Social Work Paper Essay Example

Population, Need, and Rationale

The population that this work will explain is the elderly. One area of community change is where there is a need to improve the elderly’s lives. Older adults have already played a huge role in society. For instance, some have been essential in growing the community through different programs. Some have served in the military by dedicating their lives to protecting society (Kuerbis, 2020). On the same note, most have been important in younger generations’ lives.

For this reason, choosing this population is important in this paper. As a social worker, one should focus on several problems affecting society. This way, one can devise strategies and interventions to prevent several societal problems. Social workers should be aware of their populations. This way, it would be easier to identify any issues they may experience. It is also a good way to interact with the population members and establish ethical relationships.

Based on this selection, the social worker will identify elderly alcoholism as a major problem that needs change. One of the most important things that people should note is that the elderly in society has reached a stage where most do not focus more on socialization. Some have opted to remain alone for their reasons. However, studies show that one of the reasons for such situations is that other family members find it hectic to take care of the elderly (Satre et al., 2020). For instance, some feel they take care of their needs too much. Thus, some would opt to take them to nursing homes, where they can receive care services from other professionals. Such situations can lead to several problems among the elderly. For instance, some may drown in depression. This can affect their connection with others in society. For this reason, some older adults have resorted to alcoholism as a management approach. This is because they believe alcoholism would help them sort out their problems.

As a social worker, this might be a challenging aspect to deal with. First, dealing with the elderly requires intense skills, knowledge, and patience. Thus, one may find it challenging to develop an intervention that can help them deal with alcoholism and any other social problem. However, this is a task that most social workers have already taken. They are ready to deal with the situation regardless of how long it takes.

The rationale for the focus

The rationale for the focus is that the elderly in society is among the most vulnerable population groups. One of the reasons is their physical and mental well-being. Studies show that the elderly are more vulnerable to physical and mental conditions that can affect their lives (Pachankis et al., 2020). This is also because of their deteriorated physical activities and immune systems. Another issue is that older adults are more likely to fall into depression because of their financial situations. Most are retired individuals who no longer have a stable income. Such a case may make them engage in substance abuse such as alcoholism. With time, they can also develop conditions such as alcohol abuse disorder. Therefore, the target change would be implementing an intervention that would help the elderly avoid alcoholism and any drugs.

As a social worker, one should also consider cultural humility. One should evaluate the population’s culture before incorporating any intervention. Understanding one’s culture would help one know several aspects, such as language, practices, and beliefs (Day & Rudd, 2019). This way, one would also prevent instances of culture shock and conflicts. One should incorporate a client’s cultural practices and beliefs in their interventions.

Innovation, Evidence, and Past Intervention

According to studies, older adults engage in alcoholism for various purposes. For instance, some take alcohol to fight boredom. This is because of their lack of engagement in several activities that would make them active. On the same note, some engage in alcoholism to fight pain. Studies have shown that some older adults believe in using substances such as alcohol to fight pain. Their pain may be from chronic conditions such as cancer or a traumatic event. Other reasons include fighting depression, sleeplessness, and dealing with self-esteem-related issues. According to Marengoni et al. (2020), social workers should understand why older adults take alcohol before they can develop interventions to help them. As studies suggest, people drink alcohol for various reasons. Thus, understanding these factors would play a huge role in identifying the best intervention that would lead to the preferred outcomes.

From the literature review, one can learn several things. For instance, studies state that people engage in alcoholism for various reasons. Thus, it is essential to personalize care intervention based on the factors behind one’s engagement in alcoholism. One can also learn that some mental-related issues can lead to alcoholism. Therefore, when developing an intervention, one should consider handling mental issues, as well. This can also call for collaboration with other social and health workers.

The review also outlines several interventions that communities have used to deal with elderly alcoholism. For instance, finding a new skill helps the elderly divert their attention from alcoholism to doing something else. Similarly, cognitive behavioral therapy has been a major aspect of dealing with alcoholism among the elderly. Studies show that cognitive behavioral therapy helps the elderly learn how to control their behaviors and desires toward alcoholism. This way, they are better positioned to change their behaviors and focus on other things apart from alcoholism.

Macro Intervention and Planning

The intervention will play a huge role in ensuring that the elderly understand the risks they put themselves in. the intervention must also include several stakeholders, who should play different roles. For instance, the first stakeholders are therapists. They should help the elderly undergo several forms of therapy that would help them cease taking alcohol. Similarly, the intervention will include additional social workers, who will evaluate any additional problems the elderly would have. The intervention will also include the elderly’s family members, who will help make several decisions. This will incorporate autonomy, as the elderly and their families must be part of the decisions to incorporate the interventions.

Assessment

The change has several targets. For instance, it aims to help the elderly reduce their alcohol intake per month. With time, it will focus on helping them stop taking alcohol completely. The aspect of positive change entails helping the elderly engage in other activities that would make them forget about alcohol (Carvalho et al., 2019). The target population wants to know the essence of ceasing to take alcohol. The program will also focus on educating them about the negative impacts of taking alcohol, especially at their ages. From the analysis, the most appropriate intervention would be teaching the elderly population new skills. They can use these skills to do other things, which will help them shift their focus from alcoholism.

Intervention Strategy

As stated, the intervention will focus on educating the elderly about the negative impacts of alcoholism and engaging them in developing new skills. The intervention will involve several stakeholders. One of the stakeholders will be nursing home nurses. They will help interact with older adults in nursing homes (Purser, 2020). They will also learn about several problems older adults face and inform other stakeholders. Another party that would be involved would be religious leaders. They would greatly communicate the change plan to the older adults and their family members. In this intervention, collaboration would be essential as it will help share ideas and responsibilities.

