‘Social Smoking Among Young Adults’ By Song & Ling Sample College Essay


In the article, Social smoking among young adults: Investigation of Intentions and Attempts to Quit, Song and Ling (2011) discuss social smoking among young adults. According to the article, social smoking, which is common among young people, is mostly confined to social events such as parties when teenagers who are not regular smokers or addicted smokers engage in smoking activities. They use the catchphrase, ‘those who smoke with others’ to make their definition even more clear. However, it is worth noting that daily smokers often smoke with other people and hence the need to be clear on the target group that this article seeks to discuss. Social smokers often do not think that their smoking is harmful and that they can quit anytime. Above all, they do not perceive themselves as having a smoking problem since their smoking is confined to social events. While identifying the difference between social smokers and regular smokers, Song and Ling (2011) ask important questions on whether it is easier for social smokers to quit smoking than regular smokers. Further, the article seeks to investigate the intentions and behaviors that influence the cessation of smoking among social smokers. In answering the research questions, the study involved an internet-based survey of 1528 young adults. Further, the research required current smokers to reveal their intentions to quit smoking in the next 6 months. In addition, the research focused on quitting behaviors where participants were questioned on whether they had made deliberate efforts to quit smoking for a month or longer in the past year. The research revealed important findings that related to the intentions and behaviors of quitting smoking among social and regular smokers in the sample of the population that was investigated. For instance, the research found that those who smoke only with others had higher intentions of quitting. They exhibited higher smoking-quitting behaviors relative to those who smoked individually.


The article’s main strength is the focus on primary research, which is complemented by the existing research that has majored in studying smoking behaviors among youths. Further, the sample population of more than 15000 people is adequate. It ensures that the findings of the research can be generalized to a wider population. However, despite these strengths, the article has one shortcoming. It focuses on college-going young adults, which definitely leaves a lot to be discussed about the smoking behaviors of young adults who are not confined to the college environment, which changes the social circles of that population.

Key Elements

One of the key issues that can be identified in the article is the influence of social groups on certain behaviors among young adults. In this case, it is evident that while most young adult social smokers do not wish to contain smoking in the end, being in their social groups influences them to smoke or engage in smoking behaviors. They would otherwise not engage in smoking if there were alone. Indeed, this notion is well supported by the fact that most of them are willing to quit or have tried quitting in the past.


From the above research, the findings of the research clearly indicate the role of social networks and their influence on smoking among the youths. The authors have presented their hypothesis and answered it satisfactorily and hence the reason why this study should be used as a platform to launch future other studies that seek to understand the linkages between social smoking and young adults, as well as the key factors that determine the quitting behaviors that this group exhibits.

Reference List

Song, V., & Ling, M. (2011). Social Smoking among Young Adults: Investigations of Intentions and Attempts to Quit. American Journal Public Health, 101(7), 1291-1296.

Transformational Leadership In Healthcare

Time management is an interesting topic that has been actively discussed over the last few years. It is necessary to mention that the interest in this concept has been increasing because employers have realized that it is an essential skill that needs to be mastered because it helps to increase performance levels of employees.

With a use of Time Management Assessment, I have determined that my time-management skills are outstanding because I have managed to get a score of 30. However, I think that there is still a need for further improvement because I may have problems with some situations. For example, I may get distracted by something, and it may lead to a loss of valuable time. I think that the best quality that lets me use my time efficiently is that I do not like to spend it on activities that are not productive. I prefer the ones that allow me to improve as a professional and an individual. Also, it is imperative to say that there is a broad range of literature on this topic, and such books and articles have to be studied to improve the knowledge (Claessens, Eerde, Rutte, & Roe, 2007). It is necessary to understand that new technologies and techniques are always being introduced, and it may have an impact on healthcare. The fact that social media and the Internet may be quite distracting should not be overlooked, and it is important to make sure that it does not affect the process of work (Jones & Hood, 2010).

In my opinion, the leadership theory that suits my style the most is transformational leadership because I think that it has enormous potential and helps to develop skills that are essential for every professional healthcare provider. A democratic approach can be incredibly efficient because others do not feel the pressure, and are willing to express their ideas and make suggestions that may be valuable (Giltinane, 2013). I would like to share responsibilities with individuals that I have to supervise, and I think that and establishment of positive relationships in the workplace is vital. This approach reduces the level of stress and tension most of the time and leads to outstanding results and improves overall performance. It is important to understand that control and influence are also reduced, but guidance should be regarded as a reasonable alternative. Also, it is paramount to note that the role of self-esteem should not be overlooked, and every leader should believe in his or her decisions in the workplace because any doubt is easily recognized by followers in most situations (Matzler, Bauer, & Mooradian, 2015). The importance of consultations with others also should not be overlooked, and it helps to make decisions that would be the most adequate in particular situations. It is paramount to understand that it is necessary to develop such skills to stay competent. The fact that demands of patients are always increasing should be taken into account because their expectations are incredibly high at this point. The role of experience also needs to be mentioned because it is nearly impossible to improve leadership abilities without practice. For example, one of the studies has shown that effective leadership is one of the core factors that determine performance levels of employees in this industry (Spurgeon, Long, Clark, & Daly, 2015). There is a difference between the perception of online and face-to-face influence (Silbergh & Lennon, 2006). The primary difference between leadership and management is that leaders prefer to ensure that individuals are following them, and do not try to make them perform particular tasks directly most of the time. Also, there are several similarities between these two approaches. For instance, the goal is the same in most cases. Both leaders and managers try to ensure that the resources are used as efficiently as possible, and objectives are met promptly.

