Social Work Theory For A Molested Child Essay Example For College

Introduction

Psychological analyses indicate that children who have undergone molestation are likely to experience anxiety, depression, post traumatic stress disorder, physical injury and may be susceptible to more abuse in the future. When a child has been molested by a family member then this is likely to lead to even more severe emotional and psychological problems. In fact, studies indicate that approximately thirty percent of all child molestation cases are committed by family members. This essay shall look at how to approach the matter from a social work perspective and possible interventions for a child who has undergone such a traumatic experience.

A social work theory that can be used for a child who has been molested by a family member

The theory chosen for this particular case is the systems theory. The major principle governing this theory is that a given state within a system is always in interaction with its environment and is consequently a function of its surrounding. Additionally, the systems theory postulates that conflict or change in any system can always be manifested. Therefore, people are affected by their surroundings and they also possess the capacity to change their environments. It is generally accepted that every human being belongs to a family. All members in the family must interact with one another and it is these interactions that bring the family to life. In the family, members are governed by values, norms and traditions that make them distinct from other family members and they are surrounded by boundaries. (Zastrow, 1991) However those units that have the most flexible boundaries tend to be the most successful or the healthiest. Each family also has roles that are assigned to members and status is accorded to certain positions. Those who have rigid roles, norms, goals, relationships and rules are the ones who tend to be unhealthy. Also, any system possesses subsystems; in unhealthy families, members in higher hierarchies like fathers or providers work towards diminishing the significance of members in lower hierarchies. Systems also possess feedback mechanisms that assist in keeping the whole process intact. Therefore, families that adopt a negative feedback mechanism are likely to remain unchanging and this eventually destroys the home.

When applied to the case under consideration i.e. a child who has been molested by a family member, it is necessary to first establish some of the preconditions needed to make this theory applicable in the latter scenario. First of all, the method yields adequate results for children between the ages of six and twelve. There for this case, it was quite plausible that the child being treated is seven years old. Secondly, one must look into the circumstances at the time the client has been presented for treatment. In this case, a range of family issues were to be discussed. Also, co morbid conditions that the child was experiencing will also form an essential part of this strategy. (Meezan, 1998) However, it should be noted that the underlying goal in this kind of therapy is not merely to treat current or symptomatic health conditions (although this will form a central part of the intervention) but it is also to prevent the occurrence of any other problems in the future. Since this treatment is for a young child, then strong parental involvement was essential in success of the method. However, if it happens that the family member who perpetrated the abuse was a parent, then he or she would not have been involved in the therapeutic process as a different authority would be responsible for dealing with the molester. There are some critical issues that can affect the success of such an intervention and they include: the frequency with which this molestation took place. Usually, stronger techniques are necessary in cases where the abuse has been going on for a very long time. Additionally, the nature of the family origin should be examined as the child may not have been brought up by one family from their infancy. Also, the severity of the molestation will also be taken into consideration (Meezan, 1998). For this case, it was noted that the child was abused by a father severally; i.e. once in two months for one year. Other important factors for this case were: the child grew up with the same family all her life and the child was sexually abused i.e. caused to engage in intercourse with her (it will also be assumed that she is female) father.

Type of intervention that I am using with this young child

In treatment, as a social worker I attempted to find out whether triangulation had occurred in the concerned family. The latter term refers to family violence transmission from adults to children. Here, the therapy sought to establish whether role reversal took place as a result of family tensions in the home. Questions like whether the child was forced to wear the shoes of her mother in the incestuous molestation were to be determined. The child was asked whether her father is very authoritarian, whether her parents seem like a happy couple, whether her father has ever physically abused other members of the family or whether her father is chemically dependant on drugs or alcohol. To this end, the mother to the molested child was also involved in this therapeutic process. She was required to divulge some information about her role as mother and whether she may have been unable or unwilling to carry them out. She was assessed for depression or some sort of subservience to indicate if that played a contributory role in causing the current dilemma. Also a lot of attention was given to the nature of the father to daughter and mother to child relationship. Here, it was necessary to examine if the child feels isolated by either her mother or father and what could have caused the mother not to protect her against an abusive father. (Zastrow, 1991)