Assets and Resources

The plan will require several assets and resources to implement the change. For instance, the plan will utilize nursing homes, where many elderly stay. The plan will also work with family members with older adults. They will help cite older adults in the community. Finally, the plan will work with recreational facilities to help older adults engage in new hobbies. As stated, the program should focus on educating older adults about the negative impacts of alcoholism. It should also help them develop new skills, which they can use to shift their focus from alcoholism. For instance, they can engage in knitting, playing games, and others.

Specific Goals

The macro intervention would have several goals. First, it aims to reduce the amount of alcohol that older adults consume. It will also focus on helping the elderly develop new skills, which they can use to shift their focus from alcohol (Knox et al., 2019). The program will also have different approaches to measure these goals. For instance, it will measure the amount of alcohol participants take before and after the intervention. This will help determine whether there is any change. Also, the program will assess older adults to determine the skills they have learned from the intervention.

Theory

The main theory that will apply in this case is the cognitive-behavioral theory. The theory suggests that people develop alcoholism as a behavior. Thus, they can also modify their behaviors to eliminate the addiction. The theory further suggests that engaging in behaviors that would help son shift their focus would help them deal with alcoholism.

Sustainability of the intervention

The intervention will be considered sustainable, as it will meet most of its goals. Similarly, the implementation will take three months. This will be enough to evaluate whether the program has brought any desired outcomes. Finally, the program will also work with stakeholders, using their experience and skills to assess its outcomes and benefits.

Resources needed

The program will require several resources. For instance, it will require social places where stakeholders interact with older adults. It will also require financial resources to cater to several other needs, such as public address systems. The program will also require technological resources such as websites and social media. It will use these to report its findings to other stakeholders, such as the public.

Challenges

The implementation may face several challenges. For instance, the program may need more funds to implement the change. Thus, stakeholders will rely on donors, sponsors, and other funds sources. The program may also need support from older adults participating. Thus, social workers and other stakeholders must convince older adults to participate.

Conclusion

Older adults face several problems which can affect their lives. One should assess older adults and identify these problems as a social worker. As this work suggests, alcoholism is a major issue among older adults. Social workers can collaborate with other stakeholders to implement interventions to help older adults cease alcoholism. This work also suggests that social workers should research to determine evidence-based practices they can use to implement change in society.

References

Carvalho, A. F., Heilig, M., Perez, A., Probst, C., & Rehm, J. (2019). Alcohol use disorders. The Lancet394(10200), 781-792. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)31775-1

Day, E., & Rudd, J. H. (2019). Alcohol use disorders and the heart. Addiction114(9), 1670-1678. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.14703

DiBello, A. M., Miller, M. B., Merrill, J. E., & Carey, K. B. (2020). A test of the theory of planned behavior in the prediction of alcohol‐induced blackout intention and frequency. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research44(1), 225-232. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.14232

Knox, J., Hasin, D. S., Larson, F. R., & Kranzler, H. R. (2019). Prevention, screening, and treatment for heavy drinking and alcohol use disorder. The Lancet Psychiatry6(12), 1054-1067. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(19)30213-5

Kuerbis, A. (2020). Substance use among older adults: An update on prevalence, etiology, assessment, and intervention. Gerontology66(3), 249-258. https://doi.org/10.1159/000504363

Marengoni, A., Roso-Llorach, A., Vetrano, D. L., Fernández-Bertolín, S., Guisado-Clavero, M., Violán, C., & Calderón-Larrañaga, A. (2020). Patterns of multimorbidity in a population-based cohort of older people: sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, and functional differences. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A75(4), 798-805. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glz137.

Pachankis, J. E., McConocha, E. M., Clark, K. A., Wang, K., Behari, K., Fetzner, B. K., … & Lehavot, K. (2020). A transdiagnostic minority stress intervention for gender diverse sexual minority women’s depression, anxiety, and unhealthy alcohol use: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology88(7), 613. https://doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000508.

Purser, G. L. (2020). The combined effect of functional independence, loneliness, and social engagement on older adult drinking levels. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions20(4), 311-324. https://doi.org/10.1080/1533256X.2020.1838858

Satre, D. D., Hirschtritt, M. E., Silverberg, M. J., & Sterling, S. A. (2020). Addressing problems with alcohol and other substances among older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry28(7), 780-783. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.04.012

SWOT Analysis: Doctor Of Nursing Practice (DNP) Prepared Clinical Nurse Specialists (CNS) Writing Sample

A Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) is a terminal degree in the field of nursing that prepares nurses for advanced practice roles, such as that of a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) (McCauley et al., 2020). A CNS is an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) with advanced education, training, and certification in a specific patient care area. As a DNP-prepared nurse, a CNS is an expert in their field and deeply understands the complex healthcare needs of the patients they care for. They use this knowledge to improve patient outcomes and deliver quality care. They work in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and community health organizations, providing expert care and consultation to patients, families, and other healthcare professionals. They also play a key role in developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines and educating and mentoring other nurses (McCauley et al., 2020). One of the main responsibilities of a DNP-prepared CNS is to provide direct patient care, which includes assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of complex health conditions. They work closely with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement individualized care plans for their patients, monitoring their patients’ progress and making adjustments to the care plan as necessary (Mohr & Coke, 2018). They also advocate for their patients, ensuring that their healthcare needs are met and that they receive the highest quality of care possible (Tussing et al., 2018). A DNP-prepared CNS is also vital in research and quality improvement initiatives. They use their clinical expertise to identify areas where improvements can be made and work with other healthcare professionals to implement changes. They also research to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments and interventions and to identify best practices (Mohr & Coke, 2018). Overall, a DNP-prepared Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) is a highly skilled and dedicated healthcare professional who plays a vital role in the care of patients and the overall healthcare system. They use their advanced education, training, and expertise to provide expert care and consultation to patients and their families, develop and implement clinical practice guidelines, and educate and mentor other nurses. They also play a key role in research and quality improvement initiatives and can directly impact patient outcomes and the quality of care delivered.

