Solar Powered Aircraft Research Paper Essay Example

ABSTRACT: HELIOS project was a part of NASA’s ERAST programme (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology). It was developed by NASA and Californian company AeroVironment Inc. ERAST programme develops pilotless solar powered airplane technology. The HELIOS construction is based upon its predecessors like NASA’s solar plane Pathfinder, which was successfully tested a few years prior to HELIOS.

Due to its speed HELIOS was able to fly over the same spot for days or weeks, therefore, in the future such aircrafts could substitute communication satellites. In the test flight on 13th August 2001, HELIOS reached the height of almost 30,000 meters. HELIOS was a slow airplane – if you ride a bicycle fast, you are quicker than HELIOS. It was a remotely controlled plane with no crew weighting less than most cars. However, it flew higher than any other plane powered solely by solar energy.

In the future, such planes will also be used for interesting research purposes and missions, such as: Fly through the volcano for the purposes of volcano plume study Fly over the North and South Poles Fly for weeks and months at a time collecting scientific data, which varies according to the sun position or the season of the year Explore conditions on Mars. History in brief:| Gossamer Albatros Gossamer Penguin:| | Gossamer Albatross is best known for completing the first completely human powered flight across the English Channel in 1979. The Albatross II was the backup plane for this flight.

It was equipped with a DC battery-powered electric motor and flight instruments for the NASA research program. NASA completed its flight testing of the Gossamer Albatross II in April, 1980. More about the “Father of Human Powered Flight” Dr. Paul Mac Cready. |   | Pathfinder:| | Pathfinder was a solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Solar arrays provided up to 8 kW of power at high noon on a clear summer day. Pathfinder flew at typical airspeeds of 25 to 35 km/h.

Pathfinder had a 30 m wing span, weighed 270 kg and was powered by six DC electric motors. It was built primarily of composites, plastic, and foam. |   | Pathfinder Plus:| | In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the Pathfinder Plus aircraft. Major activities of Pathfinder Plus’s Hawaiian flights included detection of forest nutrient status, forest regrowth after damage caused by Hurricane Inki in 1992, sediment/algal concentrations in coastal waters, and assessment of coral reef health. Pathfinder Plus has a 36 m wing span and weighs about 318 kg.

Pathfinder Plus has eight DC electric motors, its solar arrays produced about 12,5 kW of power. |   | Centurion:| | Centurion has a 62 m wing span and it is powered by 14 brushless DC electric motors. The Centurion first flew in 1998. As with the Pathfinder/Pathfinder-Plus vehicles, the Centurion was further modified with the addition of a wing extension and a fifth landing-gear pod. Solar arrays have provided up to 31 kilowatts of power at high noon on a summer day to power the aircraft’s motors, avionics, communications and other electronic systems.

Centurion also has a backup lithium battery system. | HELIOS – technical data:| Wing span: 75, 3 m Length: 3, 6 m Wing thickness: 0. 3 m Height: 2 m, without upper blades of the propellers Wing area: 186. 6 m2 Mass: 600 kg – unloaded plane Allowed mass: up to 930 kg, depends on flight purpose and available energy. Cargo: up to 330 kg depends on measurement equipment weight. Propulsion: 14 DC brushless electric motors (the power of each motor is 1, 5 kW) with two blades, specially designed for high altitude flights.

The weight of each motor is less than 5 kg. Length of both propeller blades is 1, 7 m. Energy source: Bifacial solar cells – dimensions 1. 25″ x 2. 75″ (Front side efficiency 22 %, backside efficiency 11 %) placed on transparent wings. Energy source in the dark are lithium batteries. Fuel cells will be used as main energy source in the dark in the future. Speed: Typical flight speed is 30 to 40 km/h. The highest speed is 270 km/h. Flight height: Maximal flight height is 30000 m – typical height depends on flight mission and it is typical 15000 to 22000 m.

