory and social work practice (pp. 166-172). Routledge.

Local Government Association, 2015. Adult Safeguarding and Domestic Abuse pp 1-56

Robinson, A.L., 2021. Domestic violence and abuse in the UK. In Global responses to domestic violence (pp. 107-124). Springer, Cham.

Ruben, B.D., 2018. General system theory. In Interdisciplinary approaches to human communication (pp. 95-118). Routledge.

Roy, J., 2020. Signs of Safety: The View From Early Help. Child Care in Practice, pp.1-17.

SafeLives: The role of social workers in responding effectively to domestic abuse | Safelives

Signs of Safety:

Weiss‐Gal, I., 2017. Social workers’ policy engagement: A review of the literature. International Journal of Social Welfare26(3), pp.285-298.

Wendell, S., 2017. Feminism, Disability, and the Transcendence of the Body. In Feminist Theory and the body (pp. 324-333). Routledge.

Wilson, J.K., 2019. The cycle of Violence. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, pp.1-5.

Wydall, S., Clarke, A., Williams, J. and Zerk, R., 2018. Domestic abuse and elder abuse in Wales: A tale of two initiatives. British Journal of Social Work48(4), pp.962-981.