The Value of a DNP-prepared Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) in a Private Family Practice: Bridging Gaps and Improving Patient Outcomes

The role of a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) is vital in the healthcare system, as they provide expert care and consultation to patients and their families, develop and implement clinical practice guidelines, and educate and mentor other nurses (Beeber et al., 2019). However, there may currently be a gap in this role, particularly in private family practices like the one you work in. One potential gap in this role is the need for more expertise in certain patient care areas. Private family practices often see a wide variety of patients with diverse healthcare needs. It can be challenging for nurses to stay current on the latest treatments and interventions for these conditions. A DNP-prepared CNS with advanced education and training in a specific area of patient care can bring this expertise to the practice and help improve the quality of care delivered to patients (Beeber et al., 2019). Another potential gap in this role is the need for more focus on quality improvement initiatives. Private family practices are often focused on seeing as many patients as possible. They may need more resources or staff to identify areas for improvement and implement changes. A DNP-prepared CNS can bring a focus on quality improvement to the practice and help identify areas where improvements can be made, ultimately leading to better patient outcomes.

Furthermore, a DNP-prepared CNS can also serve as a liaison between the private family practice and other healthcare providers in the community (Beeber et al., 2019). They can work with specialists, hospitals, and other providers to coordinate patient care and ensure they receive the best possible care. They can also help identify and address barriers to care and advocate for their patients to ensure they receive the services and resources they need. In addition, a DNP-prepared CNS can also play a key role in staff education and development. They can provide training and mentoring for other nurses and healthcare staff in practice, helping to ensure that all staff members have the knowledge and skills they need to provide high-quality care to patients. They can also help to create and implement continuing education programs for staff members to keep them updated on the latest treatments, interventions, and best practices in patient care.

Moreover, a DNP-prepared CNS can also be involved in developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines. They can use their expert knowledge and clinical experience to create guidelines based on the latest research and evidence-based practices (Bloomingdale et al., 2022). These guidelines ensure that all patients receive consistent, high-quality care, regardless of the nurse or healthcare provider they see. Lastly, a DNP-prepared CNS can also play a key role in the practice’s financial and administrative operations (Bloomingdale et al., 2022). They can work with practice administrators and other staff members to develop and implement strategies to improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of the practice. They can also be involved in developing a budget and financial plans and analyzing practice data to identify areas where improvements can be made.

Aesthetic procedures are becoming more common in private family practices, and a DNP-prepared CNS can also be a great asset in this aspect (Park & Ahn, 2021). They can provide expert care, consultation and education to the patients and other staff members. They can also be involved in research and quality improvement initiatives to ensure the best outcomes and patient safety. Therefore, the role of a DNP-prepared CNS can be particularly valuable in private family practices, where there may be a gap in expertise and focus on quality improvement (Park & Ahn, 2021). They can bring advanced education and training in specific areas of patient care and focus on quality improvement initiatives to help improve the quality of care delivered to patients and ultimately lead to better patient outcomes. They also can be a great asset in the aesthetic procedures that are becoming more common in private family practices.

Difference Between A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) And A Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) Degree from A DNP Perspective concerning the Role of a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)

Concerning the role of a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS), there are several key differences between a Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) and a Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) degree from a DNP perspective. First, a DNP-prepared CNS will have more advanced education and training in healthcare systems, quality improvement, and healthcare policy (Beeber et al., 2019). This can enable them to understand better and navigate the complex healthcare system and work more effectively to improve the quality of care for patients. Second, a DNP-prepared CNS may have more opportunities to take on leadership roles and be involved in developing and implementing clinical practice guidelines and healthcare policy. They may also have more opportunities to conduct research and contribute to the advancement of the nursing profession. Third, DNP-prepared CNS will have more opportunities to engage in interprofessional collaboration and work with other healthcare providers such as a physician, physical therapists and other specialists. This can lead to better coordination of care and improved patient outcomes (Beeber et al., 2019). Lastly, DNP-prepared CNS will have a more advanced understanding of the healthcare system and be able to use their knowledge to advocate for their patients and improve the overall quality of care in their practice.

Additionally, a DNP-prepared CNS may have more opportunities to work in advanced practice roles, such as prescribing medication and ordering diagnostic tests. They may also have more opportunities to take on leadership roles and mentor other nurses and healthcare staff members (Beeber et al., 2019). Furthermore, DNP-prepared CNS may have a more in-depth understanding of healthcare data analytics and its application to quality improvement. They can use data to identify patterns and trends in patient care and use this information to make evidence-based decisions that lead to better patient outcomes. They can also use data to measure the effectiveness of interventions and make adjustments as needed. Another important area where DNP-prepared CNS can make a difference is in the area of population health. DNP-prepared CNS have the knowledge and skills to develop and implement strategies to improve the health of specific populations, such as the elderly, children, or people living in rural areas (McCauley et al., 2020). They can also work with other healthcare providers and community organizations to address social determinants of health that impact patients’ well-being. In addition to the above, DNP-prepared CNS can also make significant contributions to the field of nursing education. They can serve as faculty members in nursing programs, helping to prepare the next generation of nurses and advance the nursing profession. They can also provide continuing education opportunities for nurses, helping to ensure that all nurses have the knowledge and skills they need to provide high-quality patient care. Overall, a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) role is vital in any healthcare setting. A DNP-prepared CNS can bring a unique set of skills and knowledge to the table and significantly impact the quality of care provided in private family practice. They can improve patient outcomes, contribute to the advancement of the nursing profession and healthcare system, and serve as leaders and mentors to other nurses and healthcare staff members.

SWOT Analysis

A SWOT analysis is a tool that can be used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of a particular role, such as a Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) in a private family practice setting. This analysis will examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats a DNP-prepared CNS brings to the table.