Flight: The anticipated autonomy in the future together with fuel cells will reach for uninterrupted flights (several months of autonomy). Materials: All main parts of the plane are made of carbon fibers and Styrofoam. Wings are covered with special designed and produced plastic sheet. Flying wings – From Pathfinder to Helios DESCRIPTION: Silicon, because of its abundant nature (sand) and widespread use in the manufacture of semiconductor devices such as computer chips, quickly became the material of choice for solar cells.

Over the last several decades, crystalline silicon solar cell technology has become the “workhorse” technology for the majority of PV applications. However, despite its good performance and well-understood manufacturing processes, traditional crystalline silicon solar cell technology remains costly. Subsequently, traditional flat-plate PV systems, which one can see on many rooftops, parking structures, and other facilities, remain costly as well. The industry’s design focus has been to reduce the PV system cost “culprit”–the silicon solar cell.

Most approaches strive to reduce the silicon material content, many of which involve reducing the thickness of the cells themselves by using very thin films (like paints) of the material. Amonix, because of its extensive background in high-tech semiconductor design and manufacturing, pursued a highly cost-effective approach which involves reducing the area of cell material required to generate a given amount of electricity. This is the high-concentration concept. Amonix has been successful in reducing the silicon cell area by over 500 times with its High-Concentration Photovoltaic (HCPV) system and Mega Module™ design.

The Cell:  The concept of concentrating sunlight onto a solar cell had been studied for many years; however, one of its main obstacles was that solar cells became very inefficient when exposed to the extreme conditions associated with concentrated sunlight. In 1989, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the research arm for several hundred domestic utility companies, approached Amonix to solve the solar cell stabilization problem. Using its extensive semiconductor background, Amonix was successful at stabilizing a highly efficient silicon solar cell.

Further efforts led to the development of a back-junction point-contact silicon solar cell which is the cornerstone of Amonix’s HCPV system. This cell has many superior design attributes including the following: * High Efficiency: Amonix has produced the world’s most efficient silicon solar cell (27. 6% efficiency), also it was manufactured in a commercial environment (an industry first). This performance has been measured and documented by Cal Lab at the Fraunhofer Institute, Germany. High Power Capability:   The Amonix high-concentration silicon solar cell has the ability to generate more power per unit of area than other silicon solar cells. * Both Electrodes on the Same Side:  The Amonix high-concentration silicon solar cell has both electrodes on the same side which allows automated surface mounted robotic assembly and maximum capture of the sun’s energy. * Proprietary Manufacturing Processes:  The Amonix high-concentration silicon solar cell has been designed to allow for high-volume production specifically adaptable to large-volume microelectronic factories for low-cost manufacturing.

Concentration: Ordinary, one-sun flat-plate solar modules have their entire sun-receiving surface covered with costly silicon solar cells and are positioned at a fixed tilt to the sun. In contrast, Amonix’s systems offer significant cost savings by using inexpensive flat, plastic Fresnel lenses as an intermediary between the sun and the cell. These magnifying lenses focus and concentrate sunlight approximately 500 times onto a relatively small cell area and operate similarly to the glass magnifying lenses we used to burn things with as children.

Through concentration, the required silicon cell area needed for a given amount of electricity is reduced by an amount approximating its concentration ratio (500 times). In effect, a low cost plastic concentrator lens is being substituted for relatively expensive silicon. Instead of jet fuel, Helios has about 62,000 solar cells across the wing. The solar cells collect energy from the Sun and convert it to electricity, which runs the 14 small motors, which turn the 14 propellers. The propellers are specially designed to pull the aircraft aloft even in the very thin air that’s 18 miles high.

On August 13, 2001, remote-control pilots on the ground used a computer to fly the Helios Prototype to an altitude of 96,863 feet. That’s over 18 miles straight up! Before the Helios Prototype, the highest recorded flight of any aircraft was about 85,000 feet. This was done in 1976 by the SR-71 spy plane, the fastest jet in the world. Only rockets and rocket-powered airplanes have gone higher. The air we breathe on Earth’s surface is almost 100 times thicker than the air up where the Helios Prototype flew.