It is imperative to understand that these concepts have to be applied in the workplace because they have proven to be incredibly useful, and every trained professional should have an understanding of their importance. For example, a schedule for every employee needs to be developed to improve their time management abilities. One of the biggest benefits of leadership is that it allows others to enhance their skills and learn from the experience. It is also paramount to note that it has become an essential part of professional nursing organizations, and institutions that acknowledge the role of these concepts are known to be incredibly profitable.

In conclusion, it is hard to argue with the importance of time management and leadership. An understanding of these concepts is critical in the workplace most of the time. The knowledge that is gained may be applied to improve the overall quality of service and efficiency of most operations. The test has shown that my time management skills are already sufficient. However, I am determined to improve as an individual, and I think that this is necessary for every professional.


Claessens, J. B., Eerde, V. W., Rutte, G. C., & Roe, A. R. (2007). A review of the time management literature. Personnel Review, 36(2), 255-276.

Giltinane, C. L. (2013). Leadership styles and theories. Nursing Standard, 27(41), 35-39.

Jones, L., & Hood, P. (2010). Effective time management for improved performance. Industrial and Commercial Training, 42(7), 386-388.

Matzler, K., Bauer, F., & Mooradian, T. (2015). Self-esteem and transformational leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30(7), 815-831.

Silbergh, D., & Lennon, K. (2006). Developing leadership skills: online versus face‐to‐face. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(7), 498-511.

Spurgeon, P., Long, P., Clark, J., & Daly, F. (2015). Do we need medical leadership or medical engagement? Leadership in Health Services, 28(3), 173-184.

Date Rape And Victim-Offender Relationships Analysis

Uniform Crime Report/ National Crime Victimization Survey: Strengths and Weaknesses of These Reports

  • The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) were developed by the International Association of Chiefs of Police in order to provide nations with uniform crime statistics at the end of the 1920s;
  • The FBI became responsible for gathering, analyzing, presenting, and archiving data from Uniform Crime Reports in 1930; and nowadays, more than 17,000 agencies contribute reliable information to FBI;
  • The objective of UCR is to present and evaluate a certain set of crimes and use this information in order to improve enforcement administration and management;
  • National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is another program by the Bureau of Justice Statistics that presents valid information concerning the matter of criminal victimization, its characteristics, and consequences;
  • Numerous assaults, rapes, burglary, and thefts are considered to be the major issues for consideration within the National Crime Victimization Surveys;
  • The peculiar feature of NCVS is its focus on the impact of crimes and the description of possible offenders – such attention to characteristics and consequences should be helpful for the nation and prevent so frequent crimes;
  • The strength of UCR is its possibility to protect the nation against possible terroristic attacks and other foreign threats and the major weakness of this program is its general purposes like bringing justice to all those, who may violate the law;
  • The strength of the NCVS is to develop reliable information about victims, compare crimes, and analyze the consequences; however, its weakness is connected to its attention to numerous crimes at the same time.

Date Rape and Its Connection to Stranger/Statutory/Spousal Rape

  • Date rape, also known as acquaintance rape is such kind of crime, committed by someone the victim knows or dates with (Basso, 2003, p. 235);
  • Many people, usually young men, think that if they spend some money on dinner or presents, they have to have sex with their dates;
  • Date rape has nothing in common with stranger rape, as the latter is forced sex by an absolutely unknown person;
  • Statutory rape is one more sexual intercourse that happens between people, where one of them is much younger than the statutory sex; this type of rape is a bit similar to date rape, because the participants of these intercourses may know each other;
  • Spousal rape is sexual intercourse that happens without the agreement of one of the spouses. It may be a kind of date rape when a spouse uses some power after a date in order to have sex without mutual consent.

Types of Date Rape Drugs

  • Date rape drug is any possible drug that can promote the possibility of a sexual assault during or after a date rape;
  • Drug abuse is regarded as one of the major threats for modern society (Adams, 2006), this is why it is crucially important to know some information about possible drugs before having a date with a person for the first time;
  • GHB, Rohypnol, and Ketamin are three of the best-known date rape drugs, which are frequently used by the offenders;
  • The effect of GHB is similar to the effect of alcohol and increases sex drive;
  • The effect of Rohypnol, liquid ecstasy, lasts for about 12 hours and causes the loss of motor control, possible amnesia, and inability to coordinate;
  • The effect of Ketamine, also known as K-hole or K-land, is strange enough: its users get a chance to feel that their own bodies are separated from their minds; they do not feel pain and do not comprehend that they are at risk;
  • It is very easy to buy any date rape drug on the streets or even at some drugstores, this is why people should be careful while drinking or eating with an unknown and suspicious person.

Victim/Offender Relationship

  • The victim/offender relationship is one of the most significant factors, which help to determine offender’s behavior at different stages of committing a crime;
  • Usually, date rapes happen at victim or offender’s home, in cars, or at streets with few people, and each time, the rapist’s behavior is different before the attack;
  • Environmental factors and victim’s condition play an important role in date rapes;
  • Sometimes, in the case of date rape, victims may be viewed by society or jurors as responsible for assaults because of their inappropriate behavior, attitude, or hints;
  • Victims are also viewed by offenders as one more opportunity to demonstrate own power and the ability to persuade;

Lots of problems may appear during date rape prosecutions: desire/necessity of a victim to remain unknown, victim’s personal condition, inability to analyze the psychological conditions of offenders and victims.

Reference List

Adams, C. (2006). Rohypnol: Roofies – the Date-Rape Drug. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group.

Basso, M. J. (2003). The Underground Guide to Teenage Sexuality: An Essential Handbook for Today’s Teens and Parents. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Fairview Press.

error: Content is protected !!