Strengths Weakness

  • Advanced level of education and training in healthcare systems, quality improvement, and healthcare policy (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Opportunities to take on leadership roles and be involved in the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines and healthcare policy (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Opportunities to engage in interprofessional collaboration and work with other healthcare providers (Buppert, 2018)
  • Advanced understanding of the healthcare system and ability to advocate for patients and improve the overall quality of care (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Opportunities to work in advanced practice roles such as prescribing medication and ordering diagnostic tests (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • In-depth understanding of healthcare data analytics and its application to quality improvement (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Knowledge and skills to develop and implement strategies that can improve the health of specific populations (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)

  • Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain geographic locations (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain practice settings (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited recognition of the DNP degree as the terminal degree for advanced practice nursing (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS to engage in research and contribute to the advancement of the nursing profession (Faulkner, 2019)

Opportunities Threats

  • Growing demand for advanced practice nurses in primary care settings (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Increasing recognition of the DNP degree as the terminal degree for advanced practice nursing (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Increasing opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS to take on leadership roles and be involved in healthcare policy development (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Increasing opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS to engage in research and contribute to the advancement of the nursing profession (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)
  • Increasing opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS to work in advanced practice roles such as prescribing medication and ordering diagnostic tests (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, 2018)

  • Limited reimbursement for advanced practice nursing services (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited recognition of the DNP degree as the terminal degree for advanced practice nursing (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain geographic locations (Faulkner, 2019)
  • Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain practice settings (Faulkner, 2019)

Conclusion

Overall, the DNP-prepared Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS) plays a vital role in the care of patients and the overall healthcare system. They use their advanced education, training, and expertise to provide expert care and consultation to patients and their families, develop and implement clinical practice guidelines, and educate and mentor other nurses. They also play a key role in research and quality improvement initiatives and can directly impact patient outcomes and the quality of care delivered. Furthermore, the DNP-prepared CNS has many strengths, such as an Advanced level of education and training in healthcare systems, quality improvement, and healthcare policy, Opportunities to take on leadership roles and be involved in the development and implementation of clinical practice guidelines and healthcare policy, Opportunities to engage in interprofessional collaboration and work with other healthcare providers and Advanced understanding of the healthcare system and ability to advocate for patients and improve the overall quality of care. However, there are also some areas for improvement, such as Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain geographic locations, Limited opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS in certain practice settings and Limited recognition of the DNP degree as the terminal degree for advanced practice nursing. Nevertheless, there are also opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS, such as Growing demand for advanced practice nurses in primary care settings, Increasing recognition of the DNP degree as the terminal degree for advanced practice nursing and Increasing opportunities for DNP-prepared CNS to take on leadership roles and be involved in healthcare policy development.

References

American Association of Colleges of Nursing. (2018). The impact of education on nursing practice. Retrieved from https://www.aacnnursing.org/Portals/42/Publications/position/ImpactofEducationonNursingPractice.pdf

Beeber, A. S., Palmer, C., Waldrop, J., Lynn, M. R., & Jones, C. B. (2019). The role of the doctor of nursing practice-prepared nurses in practice settings. Nursing Outlook67(4), 354-364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2019.02.006

Bloomingdale, R., Darmody, J. V., & Ellis, J. L. (2022). Clinical nurse specialist transition to practice. Clinical Nurse Specialist36(6), 327-343. https://doi.org/10.1097/nur.0000000000000702

Buppert, C. (2018). Nurse practitioner’s business practice and legal guide (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Faulkner, M. (2019). The Doctor of Nursing Practice: What it is and what it isn’t. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners, 31(3), 107-110.

McCauley, L. A., Broome, M. E., Frazier, L., Hayes, R., Kurth, A., Musil, C. M., Norman, L. D., Rideout, K. H., & Villarruel, A. M. (2020). Doctor of nursing practice (DNP) degree in the United States: Reflecting, readjusting, and getting back on track. Nursing Outlook68(4), 494-503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.outlook.2020.03.008

Mohr, L. D., & Coke, L. A. (2018). Distinguishing the clinical nurse specialist from other graduate nursing roles. Clinical Nurse Specialist32(3), 139-151. https://doi.org/10.1097/nur.0000000000000373

Park, M. Y., & Ahn, K. Y. (2021). Scientific review of the aesthetic uses of botulinum toxin type a. Archives of Craniofacial Surgery22(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.7181/acfs.2021.00003

Tussing, T. E., Brinkman, B., Francis, D., Hixon, B., Labardee, R., & Chipps, E. (2018). The impact of the doctorate of nursing practice nurse in a hospital setting. JONA: The Journal of Nursing Administration48(12), 600-602. https://doi.org/10.1097/nna.0000000000000688

Systematic Monetization Model Analysis Of The Environmental Costs Of Airport Construction And Operation Periods Sample Essay

Executive Summary

There is an immediate need to build large airports in many developing countries to promote economic development and city building. When airport construction is currently underway, whether it is the construction of a new airport or the expansion of an existing one, the feasibility of the airport construction is studied, and a feasibility study is provided; however, the feasibility study is unable to quantify the environmental impact of the project, which affects the decision making of investors and decision-makers on the ecological cost of the project. The study of monetized environmental costs can help clarify airport construction’s ecological impacts. The article introduces the research results on the environmental cost of engineering construction at home and abroad. Based on the existing research, the environmental cost of airport construction and Operation comprises six categories: noise, water pollution, soil erosion, land use change, vegetation destruction, and greenhouse gas. In the second part of the paper, the monetization models for the construction and operation periods of the airport are discussed using the alternative market approach, the human capital approach, and the protection expenditure approach. In the second part of the paper, the environmental cost of the third phase expansion of Baiyun International Airport in Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, is calculated to be $3,240,957,820 for the entire construction period and $2,395,540 per year for the operational period.