Earth’s atmosphere at this altitude is about as thin as the atmosphere on Mars. This altitude above Earth is so close to space that the sky is almost black, stars shine in the daytime, and the horizon looks curved. As a follow-on to the Centurion (and earlier Pathfinder and Pathfinder-Plus) aircraft, the solar-powered Helios Prototype is the latest and largest example of a slow-flying ultralight flying wing designed for long-duration, high-altitude Earth science or telecommunications relay missions in the stratosphere. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc. of Monrovia, California, under NASA’s Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project, the unique craft is intended to demonstrate two key missions: the ability to reach and sustain horizontal flight at 100,000 feet altitude on a single-day flight in 2001, and to maintain flight above 50,000 feet altitude for at least four days in 2003, with the aid of a regenerative fuel cell-based energy storage system now in development. Both of these missions will be powered by electricity derived from non-polluting solar energy.

The Helios Prototype is an enlarged version of the Centurion flying wing, which flew a series of test flights at NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in late 1998. The craft has a wingspan of 247 feet, 41 feet greater than the Centurion, 2 1/2 times which of its solar-powered Pathfinder flying wing, and longer than the wingspans of either the Boeing 747 jetliner or Lockheed C-5 transport aircraft. The remotely piloted, electrically powered Helios Prototype went aloft on its maiden low-altitude checkout flight Sept. 8, 1999, over Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA’s Dryden Flight Research Center in the Southern California desert.

The initial flight series was flown on battery power as a risk-reduction measure. In all, six flights were flown in the Helios Protoype’s initial development series. In upgrading the Centurion to the Helios Prototype configuration, AeroVironment added a sixth wing section and a fifth landing gear pod, among other improvements. The additional wingspan increased the area available for installation of solar cells and improved aerodynamic efficiency, allowing the Helios Prototype to fly higher, longer and with a larger payload than the smaller craft.

In addition, project engineers added a differential Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) system to improve navigation, an extensive turbulence monitoring system payload to record structural loads on the aircraft both in the air and on the ground, and radiator plates to assist in cooling the avionics at high altitudes where there is little air to dissipate heat. During 2000, more than 65,000 solar cells in 1,800 groups were mounted on the upper surface of Helios’ wing. Produced by Sun Power, Inc. these bi-facial silicon cells are about 19 percent efficient in the flight regime in which the helios is designed to operate, converting about 19 percent of the solar energy they receive into electrical current. The entire array is capable of producing a maximum output of about 35 kw at high noon on a summer day. The mission to reach and sustain flight at 100,000 feet in 2001 requires use of all 14 motors and minimal ballast to save weight, with the aircraft weighing in at only a little more than 1,600 lbs.

The four-day mission above 50,000 feet envisioned for the Helios Prototype in 2003 will see only eight motors powering the craft and the addition of the regenerative energy storage system now in development. The system will increase the Helios Prototype’s flight weight to a little over 2,000 lbs. Fewer motors are needed for the long-endurance mission due to the lesser altitude requirements, and the excess electrical energy generated by the solar arrays during the daytime will be diverted to the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell energy storage system, which will release the electricity to power the Helios after dark.

Over 570 kW of the 5th generation Amonix system have been manufactured and installed over the last six years. The first three 20 kW units started operating in May of 2000. Since that time, additional units have been manufactured and installed for Arizona Public Service (APS), and for the University of Nevada, Las Vegas and Nevada Power Company. During this time, the units have produced over 3. 7 GHz of grid powerFUTURE EXPANSION:In the future, such planes will also be used for interesting research purposes and missions, such as:

Fly through the volcano for the purposes of volcano plume study, Fly over the North and South Poles, Fly for weeks and months at a time collecting scientific data, which varies according to the sun position or the season of the year, and Explore conditions on Mars. CONCLUSION: More than 60,000 high efficiency (22. 5% at AM 1. 5) solar cells produced by Sun Power Corporation were used as an energy source for HELIOS.