It is likely that denial and dissociation could have been a key aspect in this home. Therefore, in the intervention process, it was essential to find out whether these two elements were prevalent and effective methods were curved out to avoid them. It should be noted that as the perpetrator of the abuse, it was assumed that the father of this child was already in confinement. However, if this had not been the case, then removal of the child from such an environment would be the first step as precedence we given to her well being rather than family intactness. Through family messages and a number of unconscious rules, it is likely that this seven year old girl was in denial. Therefore, as a social worker, it was necessary to attempt to eliminate any feelings of denial so that the client can some to terms with her experience by feeling it, thinking about and hence questioning it. The therapeutic process focused on making her accept the reality of what actually happened to her. Issues of trust were critical here and therefore the victim was assisted on how she can learn how to trust herself or to trust others. Therefore, some issues such as family protection and keeping secrets were to be thrown out of the window because these are what led to the perpetual occurrence. The victim’s needs were prioritized and she was taught how to be a child again. In the future, she will be taught that it is okay to make mistakes and it is okay to play or to be as responsible as a seven year old should be and not an adult. The child will be made to understand that it was not her fault and that the situation which she has found herself in was not necessarily something inevitable or normal for that matter. The mother involved in this therapeutic process will also play a part in trying to normalize the child’s environment as there were some unconscious messages that she was sending to her daughter. (Goering, Sheldon & Levitan, 2003) As a social worker, I will explain to her that she should let her child behave as one; this means asking for help, analyzing or questioning situations and requesting for help. She needs to make herself approachable and trustworthy again by accepting her role as a mother and successfully carrying it out. On top of the latter, she must work on creating a feeling of safety in the home by relaxing the rigidity in the home and by protecting her children. Some of the strategies that will be essential in making the client’s mother see this point of view include eco maps where patterns in the relationship that have problems will be identified. Also, instances of social isolation or interaction patterns will also be found. After telling the mother that she should be courageous and bold enough to take actions, it will be critical to also take her side and see things from her perspective s as to eradicate the impediments to her actions.

Type methods to evaluate/ monitor treatment effectiveness

In order to assess whether the intervention has worked, four major issues within the child will be analyzed: whether any other subsequent abuse has taken place. As stated earlier, one of the primary goals of this treatment was to ensure that no more molestation takes place in the future. If this is the case, then the intervention was effective. Thereafter, the client will be analyzed for denial i.e. has she come to terms with what happened to her and has she internalized this well?. Repression of any memories of the incident will be another crucial assessment tool. Lastly, the child’s ability to associate with other members of her family or her peers will be another important assessment idea.

Conclusion

The systems theory tends to work very well with clients below the age of twelve thus making it an ideal treatment method. The goal of the process is to get the child to come to terms with her molestation and also to prevent subsequent abuse. The social worker must therefore work with the non molesting parent so as to identify and hence prevent possible areas that led to the abuse.

References

Goering, P., Sheldon, T. & Levitan, R. (2003). Childhood adversities linked with anxiety disorders. Journal of depression and anxiety 17(3): 35

Meezan, W. (1998). Effectiveness of group therapy in child abuse. Social work practice research journal 8(3): 330

Zastrow, C. (1991). An introduction to social welfare. Belmont: Wadsworth publishers

National Health Service’s Reforms By New Labour Party

Introduction

The publication of The New NHS White Paper in the autumn of 1997 set the framework for the new government’s approach to the NHS in England. This included six key principles for the NHS: to ensure that the NHS remains a genuinely national service and ensure that all people had equal access to high-quality healthcare services; to ensure that the standards set in healthcare are made a priority at the local level; to get the NHS to work in partnership with local authorities; to drive efficiency through a rigorous approach to performance by cutting bureaucracy; to shift focus onto the quality of care so that excellence is guaranteed to all patients and finally to rebuild public confidence in the NHS as a public service accountable to patients and shaped by their views (Watkins et al 2003, p. 6).

This plan by the government of Tony Blair in 1997 radically reformed the health service in England, the NHS, since its establishment in 1948. The plan ensured “improved standards of care, an end to the “postcode lottery” of care, more investment in staff development, increased partnership working between the NHS and social care and a renewed commitment to improving the health of the nation” (Butler 2003, p. 1). These goals were sought to be achieved through an ambitious “modernization” program that would involve recruiting thousands of more medical personnel and investing heavily in building new hospitals, GP surgeries, and medical equipment. Thesis: The current NHS reforms of New Labor though implemented with the best of intentions have met only with partial success and are facing a lot of opposition from many quarters on various issues.