Keywords: Monetization; Airport construction;Environmental Costs

Introduction

Research Background

Much of the world is experiencing rapid urbanization. Not surprisingly, rapid economic development accompanied by rising transport demand has led many cities to build new airports or expand existing ones. The Chinese government plans to increase its urbanization level to 60% by 2030 and construct thirty-one airports in one year from 2021(Guo, 2017). Rapid developments such as airport construction have adverse environmental impacts, requiring environmental regulators to impose pollution tax on the developers (Sipping et al., 2019). Airport construction often has irreversible ecological impacts, such as soil erosion during construction and noise pollution to nearby residents during Operation. Research shows detrimental air quality and environmental effects emanating from airport construction and operations (Arter et al., 2022; Ashok, Dedoussi &Yim, 2014). Several researchers have adopted the concept of monetizing the impacts to estimate the actual environmental impacts of airports. For example, in their study, Artel et al. (2022, p. 10) found that quantified air quality effects during aircraft landing and takeoff operations (L.T.O.)-attributable PM2.5 and NO2 premature mortalities increased by 10% and 80%, respectively, from 2011 to 2016. NO2-attributable premature mortalities are responsible for 91% of total LTO-attributable premature mortalities in both 2011 and 2016. Even though the quantities of premature mortalities were identified, there was a gap in determining the costs necessary to compensate the affected persons from the L.T.O. activities.

Environmental economists’ tasks are quantifying and monetizing the ecological costs to compensate the affected communities through establishing recreation sites, engaging in environmental conservation projects, and giving back to the affected districts through corporate social responsibility guidelines. The massive airport construction and operations in China should be quantified and monetized to help the affected sectors recover their environmental regulatory services. Implementing environmental policies such as the polluter pay principles becomes a reality once the ecological costs are accessible and accurate. Therefore, this study investigates the systematic monetization model analysis of the environmental costs of airport construction and operation periods.

Research Aims And Objectives Of The Study

The study aims to investigate the systematic monetization model analysis of the environmental costs of airport construction and operation periods.

This study adopted the following objectives;

  1. To determine the environmental costs of airport construction and operation period.
  2. To determine how monetized ecological costs can help clarify airport construction’s ecological impacts.

Literature Review

Overview of the evolution of monetization methods

In 2005, researchers introduced a concept called “social indicators” to link the adverse impacts of construction activities to assessment methods. They considered 22 socio-environmental project-related and seven ways in economics and actuarial science to quantify specific social costs associated with construction projects (Gilchrist and Allouche, 2005). This sets the stage for the monetization of construction activities.

After a decade of development, monetization methods have gradually developed. Pizzol et al. (2015) summarized the types of currency valuation methods (table 1) and summarised each currency valuation method’s essential features, advantages and disadvantages. Finally, currency valuation methods are evaluated against a comprehensive set of criteria, ranging from scientific basis to uncertainty and complexity.

Table 1: Monetary Valuation MethodTable 2 (source:Pizzol et al.2015)
Table 1: Monetary Valuation MethodTable 2 (source:Pizzol et al.2015)

These monetization methods are used in calculating environmental costs in various fields. Later, researchers found that some areas needed different monetization methods, and many parameters and variables were required to be considered in the calculation process, so various monetization analysis models were developed. Arendt et al. (2020) compared the relevant monetization analysis models, namely Ecovalue12, Stepwise2006, LIME3 and nine other environmental monetization analysis models (table 2), and proposed that practitioners should choose their monetization method carefully and use different ways where possible to assess the robustness of its results.

Table 2: Environmental monetization analysis model table 3 (Source: Arendt et al.,)
Table 2: Environmental monetization analysis model table 3 (Source: Arendt et al.,)

These monetization analysis models are regional. In other words, these models are limited depending on regions’ or countries’ economic situations or policy requirements.

A review of monetization research in similar fields

Monetization is more mature in the field of road construction projects. (Bein and Kawczynski, 1997) Proposed the concept of monetization of the social cost of roads. Dai (2011) presents his study’s findings on monetizing external road costs. The study divides the environmental costs of road transport development into three categories: ecological impacts, environmental pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Using the theoretical basis of ecological economics, a model is proposed to estimate the environmental impact of road traffic, ecological pollution and monetization methods of greenhouse gas emissions, and the model is used to calculate the environmental cost of road construction and Operation of a highway for the project 7.31% of the total investment. This study proposes an initial model for monetizing the environmental impact of road construction, which needs to be completed because the survey does not include all ecological and environmental effects.

Besides, Yao et al. (2020) adopted field research and building information modelling (BIM) methods to collect data in road construction engineering. They proposed a life cycle assessment (L.C.A.) model, namely the input-process-output model (I.P.O.), from the four life cycle stages of transportation, stacking, assembly and cast-in-place to analyze the construction environment impact of standard floors of industrialized buildings. The results show that among the four life cycle stages, the assembly stage has the most significant impact on the environment, accounting for 66.13%, followed by transportation, accounting for 16.39%, stacking, accounting for 10.29%, and cast-in-place accounting for 7.19%. The study analyzed the degree of the environmental impact of each life cycle stage from other perspectives. The research results have extensively promoted the monetization of the environmental impact of buildings. Still, this study has significant limitations because the research results only apply to the construction of the standard layer of the building and only apply to other types of construction.

Environmental monetization is carried out from different angles in the research of related fields. For example, Dai’s analysis starts from the various ecological costs of engineering, and Yao’s research institutes from the different periods of architecture as the research direction. Carrying out research from different angles has different meanings, and the current mainstream research is still carried out with other environmental costs.