The peak power of solar cell array was approximately 30 kW. The total costs for HELIOS solar cells reached around US$ 9 million (200 US$/W). HELIOS was equipped with 14 propeller motors, which were purposely designed for use in very thin air on high altitudes. HELIOS’ wings (in fact, there’s only one wing) were longer than wings of a Boeing 747 or a Lockheed C-5 military transport plane. | | REFRENCES: All Pictures and descriptions: NASA Dryden Flight Research Center |

Historical Development Of Cosmetics Indusrty

The term “cosmetics” is derived from the Greek word kosmetikos, meaning “skilled in adornment” (Sage 33). The evolution of cosmetics has seen changes in how they are applied and the reasons for their use. In ancient times, Roman philosopher Plautus remarked that beauty was as essential as salt in food, emphasizing the timeless pursuit of beauty. Historical artwork and illustrations depict both men and women adorned with makeup.

The use of cosmetics has transformed and differed across numerous cultures throughout history. This includes the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, French, Italians, and Americans. Ancient Egypt holds the earliest archaeological proof of cosmetic usage dating back to around 3500 BC. Even prominent individuals such as Nefertiti, Nefertari, and Tutankhamun possessed makeup. The Ancient Greeks and Romans[citation needed] similarly employed cosmetics which sometimes contained toxic substances like mercury and lead.

In the Old Testament of the Bible, specifically in 2 Kings 9:30, it is mentioned that cosmetics had an influence on the ancient kingdom of Israel. This is illustrated by the act of Jezebel painting her eyelids around 840 BC. Additionally, beauty treatments are described in the Book of Esther. Moving on to the Middle Ages, despite disapproval from Church leaders, many women continued to use cosmetics. During this time, a popular trend among women was to have a fair complexion. This was attained by applying mixtures of lead, chalk, or flour, or by engaging in bloodletting.

In Western history, the use of cosmetics, such as white lead pigment referred to as “ceruse”, was disapproved. During the 19th century, makeup was mainly associated with prostitutes, prompting Queen Victoria to publicly denounce it as improper and vulgar, allowing its use only by actors. Adolf Hitler went as far as likening face painting to clownish behavior, claiming it was unsuitable for women belonging to the master race. Additionally, women in the 19th century aimed to be perceived as delicate ladies, often comparing themselves to fragile flowers and highlighting their femininity.

They always strived to appear pale and captivating. Occasionally, women subtly applied a small amount of blush on their cheeks, and utilized “belladonna” to enlarge their eyes for a more striking appearance. Generally, the use of makeup was discouraged, particularly during the stricter social norms of the 1870s. Nonetheless, actresses were permitted to wear makeup, and renowned beauties like Sarah Bernhardt and Lillie Langtry could be seen with powdered faces. The majority of available cosmetic products during this time were either of questionable chemical composition or derived from food colorings, berries, and beetroot.

By the middle of the 20th century, cosmetics were extensively used by women in almost all industrial societies worldwide. Cosmetics have been employed for centuries, but the lack of regulation in their production and usage has resulted in detrimental consequences such as deformities, blindness, and even death throughout history.

Historical instances of these outcomes include the widespread application of ceruse (white lead) to mask the face during the Renaissance and incidents of blindness caused by the mascara called Lash Lure in the early 20th century.

The annual expenditures for cosmetics worldwide currently amount to $19 billion [5]. L’Oreal, the largest company in the industry, was established by Eugene Schueller in 1909 under the name French Harmless Hair Colouring Company. Presently, Liliane Bettencourt and Nestle own 26% and 28% respectively, while the remaining 46% is publicly traded. Elizabeth Arden, Helena Rubinstein, and Max Factor played a significant role in establishing the market in the USA during the 1910s. Shortly before World War II, Revlon joined these companies, followed by Estee Lauder soon after.

There is now a wide range of beauty products available from online retailers that exclusively operate on the internet. These retailers have been joined by major department stores and traditional physical beauty retailers that have expanded their operations online. Cosmetic companies, like many other industries, oppose regulation by government agencies such as the FDA and have consistently opposed it. The FDA does not need to authorize or review cosmetics or their ingredients before they are sold to the public.