Main Elements of the NHS Reforms

In the new NHS reforms introduced by the New Labor Party, internal competition within the NHS was averted and the focus was on cooperation between the purchasers and providers (QMUL 2009, p. 1). Moreover, it was ensured there would be only one type of purchaser – the primary care groups and trusts. These groups and trusts were led by a team of GPs and community nurses with about 50 GPs for a population of about 100,000 (QMUL 2009, p. 1). All GPs must be members of primary care groups. The groups and trusts managed their own finances and retained profits and when a primary care group was able to manage its own budgets and services, it will be transformed into a trust. The only difference between the primary care groups and trusts was that the former were operated by the government health authorities, the latter were self-governing (QMUL 2009, p. 1). The main advantage of these primary care groups and trusts was that they enabled the central administration to reach all levels of service including GPs. There was the provision in the new reforms for the creation of new institutions – to encourage efficiency such as The National Institute for Clinical Effectiveness (NICE) to review key areas of treatment and make recommendations and The Commission for Health Improvement (CHIMP) to review the plans made by health authorities for optimal distribution of services (Jones 2006, p. 205). As part of these reforms, the NHS direct scheme allowed patients direct telephone access to a nurse. Trusts that met the performance standards set by the NHS were rewarded by being made NHS Beacons.

There were some important benefits from these reforms. By creating a sense of awareness of capital costs, these reforms improved the efficiency of the assets used, and by separating purchasers from providers it allowed health authorities to focus more on the health care needs of the people instead of just maintaining their facilities (Wiley et al. 1995, p. 53).

However, there have been some problems in the implementation of these reforms. As a result of the splitting of all sectors of the health service into purchases and providers, the NHS has been restructured into a business enterprise allowing private health institutions to tender their services competing with NHS provider units. Apart from this, when financial controls are not adequate there is confusion as to what will happen when Trusts fail to generate enough income. It has been pointed out by Wiley et al. (1995, p. 53) that the performance measures suggested by the new NHS reforms need not necessarily reflect the actual volumes of services delivered; they could just be reflecting the changes in the recording of work. Ultimately, health reforms have increased the costs of administration of the NHS.

Government investment in hospitals

Many key recommendations were made by an independent inquiry to the NHS after a scandal rocked the Bristol children’s heart surgery department in July 2001 (Butler 2003, p. 1). The government adopted those recommendations to get patients more involved in treatment decisions and later, the government made plans to include patients at all levels of healthcare (Butler, 2003, p. 1). These government plans included building foundation hospitals and called for a new system of financing hospitals called financial flows. However, there was a lot of opposition to foundation trusts from many important people including former health secretary Frank Dobson, the biggest health union, Unison, and a number of backbench Labour MPs. Their main concern was that trusts will be divisive in nature and would create a two-tier system in the NHS where the rich people get more resources at the expense of failing hospitals and this, they predicted would widen health inequalities. Moreover, they speculated that as foundations hospitals can pay more to their staff, they are likely to “poach” staff from other local hospitals (Butler, 2003, p. 1). The general opinion is that though the foundation status for NHS hospitals did not directly mean privatization, it implied to some extent denationalization. Moreover, it is widely felt that foundation hospitals are likely to be transformed into individual public benefit corporations that are independent and unaccountable.

NHS reforms for Staff

In the context of staff treatment, the NHS reforms of New Labour aimed at providing “improved pay for staff, plus better working conditions that would include changes to working patterns, on-site childcare provision, career development opportunities and zero tolerance on violence against the workforce” (Butler 2003, p. 1). Though the plan was received well initially, very soon, the staff opposed it as they realized that the government wanted radical changes to working practices in return. According to the NHS plan, consultants were offered more money in return for more flexible working patterns and this was rejected by the consultants (Butler 2003, p. 1). GPs were not very happy with the proposed ‘modernization’ of their job. Patrick Butler, in 2003, reported that though the Royal College of Nursing had voted to accept the Agenda for Change reform of NHS national pay structures, the support of Unison, the largest health union was very uncertain. This underlines the difficulties associated with the NHS reforms.