Current Status of Research on the Monetization of Environmental Impact of Airport Construction

Airport construction and Operation is one of the critical areas of current research. The growth and expansion of the aviation industry have attracted the construction of new airports and the renovation of old airports and airstrips. Although the development of the aviation industry stimulated economic growth and provided jobs, the environmental impact of the entire project should have been addressed (Wolfe et al., 2014). In the past decade, researchers have noticed many adverse effects of airport activities on the environment, such as noise pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. As a result, there have been many studies on the environmental impact of aviation.

Nahlik et al. (2016) modelled emissions from aircraft and ground equipment at major U.S. airports. They monetized the damage to human health and the environment from emissions near the airport (within 60 miles), concluding that 2013 near-airport emissions at major U.S. airports cost a combined $1.9 billion. Unlike many studies on the monetization of the built environment, this study came to a definitive conclusion and modelled the emissions of the leading six gases. In practice, monetizing mortality or morbidity from environmental impacts is subject to more significant uncertainty. The distribution among affected stakeholders is different, creating inconsistencies in the research process.

In a related field of research, the ability to quantify and predict the impact of air pollutants generated by airport operations is essential for assessing air quality and related impacts on human health (Pecorari et al., 2016). Arter et al. (2022) considered that aviation emissions from landing and takeoff operations (L.T.O.) could reduce the local air quality of airports and quantified the PM2.5, O3 and NO2 concentrations and mortality and multiple morbidities caused by L.T.O. It was then concluded that the focus of mitigating the air quality impact of L.T.O. emissions is to reduce NOx in the burner. The study, while not monetizing the environmental effects of the L.T.O. phase, is helping stakeholders in their decision-making.

Nahlik and Arter’s research mainly focuses on harmful gases and greenhouse gases. In fact, in addition to the environmental impact of gas emissions during the operation period of the airport, there are also wastewater and noise that will cause ecological and social effects. Greer et al. (2023) explored the potential impacts of the construction and Operation of terminal buildings of American commercial airports on the environment and human health, and proposed an Excel-based decision support tool – Airport Terminal Environmental Support Tool (LATEST); research objectives include greenhouse gases, air pollutant emissions, wastewater production, etc. This decision-making model does not convert environmental impacts into money but helps stakeholders make decisions in another way.

In summary, the current research on monetizing the environmental impact of the airport construction and operation period mainly focuses on one ecological impact factor, such as gas emissions and noise. Stakeholders cannot only consider the monetization results of one aspect when making decisions, so the monetization process should be as comprehensive as possible. There needs to be more thorough research on monetizing the environmental impact of airport construction and operation periods. Based on previous research ideas, it will fill in the gaps in this area through monetization analysis from six aspects, including noise impact and greenhouse gas emissions.

Methodology

Environmental economics approaches to valuing the ecological costs of airport construction (including during Operation) are summarised in three categories: alternative market approaches, contingent valuation, and indirect methods. This study adopts an alternative market approach to value resources available to calculate the environmental costs of the disrupted services. It adopts a systematic methodology of monetizing ecological costs. In this study, the monetization of noise, water pollution, land use/changes, greenhouse gases, vegetation destruction, and the total environmental costs are calculated, respectively. The formulas are adopted from Dai (2011). The article proposes a systematic methodology for monetizing the ecological expenses of airports during construction and Operation.

Monetization Of Noise Costs

The cost of noise can be calculated based on the actual situation, as shown in equation (1). The two main components of the formula are the willingness to pay method and the consequence deterrence method, which is the classic method for calculating the cost of noise pollution. Sharing Feng (1997) used this method when assessing the comforting impact of noise pollution at airports.

Monetization Of Erosion Costs

For the erosion generated in the project, the direct unit soil and water replacement cost method is used to calculate the replacement cost of soil and water in the area where the airport is located, which is an essential factor affecting the price of erosion, and the local government mainly determines the replacement cost of soil and water. Dai (2011) proposed the following equation in the road construction monetization model, as shown in equation:

SC indicates the additional investment in soil and water conservation works

WS indicates the amount of soil erosion that will be caused by the construction of this project

RP shows the replacement cost per unit capacity of water and soil.

Monetization Of Water Pollution

The cost of wastewater treatment in the nearby plant becomes the environmental cost of water pollution. The article proposes a specific monetization formula, as shown in equation:

Monetization Of Land Use Change

Airport construction land can be considered permanent land, and airport construction land can also produce economic benefits. Still, due to the airport’s construction, this part of the economic benefits are reduced or even disappeared from the environmental economics theory. This also belongs to the airport construction on environmental impact (Linna Li & Loo, 2016). The ecological cost of land use change can be calculated by combining the annual output value and occupation time of each type of land occupied by the construction project. Dai (2011) proposed the following equation in the road construction monetization model, as shown in equation:

Monetization Of Vegetation Destruction

According to Dai (2011), where most revegetation occurs after airport construction, the rate of revegetation is considered in the calculation. See precisely equation (5); Dai (2011) has proposed a similar equation in calculating the cost of vegetation destruction for road construction; however, the vegetation recovery rate is not taken into account.

Cost Of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Considering that aircraft burn much fuel when they take off, a Boeing 747-400, for example, consumes around five tons of energy for a single takeoff. The environmental impact of the greenhouse gases produced is not negligible. When considering how much fuel is consumed as the basis for the calculation, the aircraft type that takes off the most at that airport should be regarded as getting a relatively accurate cost of emissions. In determining the conversion factor between aviation paraffin and carbon dioxide, the carbon content of aviation paraffin is around 85%, the density of paraffin is 0.8, and the amount of carbon dioxide emitted by burning one litre of paraffin is.