The FDA regulates the allowed colors in cosmetics and hair dyes, but not injuries caused by these products or their recalls. The rise in popularity of cosmetics, especially among young American girls, has led to criticism and controversy. This trend affects companies catering to a younger consumer base, including both affordable brands like Rimmel and more luxurious options.

Estee Lauder has addressed the increasing market demand by launching a collection of flavored lipsticks and glosses, while also incorporating glittery and sparkly packaging. Additionally, their marketing campaigns now feature young models. This shift towards appealing to younger audiences has attracted significant media attention, with various groups such as feminists, Islamists, Christianists, animal rights activists, authors, and public interest organizations expressing concerns and criticisms towards the cosmetics industry.

Increasingly, consumers are seeking cosmetics free of harmful substances such as petroleum, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and parabens. Numerous studies have raised concerns about the safety of specific surfactants. SLS has been associated with various skin issues, including dermatitis. While rare, parabens can cause skin irritation and contact dermatitis in individuals with allergies. Animal testing suggests that parabens exhibit a mild estrogenic effect and function as xenoestrogens.

Regular use of cosmetics can lead to decreased eyelash thickness. Many consumer products contain artificial fragrances, which have been found to cause allergies during patch testing. Manufacturers of cosmetics have been criticized for making unsupported claims about their products. The cosmetic industry has grown extensively since the 20th century, driven by increasing demand for beauty salons, and it continues to thrive.

Selfridges, a salon established in 1909, brought about a revolution in the cosmetics industry by openly showcasing products instead of concealing them. This shift empowered women to feel more self-assured and less preoccupied with societal judgment as long as they presented themselves attractively. To view applying makeup as an artistic endeavor, one must acknowledge the profound influence of the performing arts, notably ballet, on the realm of cosmetics. Fashion designer Paul Poiret was inspired by the arrival of the Russian Ballet in London and introduced a dynamic and vivid aesthetic.

And that appearance was mirrored in cosmetics, not only in clothing. Today, those socialite hostesses no longer needed to constantly visit the beauty salon. They now had the option of permanent cosmetics. They could get their lips, cheeks, and eyebrows tattooed with vibrant color that would not fade or require replacement. Even today, permanent cosmetics remain quite popular. As time passed, the use of cosmetics waxed and waned. In the 1930s, lipstick featured hues of dark red, with a constantly evolving range of shades.

Those who were unfaithful to their partners faced an issue with the bold-colored lipstick. It left a noticeable stain, arousing suspicion among wives. This led them to seek explanations for the well-known “lipstick on the collar”. Fingernails also embraced audaciousness like lipstick, adorned in different shades of deep crimson. Meanwhile, toenails opted for a lighter hue of pink. During World War II, there was a decline in the availability of cosmetics due to ingredient shortages. However, once the war ended, people started spending money again and women gained freedom to buy unlimited amounts of makeup.

Over the past few decades, the cosmetics industry has experienced significant growth and increased competition. Women now have a multitude of choices when it comes to makeup products, including mascara, eye shadow, and eye liner. Facial cleansing systems have also expanded to include options such as cleanser, toner, and moisturizer. Nail polish is now available in various colors and designs, while lotions, lipsticks, skincare products, and powders offer a wider range of selections. This expansion has led to the cosmetics industry becoming a billion-dollar market.

Various players currently exist in the cosmetics industry, including Estee Lauder, Elizabeth Arden, Mac Cosmetics, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Avon, Clinique, L’Oreal, Bobbi Brown cosmetics, and Victoria Jackson cosmetics. Each of these companies is introducing their own product lines into the market. The consumer ultimately benefits from this competition. Regardless of the desired outcome – whether it involves concealing, highlighting, illuminating, minimizing enhancing or perfecting – today’s cosmetics can help you achieve it. Even during economic downturns, cosmetics remain highly sought-after products. Women will always find a way to afford their makeup.