NHS reforms and the patients

The NHS plan of the New Labour Party promised “fast and convenient” care designed around the needs of the patient and accordingly, it promised that waiting times for treatment will be cut, and there would be improvements in three key areas: cancer, heart disease and mental health (Butler, 2003, p. 1). For the patients, the government introduced many significantly innovative measures. About 90 NHS walk-in centers have been set up in England, managed by primary care trusts, offering a wide range of NHS services and equipped to deal with minor illnesses and injuries (NHS 2009, p. 1). These centers provide nurse-led medical services for everyone and do not require patients to make an appointment or register. Most centers are open 365 days a year and are situated in convenient locations that give patients access to services even beyond regular office hours. In the year 2002 – primary care trusts were launched to oversee 29,000 GPs and 21,000 NHS dentists (NHS 2009, p. 1). These primary care trusts are responsible for vaccination administration, control of epidemics and 80 percent of the total NHS budget (NHS 2009, p. 1). They have the powers to deal with the private sector whenever needed. However, from the perspective of the new reforms, they are just local organizations that are best positioned to understand the needs of the community and make sure that the organizations providing health and social care services are working effectively. Ministers have recently stepped up their focus on giving patients more choice and now patients can get treated from any hospital that meets the standards set by the NHS. This has proven to be a great breakthrough in providing the best healthcare for all people. In 2007, a technological breakthrough happened in the NHS with the introduction of a robotic arm leading to groundbreaking heart operations. This technological revolution is being used at St Mary’s Hospital, London, where it is used to treat patients for a fast or irregular heartbeat in a relatively safe manner. These are new measures taken in line with the principles of the New Labour Party and which are very successful from the patient’s point of view.

Service standards

One of the measures introduced as part of the reforms in the NHS by the New Labour included the enforcement of service standards. This created a lot of problems for doctors and managers. Due to targets such as a 4-hour limit on waits in emergency departments, there have been inappropriate admissions, withdrawal of care from serious cases so that the less needy may be attended to within the time limit, and several other negative effects in other services (Davidson 2004, p. 1). The reform to reduce hospital waiting lists has been criticized by Kathleen Jones who says that this measure has brought considerable pressure to bear on hospitals to achieve it. In the words of Kathleen Jones, “New hospitals take years to build and skilled physicians and surgeons take years to train. Overall waiting lists….are virtually meaningless” (Jones 2006, p. 205). Due to a great deal of opposition in implementing service standards, the government was forced to backtrack on some targets in 2008. In early November 2008, the problem of patients being held in ambulances in hospital parking lots was attributed to unreasonable targets and enforcement of new government standards. The press wrote that some hospitals with the aim of meeting their emergency care targets were thinking of setting up inflatable tents outside their doors. This accusation was particularly aimed at the foundation trusts who used emergency care tents as part of their efforts to meet performance targets and thereby become eligible for foundation status.

Private surgeries

With the aim of meeting targets for elective surgery waiting times, Labour launched the diagnostic treatment center initiative (DTC) by seeking proposals from foreign healthcare agencies and professionals to deliver elective surgical procedures in specialized high-volume clinics (Davidson 2004, p 1). The government’s goal was to increase the number of surgeries performed in the realm of cataracts, join replacements and minor surgical procedures. American, South African and English private companies and Calgary’s Anglo-Canadian Clinics Ltd. sent in their bids. According to the new reforms, it was expected that the bidders would provide the facilities and the staff, mostly foreign professionals, and it was expected that the NHS payments per service would be lower. But very soon, it was reported in the media that private DTC facilities would be allowed to hire up to 70% of their professional staff from the NHS (Davidson, 2004, p. 1). This raised a huge uproar among the public as it meant poaching of NHS staff. Moreover, the government confessed that they had to pay the DTCs a premium of up to 15% over NHS rates. This raised the question of why the money was not utilized to build specialized units in existing hospitals. Further, hospital trusts, especially those seeking foundation status felt that shifting elective surgical patients to private parties would reduce the value of their hospitals’ clinical and educational programs and distort cost profiles. Thus there was a lot of opposition when the Oxford Eye Hospital was ordered by the government to give up 1000 eye patients to the planned private DTC (Davidson, 2003, p. 1).

