Sociological Perspectives In Nursing: A Comparative Analysis Of Conflict Theory And Symbolic Interactionism Essay Example


Sociological perspectives are essential for understanding and interpreting the numerous social concerns and challenges that impact patient outcomes and healthcare delivery in the nursing profession. By utilizing sociological theories, nurses can better comprehend the social dynamics, disparities, and relationships that affect their practice and patients’ experiences. Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, two significant sociological perspectives, will be examined in this research paper and how they apply to nurses. The paper will comprehensively analyze Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism in nursing, highlighting their applications, strengths, limitations, and potential implications for nursing practice.

Conflict Theory in Nursing

According to Reay et al. (2001), conflict theory is a sociological theory that looks at society through the lens of competition, power, and social conflict. It asserts that social inequality characterizes society and that struggles for power and control lead to unequal resource distribution and war. Conflict theorists examine how social institutions, like hospitals, maintain and spread injustices.

Reay et al. (2021) argue that nursing practitioners actively utilize conflict theory in various ways. Firstly, conflict theory aids nurses in understanding the power relationships that exist within healthcare institutions. It draws attention to the healthcare industry’s hierarchical structure and uneven allocation of power and resources. Nurses can examine the impact of power disparities on decision-making procedures, resource distribution, and chances for career promotion. Secondly, To examine the nurse-patient relationship, one can utilize conflict theory. It acknowledges that patients could experience power imbalances and that support for patient rights and equitable healthcare is essential. Nurses can recognize how racial or social class discrepancies affect the standard of patient care. Conflict theory equips nurses with the tools to advocate for fair healthcare access and confront oppressive regimes. Finally, conflict theory enables nurses to examine systemic disparities in healthcare provision. This viewpoint emphasizes the interplay between social, political, and economic variables resulting in uneven healthcare access. Nurses can look at how gaps in funding and access to healthcare affect vulnerable populations and lead to health inequities.

Power relations and socioeconomic disparities are critically analyzed in the healthcare system using conflict theory (Reay et al., 2021). It empowers nurses to confront repressive structures and increases awareness of systemic problems. However, it might oversimplify intricate social dynamics and undervalue the value of teamwork and consensus in the healthcare industry. Nurses are motivated by conflict theory to promote social justice and equality in healthcare. In order to advance patient-centered care, it motivates nurses to deal with power disparities, participate in policy advocacy, and work with interdisciplinary teams. Nurses can contribute to reforming healthcare systems by comprehending the larger social environment.

Symbolic Interactionism in Nursing

A sociological perspective is a symbolic interactionism, which focuses on how people create meaning through social interactions and symbols (Husin et al., 2021). It highlights how crucial social interactions, language, and shared understandings are in forming social reality. Symbolic interactionism examines how people interact with symbols and continual carry-on conversations about interpretation.

There are numerous approaches to using symbolic interactionism in nursing (Carter & Lamoreaux, 2022). Firstly, understanding how nursing roles and identities are socially constructed requires using Symbolic Interactionism. It acknowledges that social interactions, communication, and shared meanings shape nursing responsibilities rather than dictating them. Nurses might examine how cultural norms, professional standards, and personal experiences affect how they define their professional selves. Secondly, symbolic interactionism highlights the importance of engagement and communication between nurses and patients. It acknowledges that the social construction of meaning occurs through verbal and nonverbal interactions. This viewpoint can help nurses comprehend how communication affects the relationship between a nurse and patient, patient satisfaction, and the overall healthcare experience. Lastly, Symbolic Interactionism sheds light on how people think about sickness and behave healthily. It acknowledges that social interactions, cultural circumstances, and symbolic representations impact people’s perceptions of health and their experiences with illness. Nurses can investigate how patients’ perceptions of their health and sickness affect their choice of treatments, adherence to medical advice, and general well-being.

According to Carter & Lamoreaux (2022), nurses can better understand the value of language, symbols, and interactions in healthcare settings. However, it might ignore more significant structural issues that influence how people experience healthcare and their health. Nurses can provide patient-centered care and encourage favorable health outcomes by being aware of sickness and health’s social and symbolic connotations. The perspective also emphasizes the significance of cultural competence and knowledge of the various connotations that health and illness have among other communities.