Men benefit from women’s efforts to enhance their beauty throughout the years. They should be grateful to the ancient Egyptians for their strange beauty formulas, as many of these ideas have survived and evolved into today’s cosmetics. So when you see your special lady with her perfectly-applied cosmetics, you should greet her with admiration and say, “Wow!”

Thu, 09/11/2008 – 04:41 — James Martell

Are we too obsessed with our physical appearance in society? Do we have more pride than the average person when it comes to how we look? To answer these questions, it is important to establish what is considered normal. It’s okay to care about our appearance as long as it doesn’t consume us completely. Our goal is simply to be attractive and presentable. Throughout history, people have focused on enhancing their looks, which is why the history of cosmetics spans a significant amount of time. This article will explore the evolution of cosmetics and compare them to ancient Egyptian civilization dating back approximately 10,000 BC. The Egyptians had a wide range of cosmetic products.

The Ancient Egyptians believed that their appearance was directly linked to their spirituality, so it was crucial for them to look and smell good. They saw cleanliness as a reflection of their spirituality and believed in the importance of maintaining a presentable or even fabulous appearance. With their painted faces, the Egyptians aimed to create a striking and classic look. Their resourcefulness also played a role in finding ways to enhance their appearance.

The Egyptians were remarkably innovative during ancient times, especially in the field of cosmetics. They excelled at creating natural formulas to address different skin issues. It is astonishing that even as far back as the fifteenth to tenth centuries BC, they had cosmetic products capable of eliminating stretch marks, reducing wrinkles, getting rid of scars, and promoting hair growth. This achievement is truly impressive when compared to the multitude of modern products claiming to achieve similar results. Nowadays, extensive research and development programs appear necessary to attain comparable outcomes.

Perhaps there’s something to be said for natural cosmetics after all. The Ancient Egyptians also used other cosmetics such as eye makeup, face creams, and body oils. They were skilled in mixing ingredients and had a wide array of perfumes and fragrances. These cosmetics were essential for Egyptian women to look good. Hence, they invented a cosmetic called mesdemet to fulfill this necessity.

Mesdemet, a makeup used by ancient Egyptians, was created using copper and lead ore. Although not the safest option for applying to the face, it served its purpose. The Egyptians applied green to their lower eyelids and black or dark gray to their eyelashes and upper eyelids. These dark colors not only improved their appearance but also protected them from the power of the evil eye, adhering to their spiritual beliefs. Additionally, mesdemet acted as a great disinfectant and repelled insects. Since life on the Nile was often plagued by annoying insects, this eye makeup served a dual purpose.

The cosmetics made by the ancient Egyptians had a wide range of ingredients and were used for both beauty and medical purposes. One of their products, called kohl, was made from a combination of burnt almonds, oxidized copper, different-colored copper ores, lead, ash, and ochre. This mixture was turned into a dark-colored powder and applied in an almond shape around the eyes using a small stick. To enhance their appearance further, they also applied a combination of red clay and water to their lips and cheeks. Even their nails received attention in their beauty rituals.

They used henna to color them orange or yellow. Quite a vibrant image, don’t you agree? However, that was precisely their intention at that time – something similar to today, perhaps? Moreover, the Egyptians excelled not only in creating natural products. A study conducted by L’Oreal, in collaboration with scientists from the Louvre in Paris, unveiled that the black eye makeup utilized during ancient times contained synthetic ingredients, as no natural source could be identified. Additionally, the research indicated that mesdemet achieved its silky texture due to its fat content ranging from 7-10%.

That’s just the same as many of the eye cosmetic products on the market today. Are we really advanced, or just living in the past? The purpose of cosmetics hasn’t really changed over the years. Way back – I mean, way back – like in 10,000 BC, cosmetics were used to enhance the beauty of the female countenance. And by the way, men used them, too. Back then, all Egyptians bathed either in the river or from a basin at home. They used cosmetic cleansers made from vegetable or animal oil mixed with powdered lime and perfume – probably not much different from some of the soaps we use today.