Criticism of the NHS reforms

According to Rob Baggott (1994, p. 263), the NHS reforms have to lead to greater centralization and the government is finding itself getting more and more involved in the detailed operations of health services. Though the reforms may be lauded for focusing on community care, primary care, and public health, the primary care reforms are found to be too narrow and too closely shaped to the needs of the GPS and too managerialism (268). The government by introducing the possibility of using foreign doctors through new contracts has failed to pay attention to the implications for remuneration, workload and quality of services. Moreover, according to Rob Baggott, the primary care reforms are not properly integrated with other key reforms in community care and public health. Rob Baggott says that it is difficult to implement a good health strategy within the planning process because the health system is fragmented. He says the fragmentation is due to the purchases and providers who ‘have a degree of freedom and independence to enter into contracts” – thus blaming the NHS reforms that created the divisions and gave them the freedom. According to Allsop (1995), the healthcare reforms have redistributed and disseminated the power within the medical profession. Consultants in the new environment were made accountable to managers who increasingly controlled consultants’ work and remuneration. In the broader community context, though the GPs were increased in status in relation to hospital consultants, they were made subservient to the Family Health Service Authority (FHSA) (Allsop 1995, p. 171). This reorientation of power shifted the financial resources and hence the power away from the hospital and into the community. The dominance of the medical profession has been thus undermined as a result of the NHS reforms (Allsop 1995, p. 171) The government perceives it as community empowerment and as a way to cut spiraling hospital costs and specialist power.

Conclusion

The NHS reforms introduced by the New Labour government have noble goals of improving the healthcare industry in England but it has been launched without a clear plan or a clear study regarding its possible side effects. The whole set of reforms seem to have been the outcome of a need to control and this need comes in the way of allowing able managers and clinicians to take direct charge and provide the best services on their own motivation. Despite the fact that these reforms are bringing in new funds for the NHS and enabling the NHS to expand the clinical and medical education infrastructure in the country, NHS reforms need a great deal of improvisation in order to be truly effective.

References

Allsop, Judith (1995). Health Policy and the NHS: Towards 2000. Longman Publishers, 1995

Baggott, Rob (1994). Health and health care in Britain, Palgrave Macmillan Publishers.

Butler, Patrick 2003. NHS reform: the issue explained. Society Guardian.

Davidson, Alan 2004. Stormy weather for Labour’s NHS reforms. CMAJ.

Jones, Kathleen 2006. The Making of Social Policy in Britain: From the Poor Law to New Labour. Continuum International Publishing Group.

NHS 2009. National Health Services. Official Website.

QMUL (Queen Mary University of London) 2009. NHS Reforms.

Smith, Eileen 1997. Integrity and change: mental health in the marketplace. Routledge Publisher, 1997

Watkins, Dianne; Judy Edwards and Gastrell, Pam 2003. Community health nursing: frameworks for practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Wiley, H. Miriam; Mary A. Laschober and Hellen Gelband 1995. Hospital financing in seven countries. DIANE Publishing.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

Introduction

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is a test that is utilized in the measurement of various abilities and personality dispositions of the test takers. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is used for civilian cases as well as the armed services. Below is a look at the test.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

This test was developed in the late1930s. It was created at the University of Minnesota and this is where it obtained its name from. It is split into categories or scales on which the behavior of the test takers is classified. From the time it was developed, other forms of the test such as the MMPI -2 have been created for purposes of including elements and groups that were not catered for in the original test. For example, adolescents were not catered for in the initial test and their test has now been developed. The test that has been initiated for adolescents is given the name MPPI-A; which means Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory for Adolescents (Gotts 2005, pp.14-19). The original Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory was made up of ten categories or scales. Most of the scales have been maintained while others have undergone dramatic changes to reflect new circumstances. These new changes are covered in the MMPI-2.In this term paper; the original scales will be covered as they are the ones used by the psychologist I observed.

The Categories of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is divided into the following original clinical scales: Scale number zero is for people who are social introverts, scale number two is for people who are affected by depression, scale number three is for hysterical individuals, scale number four is for psychotic people while scaling number five deals with masculinity and femininity aspects of human behavior. There is also scale number six which deals with paranoia, scale number seven which is for psychasthenia, scale number eight for schizophrenia, and scale number 9 for hypomania.

Determining the Validity of Results

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory has three more scales that are separate and unique. They are called the validity scales and their function is to determine the validity of the results. The validity scales are L, F, and the “cannot say.”

How the Test is Administered

The various scales have several elements that the test taker is supposed to respond to. The psychologist administering the test usually advises the test taker to assume a position that he or she thinks is comfortable. Then the papers with the test material are given to the test taker; who begins to respond to the items. It takes more than one hour depending on the level of speed of the test taker.