Comparative Analysis of Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism

According to Salvini (2019), there are two areas of convergence. First, there is a shared emphasis in Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism on social interaction and the creation of meaning. Conflict Theory stresses how social dynamics of power and inequality influence encounters, whereas Symbolic Interactionism emphasizes the function of symbols and communication in forging common ground. Both viewpoints acknowledge the significance of clear communication, symbol interpretation, and the development of shared meanings in nurse-patient interactions in nursing. Second, power dynamics are recognized as being in healthcare settings by both Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism. Conflict Theory draws attention to the unequal allocation of power and resources within healthcare organizations, whereas Symbolic Interactionism acknowledges that power can be exercised through symbolic interaction and communication. When nurses use these viewpoints, they assess power dynamics critically, promote patient rights, and move toward more equitable healthcare practices.

Structural Inequality vs. Symbolic Representation and Macro-Level vs. Micro-Level Analysis are two areas of divergence (Burbank & Martins, 2019). In order to examine social structures, institutions, and inequities, conflict theory primarily relies on macro-level analysis. It emphasizes broader social dynamics and systemic elements that affect delivering healthcare. While concentrating on specific interactions, meanings, and interpretations, symbolic interactionism stresses micro-level analysis. In particular social contexts, it investigates how people construct and bargain meanings. Conflict Theory highlights structural inequalities and the influence of societal structures on healthcare access and outcomes. Nurses need to consider both macro and micro views to build a thorough understanding of the complex social dynamics in nursing. It emphasizes the contribution of socioeconomic class, race, gender, and other social factors to the persistence of disparities. The emphasis of symbolic interactionism, on the other hand, is on creating meaning through dialogue and interaction. It investigates the subjective ways in which people interpret symbols. To effectively address social inequality, nurses must be aware of the interaction between structural injustices and symbolic representations.

Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism are two examples of complementary applications in nursing that might be useful in clinical settings (Grosjean et al., 2021). To fully comprehend the social dynamics in healthcare settings, nurses can combine the macro-level analysis of Conflict Theory with the micro-level insights of Symbolic Interactionism. Nurses can spot conflict areas, power disparities, and chances for revolutionary change by looking at structural causes and human interactions. Second, it may be advantageous to incorporate conflict theory and symbolic interactionism into nursing education and professional growth. These viewpoints aid nurses in cultivating critical thinking abilities, cultural sensitivity, and a thorough comprehension of social determinants of health. These viewpoints can be included in school curricula and professional development programs to prepare nurses to confront social issues, fight for fair treatment, and encourage social change in the healthcare industry.


The research paper has explored two sociological perspectives, Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism, and their applications in nursing. Conflict Theory highlights power dynamics, inequalities, and social conflict within healthcare organizations, while Symbolic Interactionism focuses on social interactions, meaning-making, and the construction of reality in nurse-patient relationships. Areas of convergence between the two perspectives, such as their shared focus on social interaction and power dynamics within healthcare settings, were identified. Additionally, points of divergence, including macro-level versus micro-level analysis and the emphasis on structural inequality versus symbolic representation, were discussed. Future research can explore the integration of Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism in nursing practice. It can involve investigating how these perspectives can inform nursing interventions, policies, and education. Sociological perspectives provide useful frameworks for understanding and addressing social issues and problems within nursing practice. Conflict Theory and Symbolic Interactionism help nurses critically analyze power dynamics, social inequalities, and the construction of meaning in healthcare settings.


Reay, T., Goodrick, E., & D’Aunno, T. (2021). Health care research and organization theory. Cambridge University Press.

Husin, S. S., Ab Rahman, A. A., & Mukhtar, D. (2021). The Symbolic Interaction Theory: A Systematic Literature Review of Current Research. International Journal of Modern Trends in Social Sciences.

Carter, M. J., & Lamoreaux, L. V. (2022). Symbolic Interactionism and Global Public Health. In Handbook of Social Sciences and Global Public Health (pp. 1-18). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Salvini, A. (2019). The methodological convergences between symbolic interactionism and constructivist grounded theory. Przegląd Socjologii Jakościowej, 15(3), 10-29.

Burbank, P. M., & Martins, D. C. (2019). Critical interactionism: A theoretical bridge for understanding complex human conditions. Critical and Cultural Interactionism, 79-98.