During the ancient times, when the air was hot and dry, people used perfumed oils to maintain the softness of their skin. These oils served as protection against the climate. As different cultures merged through invasions and migrations, the significance of cosmetics underwent a profound transformation. The Egyptians believed in the spiritual connection between their cosmetic makeup and their spirituality. However, when the more liberal Greeks arrived, attitudes towards cosmetics shifted. Although the use of cosmetics remained prevalent, their association with spirituality diminished.

The Greeks used cosmetics primarily for aesthetic purposes. Unlike the Egyptians, they focused on looking good for each other rather than for the gods. As a result, they adopted Egyptian cosmetic practices and products. However, when the Romans arrived centuries later, their indulgent and hedonistic lifestyle influenced the use of cosmetics. The Egyptians’ cosmetic formulas were adapted for less spiritual purposes, such as aphrodisiacs. Nevertheless, vanity remained a concern, so cosmetics continued to be applied not only on the face but also on the body.

According to Platus, a Roman man, it was once remarked that “a woman without paint is like food without salt.” The Romans lived a lifestyle with no limitations, which also extended to the ingredients they used in their cosmetics. For instance, they would use a combination of fat from a sheep and blood as nail polish. Additionally, they did not hesitate to prioritize their lives by bathing in mud blended with crocodile excrement. Disgusting! For centuries, having a pale face was the preferred appearance as it signified one’s social standing.

The individuals who worked outdoors in the fields were known for their tanned and tough skin. These individuals belonged to the working class and were not associated with the upper class, who had fair skin. People with fair skin were considered wealthy enough to not have to work. To attain this appearance, both men and women utilized a powder consisting of hydroxide, carbonate, and lead oxide. Unfortunately, there were consequences for this pursuit of an “appropriate” look – lead poisoning. Consequently, a substitute was sought after. Eventually, in the 19th century, an alternative facial powder made of zinc oxide was discovered. This is the same powder that is still in use today.

In the 20th century, as the cosmetic industry entered Hollywood, the white face aesthetic gradually gave way to a desire for a tanned appearance. This shift led to the creation of artificial tanners and a whole new line of cosmetic products. In 1929, advertisements were promoting tanning liquid and powder, offering individuals the opportunity to achieve bronze skin even if they couldn’t tan naturally. Furthermore, cosmetics were utilized to achieve a more youthful appearance, particularly during the Edwardian society days around 1900. Middle-aged women who frequently entertained as hostesses sought to appear as young as possible.

These society women required assistance to counteract the consequences of their luxurious lifestyles, such as unhealthy eating habits, lack of exercise, and the prevalence of air pollution during that period. In order to maintain their youthful appearance and compensate for their extravagant ways, Edwardian women heavily relied on cosmetics, particularly face creams and anti-aging products. Visiting beauty salons was another popular method in which women aimed to achieve a naturally youthful and appealing look. The House of Cyclax in London was renowned as one of the most well-known salons.

Because the women wanted to keep their need for assistance in looking beautiful a secret, they would enter the salon through the back door. They would arrive in their carriages and quickly disembark, wearing veils to conceal their complexions, before rushing inside. Mrs. Henning, the proprietor of the House of Cyclax, discreetly offered face creams and blush to the ladies. Among her products was papier poudre, a colored-powdered paper that the women would apply to their faces to eliminate any shine. These papers were sold in book format and are still available for purchase today; one such company that sells them is Avon.

In addition to using papier poudre, women also utilized charcoal on the end of burned matches to serve as mascara and flower petals for lipstick. These natural cosmetics were highly trendy. Helena Rubenstein, another salon owner, saw a surge in business from her wealthy clientele. These women were willing to spend significant amounts of money on their appearance. Initially, Rubenstein offered a face cream with sun protection, but later expanded her line to include lipstick and face powder. Nowadays, Helena Rubenstein offers a comprehensive range of cosmetics. The cosmetics industry truly flourished in the 20th century.

The cosmetics industry gained establishment and popularity as beauty salons became more popular in the early 20th century. This growth began with the opening of Selfridges salon in London in 1909, which made cosmetics readily available to the general public rather than being hidden away. As women became more confident, their concern about others’ opinions diminished, as long as they appeared attractive. The performing arts, particularly ballet, played a significant role in shaping the cosmetic industry, if one considers makeup application as an artistic endeavor.