0.85 × 0.8 × 44 ÷ 12 = 2.49kg

The number of aircraft departures from this airport can be determined by the number of aircraft landings and takeoffs, defined as the number of flights taking off and landing per unit of time. Suppose the sample of time required for the calculation is large enough. In that case, the number of aircraft departures can be considered equal to the number of aircraft landings, so the number of aircraft departures at the airport is half of the number of aircraft landings and takeoffs. A carbon tax is an environmental tax on certain goods or services that cause carbon dioxide emissions based on the number of emissions. The cost of greenhouse gas emissions depends on the change in the carbon tax. The carbon tax varies from region to region, from 50 euros per ton in the E.U. to around 5 euros per ton in some developing countries.

Based on the price of the carbon tax, the cost of greenhouse gas emissions from takeoff and landing can be calculated, as shown in equation:

Total Environmental Cost Of Airport Construction (Including Operation)

Based on the above calculation, the formula for the total environmental cost of the airport during the construction and operation periods is shown in equation:

Monetizing environmental costs is the most widely practised practice to deter companies from polluting the environment. However, these methods are limited to the following aspects; Temel et al. (2018, p.13) in their study, found that the scale and uniqueness of an ecosystem and the level of ecosystem threat should serve as the conditions to indicate the appropriateness of the application of monetization to ecosystem services. Monetization should be used with other conservation measures, and additional measures to protect the ecosystem should be implemented. In this study, therefore, the aircraft industry should be able to operate below the WHO guidelines, failure to which stringent policies should be implemented.

Results and Discussions

Example analysis (Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport)

Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport was built in 1932, and the new Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport was officially opened on August 5, 2004. According to information on the airport’s official website in January 2020, Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport has two terminals, T1 and T2, totalling 1,817,700 square meters. Located in southern China, it overtook Atlanta Airport in the United States to become the world’s number one airport in 2020. The third phase of the Baiyun International Airport expansion project will see the construction of a third terminal designed to handle 120 million passengers, 3.8 million tons of cargo and mail, and 775,000 aircraft movements by 2030. This paper analyzes the environmental cost monetization of the Phase 3 expansion project.

Figure 1: Overhead view of Baiyun International Airport

Noise Costs

According to the feasibility report of the expansion project, the total area of land to be demolished and relocated is 34.67 square kilometres, with a total of 18,000 households and 58,000 people to be relocated. The number of families resettled in the noise zone is 5,424, calculated at 200 square meters per household and 4,000 RMB per square meter; approximately 4,339,000,000 RMB will be required.

At the end of the expansion project, the residents within the 80dB range will be relocated orderly through planning, with 27778 people (7936 households at an average of 3.5 people per household) within the WECPNL of 80dB or more in 2030. Based on 200 square meters per household at 4,000 RMB per square meter, approximately 6,348.8 million RMB is required to implement the relocation plan. In 2045, 36,422 people (10,406 households at an average of 3.5 people per household) will be within the WECPNL range of more than 80dB, at 200 square meters per household at 4,000 RMB per square meter, approximately 8,324.8 million RMB will be required. Therefore, the total amount of demolition is 14.67 billion RMB.

According to the survey, the relocation area of the school and hospital is 15,716,686 square meters; at 4,000 RMB per square meter, the relocation cost is 1,182.7 million RMB 2030, there will be 85,172 people or 24,334 households in the 75-80dB range of WECPNL, and the area of windows and doors to be renovated will be 365,010 square meters, based on 1300RMB per square meter of ventilation windows, a total of 474.51 million RMB will be required. In 2045 there are 112,162 people or 32,046 households in the WECPNL 75-80dB range, with 480,690m2 of windows and doors to be altered. The total cost of implementing the noise protection project is RMB 1,099 million. Wolfe, Kramer, and Barrett (2017) found total noise damages of £80.3 million and £0.87 million attributable to Heathrow and Gatwick, respectively.

During the operation period, per this extension’s feasibility report, a survey-based approach to the valuation of non-market goods and services will be used, using questionnaires to guide the value of the goods or services concerned directly. The airport has minimized the noise impact on nearby residents through demolition or noise protection. The article conducted a noise comfort survey of nearby residents and found from a sample of nearly 30 that less than 40 percent were willing to pay extra to find alternative accommodation. Most of the sample willing to pay extra chose to be ready to pay just under RMB 200. The results show that the effect of noise on the undemolished population is low and statistically tricky, and the article chooses to ignore it.

Cost Of Soil Erosion

According to the Soil and Water Conservation Plan Report for the Phase III Expansion Project of Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, the construction of the project may result in an additional soil loss of 209,800 tonnes, and Dai (2011) concluded that the replacement cost per tone of soil and water is 3dollar. The replacement cost of soil erosion is US$630,000. In addition, the cost of soil and water conservation fees and the preparation of the soil and water conservation facility plan during construction is RMB 51.5 million, or USD 7.7397 million.

Cost Of Water Pollution

To stop water pollution, the airport has expanded the existing sewage treatment plant, with a capacity of for 36 million RMB, a new sewage network and a new sewage pumping station for 40 million RMB, and nine sewage trucks at 7.2 million RMB—83.2 million RMB in total, equivalent to 12.3 million U.S. dollars.

As the sewage treatment plant will not be completed immediately, and considering that there will be insufficient sewage treatment capacity even after the completion of the plant, after analysis, it is determined that the maximum daily sewage consumption of the airport in the current phase is , and the average daily sewage consumption of the airport is about ; the maximum daily sewage consumption in the long term is , so the average daily sewage consumption of the airport is about

During this period, the entire airport wastewater is discharged to the Longgui and Baiyun Airport sewage treatment plants for treatment. The volume of sewage discharged to the Longgui sewage treatment plant is 13,000 m³/d; the volume of sewage discharged to the airport sewage treatment plant is 36,000 m³/d.

The cost of discharging to the airport treatment plant should be calculated as part of the expansion cost of the treatment plant, while the cost of releasing it to other treatment plants should be calculated separately. After checking its treatment cost of 2.0 RMB per m³ per day, the treatment cost is 26,000 RMB per day, i.e., US$4,000 per day.