Grosjean, S., Matte, F., & Nahon‐Serfaty, I. (2021). “Sensory Ordering” in Nurses’ Clinical Decision‐Making: Making Visible Senses, Sensing, and “Sensory Work” in the Hospital. Symbolic Interaction44(1), 163-182.

Task Accomplishment In Indo-Asia-Pacific Operations: Unit Recommendations And Justifications Essay Example

No. 1

Specific units must be assigned to each mission based on their skills, limits, and sustainment capabilities to complete the duties stated in the Indo-Asian-Pacific Situation D. The recommendations listed below justify the selection of potential units for each task:

Establish an MNJTF headquarters within a Joint Operations Area to prepare for non-permissive entry operations.

Recommendation: I Corps (United States Army)

Justification: I Corps can establish and manage an MNJTF headquarters as a sizeable operational-level headquarters. With its extensive command and control capabilities, I Corps can effectively coordinate and synchronize multinational forces in complex environments. Additionally, I Corps possesses sustainment capabilities that enable it to operate independently for an extended period. According to the CBI, I Corps can sustain itself for up to four weeks, ensuring continuity of operations and support during non-permissive entry operations.

Expel enemy forces from northern Sumatra (North Sumatra, West Sumatra, and Riau provinces), stabilize, and hand over to Indonesian security and military forces loyal to the Indonesian National Government.

Recommendation: 25th Infantry Division (United States Army)

Justification: The 25th Infantry Division excels at offensive and counterinsurgency operations (BARRACKS, 2015). Its infantry, armour, artillery, and combat support troops can defeat enemy forces in northern Sumatra. According to the CBI, the division’s sustainment skills enable long-term independence. This allows the division to survive and aid regional stabilization.

Secure the Strait of Malacca (prevent interference with global trade).

Recommendation: CTF-70 Battle Force (Carrier Strike Group)

Justification: The CTF-70 Battle Force, consisting of an aircraft carrier, cruisers, destroyers, submarines, and combat logistic ships, provides a robust naval presence with significant air superiority and power projection capabilities (Torruella Jr, 2007). This unit can effectively secure the Strait of Malacca by deterring and countering any potential maritime threats. The carrier-based aircraft can conduct surveillance, reconnaissance, and strike missions to enhance situational awareness and ensure the uninterrupted flow of global trade. Regarding sustainment capabilities, the CBI does not provide specific information regarding the duration the CTF-70 Battle Force can sustain itself. However, as a carrier strike group, it has onboard logistics and resupply capabilities to support its operations for an extended period.

Establish port opening and distribution for the Joint Operations Area.

Recommendation: CTF-76 Amphibious Force

Justification: With its LHD, LPD, LSD, and destroyer, the CTF-76 Amphibious Force is the appropriate unit for creating port opening and distribution in the Joint Operations Area. Its amphibious capabilities allow for the speedy deployment of Marines and equipment, while its port operations knowledge ensures efficient logistics, secure areas, and excellent coordination. The destroyer’s presence offers necessary security and contributes to overall operational security, assuring the port’s seamless operation. Overall, the CTF-76’s maritime mobility, embarked Marines, substantial logistical support, and defensive capabilities make it an excellent choice for this crucial mission.

Support Indonesian Military Forces to suppress potential unrest/subversive activities.

Recommendation: 1st Special Forces Group (United States Army)

Justification: With its training in unconventional warfare and counterinsurgency operations, the 1st Special Forces Group can help Indonesian Military Forces quell unrest and subversion (Votel et al., 2019). These forces can advise, train, and support Indonesian soldiers to improve their capabilities. According to the CBI, Special Forces groups have limited supply access and may need to operate autonomously for long periods. The resources do not list the 1st Special Forces Group’s sustainment period.