There is a computer version of the test which can be done without a psychologist but the results cannot be interpreted without the intervention of a clinical psychologist.

Usage of the test

In modern society, the test is in wide usage in the courts. Most of the time judges have to get a clinical psychologist to examine a parent to determine whether he or she is fit to assume custody of a child. This is the test that is utilized. The most important thing that should be remembered is that the test must be administered by a qualified person and all the other necessary factors must be included in the interpretation of the results.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and Family Law

Family law is a complicated area and the issues that are associated with family conflicts always end up in character challenges. The courts find the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory useful in determining the suitability of the parties in a case in terms of character. Several items are assessed in the usage of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. These include:

Social intelligence

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory can assist in telling how socially intelligent a father or mother is. From this assessment a decision can be made regarding custody rights since the level of parental social intelligence will have an impact on child care.

Emotional Stability

Human beings are exposed to numerous situations where breaking down is possible. In family matters, parents are expected to be emotionally stable. This is the only way they can be in a position to create a good climate for the children’s development. If emotional stability is not present, the test will reveal this and the appropriate action is taken.

The test is also used in military recruitment where it tests several character traits. The most important of these is control, which is a vital attribute in military service. Numerous terms are used to describe this item of character such as the ability to lead and remaining cool even under threat, but control is the easiest way to describe it. As shown by the various elements in the ten scales, individuals who are hypomaniac, schizophrenic, hysterical, paranoid, or depressed are not able to show any reasonable level of control, which is a useful quality in military service. The same is true for people with personality problems in the other scales. Administering this test to the men and women who want to serve in the military helps identify those with high levels of control. Then there is mental health. Military service involves the handling of dangerous weapons. This is largely true for most wings of the armed services. The last person who should be given access to a dangerous weapon such as the ones used by the military is someone whose mental health is in question.

In the administration of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the clinical psychologists are usually out to look for young men and women who are of sound minds for military service (Nichols 2001, pp.76-80). The different scales of the test have different degrees of seriousness. For example, a schizophrenic person is not supposed to be given a chance to serve in the military. In the wake of equality debates for gays, the individuals who are confused as far as their genders are concerned may be allowed to serve in the military. Therefore, scale number five which deals with masculinity and femininity may not be such a huge hindrance to enlisting. It is, therefore, justifiable to say that in the administration of the test, the military is in search of mentally healthy individuals.

Advantages and benefits of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is easy to administer. The available computer versions of the test can be taken by anyone without the help of a clinical psychologist. The only area where a specialist must be involved is in the interpretation of the results. The test also gives a measure of the personality of an individual in a way that is not subjective. It is, therefore, possible to rely on its results. The benefits of the test include fact that the courts can assess the mental health of parents in custody cases and other family law cases. Also, the defense department can get people who can stand the challenges of military service. This is possible because, during the administration of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, individuals who display negative behavioral aspects are not recruited. An only mentally healthy individuals are given a chance. Therefore the demanding nature of military service does not push these people into doing unacceptable things given that they are strong enough to handle it (Nichols 2001, pp.89-92).

Apart from the above, the welfare of children in families is well taken care of since the test can establish the mental health of the parents. It is also easy to explain the actions of some members of the society and therefore know how to deal with them. This would not be possible if the test was not available.

Communication of Results to the Test Taker

The psychologist must have sufficient confidence when explaining the results to the test taker. It is possible to get some test takers who will not accept the results and it is the responsibility of the expert to control the test taker and advice him or her to seek help if there is a problem. It is also advisable to seek the support of the family members of the test taker in extreme cases.

Conclusion

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory is one of the most important personality assessment tests available (Groth-Marnat 2009, pp.61-62). It was created in the 1930s and since then it has emerged in other forms such as the MPPI-2. It is usually administered by clinical psychologists but in recent times, computer versions have emerged and people can take it without the help of a clinical psychologist but this expert must be involved in interpreting results. It is useful in family law and the military.

References

Gotts, E & Knudsen, T., (2005).Clinical Interpretation of MMPI-2: A Content Cluster Approach.New York: Routledge.

Groth-Marnat, G., (2009).Handbook of Psychological Assessment, (5th ed.).New York: Wiley.

Nichols, D., (2001).Essentials of MMPI-2 Assessment (Essentials of Psychological Assessment Series) (1st ed.).New York: Wiley.

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