Land use change costs

The main phase of the Baiyun International Airport involves 166 hectares of arable land, 323 hectares of garden land, 28 hectares of forest land, and 167 hectares of other agricultural lands; this means that 685 hectares of agricultural land are converted to commercial use. In terms of environmental economics theory, the original agricultural output of the land should be calculated as an ecological cost. The average annual production value of each type of land cannot be obtained precisely. Hence, the article assumes that all agricultural land is calculated according to the area’s average agricultural land production value, that each farmer has an average of 0.5 hectares of arable land after checking, and that each farmer receives an annual agricultural income of $1642.

Vegetation Destruction

According to the equation for the photosynthesis reaction in plants, 1 g of dry matter is formed to produce 1.2 g of oxygen. In the various environmental assessment documents, it is impossible to find the biological loss for this expansion project since it needs to be completed. However, estimates made from other airport environmental assessment reports have improved this data. The construction of Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport resulted in the conversion of 1537 ha of arable land into airport construction land, resulting in a loss of 51,914 tons of plant biomass. It is assumed that 33.7 tonnes are lost per hectare during the airport construction. The permanent conversion of 685 ha of agricultural land to commercial use in this project is estimated to result in a biomass loss of 23,084.5 tones, resulting in a total oxygen loss of 27,701.4tonness, and Dai (2011) suggests that the market price of oxygen is $300.

Cost of greenhouse gas emissions

The target number of aircraft movements for Phase 3 of Baiyun International Airport is 775,000. Takeoffs and landings refer to the number of flights taking off and landing per unit of time. It means that there are 387,500 aircraft departures per year. The Boeing 747-400 aircraft is China’s most numerous passenger aircraft. It can be assumed that the Boeing 747-400 is the aircraft that takes off the most at Baiyun International Airport, consuming around 5 tons of fuel for one takeoff. For ease of calculation and feasibility, it is assumed that all aircraft taking off are Boeing 747-400s, with a current Chinese carbon tax price of 7.4 dollars/ton.

Since no aircraft will take off during the construction period, no GHG emissions from aircraft will be generated. Therefore, the cost of GHG emissions should not be calculated as part of the environmental cost of the construction period.

Environmental costs during airport construction

Baiyun International Airport will be built over five years old

The environmental cost for the entire construction period is 3,240,957,820 dollars at R=2,395,540 dollars/year for the whole of the five-year construction period and 2,395,540 dollars/year for the operational period.

Discussion

Based on previous research, this paper proposes a set of environmental cost monetization models for airport construction. It uses the models to monetize the ecological costs of the Phase III expansion project of Baiyun International Airport. It is one of the world’s top ten airports, and it concludes that its monetized environmental impact is 3,240,227,820 dollars for the construction period. The annual ecological cost for the operational period is 10,70510,705,960 dollars.

This study finding in table 1 below shows the cumulative environmental costs of various environmental effects such as noise, soil erosion, water pollution, land use change costs, and emission of greenhouse gases. The findings revealed the enormous ecological fees that should be charged to the airports implementing construction and Operation to reduce the effects of greenhouse gases and climate change as the overall detrimental effects realized after the commissioning of such projects.

Table 3: Environmental Costs of China Baiyun International Airport Phase 3 Expansions

Cost type Construction period costs Operating period costs
Noise costs 3200,000,000 dollars
Cost of soil erosion 8,369,700 dollars
Cost of water pollution 12,300,000 dollars 146,000 dollars/year
Land use change costs 11247700 dollars 2,249,540 dollars/year
Vegetation destruction 8,310,420 dollars
Cost of greenhouse gas emissions 35,700,000 dollars/year
Total cost 3,240,227,820 dollars 10,705,960dollars/year

The study finding agreed with Temel et al. (2018) that monetizing environmental costs is critical to enhancing environmental conservation projects of the affected communities. However a new concept, but the insights of Linna Li& Yo (2016) in their study found that despite the environmental costs of airport construction, it is essential to consider the economic costs associated with the project. Welsch, Heinz, and Jan Kühling (2009) should be incorporated this when conducting the valuation of environmental costs. Nahlik et al. (2016) assert that the airline industry’s growth has massive economic benefits to the communities. In their research, Yim, Stettler, and Barrett (2013) propose that widespread longer-term use of biomass-derived alternative jet fuels could further increase the mitigation potential. Other measures can be introduced to curb environmental costs through recycling and reuse. And the reduction of waste during the construction and operation processes. Airline industries can also adopt different engines that do not have a high combustion rate, to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. The models used in this study are transferable to other sectors of the economy, where the ability to pay is considered.

The study finding also was in tandem with Rikkie et al., (2015) study which found that though there were existing monetization models to calculate the environmental costs associated with the aviation industry, it noted that the hedonic principles were ignored. In this study, it is evident that the author is only concerned with the monetization models, without looking into the direct and indirect impacts caused by the project on the stakeholders. The variation in the methodologies used by economists in valuing environmental costs should be standardized.

Conclusion

The study shows how a systematic monetization model can be used in calculating the environmental costs of different aspects of the project. The costs can be used for various ecological regenerating activities by ensuring that the airport owners pay pollution tax to mitigate the effects caused by their development activities. The models provided can provide a reference for the magnitude of the environmental impact of airport construction and will provide a more comprehensive decision-making tool for the public and policymakers. Airport expansion projects offer environmental experts a chance to improve the effects of pollution by implementing innovations of less harmful fuels in the airline industries and minimizing toxic substances. This thesis builds on previous monetization studies to develop a set of monetized models for estimating environmental costs of airport construction and Operation based on practical approaches in ecological economics to incorporate environmental costs into the cost-benefit analysis of airport construction.

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