No. 2

  1. AF C2: By rapidly obtaining, processing, and disseminating information, the Air Force’s C2 mission increases Joint Forces’ decision-making and coordination (Durant, 2018). Air Force C2 gives Joint Forces situational awareness in the Indo-Asian-Pacific, where geopolitical dynamics and threats are complex. They can identify threats, monitor security, and enable real-time military-government communication. Joint Force’s cooperation and integration improve. In 2004, Air Force C2 coordinated a tsunami response. The Air Force promptly collected disaster data, assessed community needs, and coordinated help. The humanitarian effort saved more lives and rebuilt towns. Air Force C2 aids Joint Forces combat. Joint Forces enhance decision-making.
  2. AF RGM: RGM lets the Air Force rapidly deploy forces worldwide (Baltrusaitis, 2019). The Indo-Asian-Pacific’s enormous distances and terrain need swift people and equipment movements. With Air Force RGM capabilities, Joint Forces can quickly respond to catastrophes, deter threats, and support humanitarian and disaster relief missions. After Typhoon Haiyan, the Air Force deployed RGMs quickly. Helping victims, the Air Force supplied people and supplies immediately. This prevented deaths and disaster damage. Air Force RGMs aid Joint Forces warfare. Rapid Air Force deployment lets Joint Forces respond to threats and fulfil goals.


Joint Forces depend on Air Force C2 and RGM. These missions help Joint personnel make informed decisions, coordinate activities, and rapidly deploy personnel worldwide. Air Force C2 and RGM missions are long-term. Even without supply lines, the Air Force can sustain these missions. Joint Forces depend on this long-term survival. It lets Joint Forces operate autonomously for long periods, even in harsh conditions. Joint Forces can succeed in any mission with this flexibility and agility.

Specific durations of self-sustainability

Specific self-sustainability lengths for the Air Force’s C2 and RGM missions are classified. However, it is known that the Air Force possesses the means and capabilities to carry out these missions for extended periods, even if their supply lines are disrupted.

No. 3

Task 1: I Corps (United States Army)

Space capabilities are essential to I Corps’s Indo-Asian-Pacific missions. First, space-based assets allow I Corps to acquire vital data and boost situational awareness. Satellite imaging sensors with higher resolution make identifying and tracking prospective adversaries easier. Space-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) helps I Corps monitor enemy goals and networks by tracking and analyzing communications and electronic emissions. I Corps also uses space-based meteorological data to plan and execute operations. Analyzing weather trends and environmental factors helps I Corps plan and make decisions. I Corps mission planning, troop movements, and operational synchronization depend on space-based PNT devices like GPS.

 Task 2: 25th Infantry Division (United States Army)

Space capabilities enhance the Indo-Asian-Pacific operations of the 25th Infantry Division. Space-based assets allow the division to gather intelligence and monitor threats. High-resolution satellite photography lets the division track and evaluate enemy movements and actions. Space-based signals intelligence (SIGINT) enhances the division’s monitoring capabilities by capturing and analyzing adversary communications. The 25th Infantry Division uses space-based meteorological data to assess weather conditions and plan and execute missions. GPS and other space-based navigation and timing (PNT) technologies enable precise force localization, navigation, and synchronization, helping mission planning and execution.

Task 3: CTF-70 Battle Force (Carrier Strike Group)

Space capabilities improve the Indo-Asian-Pacific CTF-70 Battle Force’s operating capability. Space-based assets provide important observation and reconnaissance capabilities, allowing the CTF-70 Battle Force to acquire real-time intelligence on potential adversary movements and actions. Satellite imaging sensors with high-resolution pictures help detect and track threats. By intercepting and analyzing adversary communications, SIGINT from space enhances the CTF-70 Battle Force’s surveillance capabilities (Smith et al., 2021). This data is essential for operational planning and decision-making. The Carrier Strike Group may also monitor and analyze weather trends using space-based meteorological data. Flight safety and efficiency depend on accurate weather information.

No. 4

Due to the requirement for substantial coordination and collaboration among participating nations and the complexity of the threat environment in the Indo-Asia-Pacific area, defending cyberspace activities is the most difficult when assembling a multinational joint task force (MNJTF) (Lundy, 2018). With a comprehensive set of threat actors and constantly evolving strategies, protecting against cyber-attacks necessitates a shared understanding of the dangers and a coordinated response. Difficulties with attribution, diverse perspectives on the threat environment, and legal cooperation challenges further complicate defence operations. Despite these limitations, MNJTFs must prioritize building cyber defence capabilities, given the importance of cyberspace in military operations.


Baltrusaitis, D. F. (2019). A Rapid Global Effects Capability. Air University Press, Curtis E. LeMay Center for Doctrine Development and Education.


Durant, B. C. (2018). The Air Force C2 System: An Essential Element of Multi-Domain Battle. Joint Forces Staff College/NDU.

Lundy, M. D. (2018). Meeting the Challenge of Large-Scale Combat Operations Today and Tomorrow. Military Review98(5), 111-118.

Smith, J., Cheng, D., Klingner, B., & Lohman, W. 2023 Index of US Military Strength.

Torruella Jr, R. A. (2007). Managing the battle rhythm. PACIFIC FLEET FPO SAN FRANCISCO 96601 SEVENTH FLEET.

The Great Depression, Cold War Tensions, And Social Movements In American History Writing Sample

The Great Depression, Cold War, and civil rights revolutions changed America. The New Deal was a response to The Great Depression’s economic impact. The Cold War altered American society and policy following World War II. The transformational civil rights movement revealed American society’s deep preconceptions and systemic injustices during this critical historical period. Economic disputes, geopolitical rivalry, and social justice problems affect American history in the stories.

The Great Depression’s Main Causes

Several factors, including the Federal Reserve restraining money flow, caused the 1930s Great Depression. The tight monetary policy restricted credit availability and slowed the economy, while protectionist measures and a failing global market curtailed foreign trade. Banks suffered from speculative investments and poor monitoring (Sachinvala et al., 2020). The 1929 stock market crash lowered consumer spending and confidence, worsening the downturn.

The New Deal’s Depression Response

Franklin D. Roosevelt’s New Deal program tried to improve the economy during the Great Depression. The Emergency Banking and Glass-Stegall Acts stabilized the banking industry. Reopened solvent banks under the Emergency Banking Act restored financial institution confidence (McCall, 2019). The Glass Steagall Act separated commercial and investment banking, reducing riskier practices.

The CCC and WPA gave disadvantaged people jobs and money during the New Deal. Reviving the economy required infrastructural development and employment creation. The New Deal promoted social welfare programs like Social Security and the NLRA for Americans (Sachinvala et al., 2020). Social Security aids older folks and disabled people, while the NLRA gives workers more negotiating leverage over their bosses.

Cold War escalation after WWII

The Cold War was aggravated by the US and USSR competing for military technology and nuclear weapons. Both nations developed atomic weapons, heightening the danger and causing fear of nuclear war. The battle for arms fueled distrust and antagonism between the two ideologies. Contrasting viewpoints escalated Cold War conflicts. The US and the USSR differed on world order by favoring capitalistic democracy over communist socialism. Their mutual perceptions harmed their ideological and geopolitical goals (McCall, 2019). The ideological divide between superpowers led to proxy conflicts like the Korean and Vietnamese wars.

The Cold War caused widespread apprehension and McCarthyism, a movement of witch hunts against communists and suspected communists. The CIA was founded to gather information amid security concerns and a possible Soviet takeover ((Sachinvala et al., 2020). During The Cold War, suspicions of disloyalty maintained a culture of discrimination against poor minorities, including African Americans and LGBTQ+ persons.

Civil Rights Movement Changes

Civil rights movements in the 1950s and 1960s changed society. Thus, public areas cannot be segregated by race, religion, ethnicity, or gender. This historic effort sought to eradicate institutional prejudice and promote equal rights for all Americans. The civil rights movement aimed to equalize African Americans’ treatment and opportunity while changing America’s culture. It sparked national debates on racism, which led to greater social awareness and demands for social equity. It also increased inclusion and diversity in American society, from educational institutions to public spaces, where ground-breaking civil rights legislation supported the change (Sachinvala et al., 2020). The 1964 Civil Rights Act outlawed racial discrimination.

The Great Depression, Cold War, and Civil Rights Movement changed America. The Great Depression led to economic changes and social safety nets like The New Deal. Cultural and weapons rivalry defined. The civil rights movement challenged cultural preconceptions to bring about legislative change and increased inclusivity during the cold war. These key historical events show how America has survived and faced new obstacles.


Sachinvala, N. D., Teramoto, N., & Stergiou, A. (2020). Proposed neuroimmune roles of dimethyl fumarate, bupropion, S-adenosylmethionine, and vitamin D3 in affording a chronically Ill patient sustained relief from inflammation and major depression. Brain Sciences10(9), 600.

McCall, M. (2019). Environmental Racism: The US EPA’s Ineffective Enforcement of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. SJ Pol’y & Just.13, 49.