When the Russian Ballet performed in London, designer Paul Poiret took inspiration from the Russian style and introduced a fresh and vibrant look. This new look extended beyond clothing and influenced the cosmetics industry. It provided an alternative for society hostesses who no longer needed frequent visits to beauty salons. They could now opt for permanent cosmetics that involved tattooing their lips, cheeks, and eyebrows with long-lasting vivid color. This eliminated the need for regular touch-ups. Even today, permanent cosmetics remain popular. Over time, the use of cosmetics has had its ups and downs.

From the 1930s onwards, lipstick came in various shades of dark red, leaving noticeable stains. This posed a problem for cheaters, as wives questioned the presence of “lipstick on the collar”. Similarly, fingernails adopted the same crimson color as lipstick, while toenails sported a lighter pink shade. During World War II, cosmetic usage declined due to ingredient shortages. However, once the war ended, people resumed their lavish spending habits. This allowed women to freely purchase as much makeup as they desired.

And the competition was heating up, too. The cosmetics industry becomes the foundation of fashion Throughout the last few decades, women’s choices of cosmetics greatly increased. There were many companies selling many kinds of makeup. Cosmetics now included eye makeup, like mascara, eye shadow and eye liner; facial cleansing systems, including cleanser, toner and moisturizer; nail polish, every color and design you can think of; lotions, lipsticks, skincare products, powders – the list goes on and on. Perhaps that’s why cosmetics is a multi-billion dollar industry today.

There is a wide range of players in the cosmetics industry now, including Estee Lauder, Elizabeth Arden, Mac Cosmetics, Mary Kay Cosmetics, Avon, Clinique, L’Oreal, Bobbi Brown cosmetics, Victoria Jackson cosmetics. Each of these companies has their own lines of cosmetics. However, the ultimate winner in this competitive game is you, the consumer. Regardless of the specific look you desire – whether it is for coverage, emphasis, illumination, minimization, enhancement or perfection – today’s cosmetics can help you achieve it. Interestingly, the demand for cosmetics remains strong even during a recession. Women will always prioritize spending on makeup products.

Men appreciate the efforts women have made over the years to enhance their beauty. We have the ancient Egyptians to thank for their unconventional formulas that have influenced cosmetics today. So, guys, take a moment to acknowledge the amazing transformation women achieve with their perfectly-applied cosmetics. Author Arden Mellor is a seasoned freelance writer who simplifies complex topics, including cosmetic products, haircare products, and ladies jewelry. Benefit from the wisdom presented in Arden’s articles to make life simpler.

Factors Responsible For Juvenile Delinquence In Uganda

FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENCE IN UGANDA MWEBESA JOSEPH ISRAEL 06/U/BGD /6321/PD A proposal submitted in partial fulfillment of the award of a Bachelors degree of Guidance and Counseling of Kyambogo University 2010 Contents CHAPTER ONE1 Background1 Statement of the problem3 Purpose of the study3 Objectives of the study3 Research questions3 Significance of the study:4 Scope of the study:4 Limitations of the study4 CHAPTER TWO5 Introduction:5 Definition of juvenile delinquency5 Causative factors for juvenile delinquency5 Suggested remedies for juvenile delinquency8 Conclusion11

CHAPTER THREE12 Introduction12 Research Design12 Measuring Instruments13 Population and Sampling13 Data Sources13 CHAPTER FOUR14 Introduction14 Responses from juvenile offenders15 Table 115 Table 2:15 Table 3:16 Table 4:17 Table 5. 17 Table 6. 18 Table 7:18 Table 8:19 Responses obtained from parents. 19 Table 9:19 Table 10:20 Table 1120 Table 12. 21 Table 13. 21 Table 14:22 Table 15:22 Table 16:23 Responses obtained from the police. 23 Table 17:23 Table 17:24 Table 18:24 Table 19:25 Table 20:25 Table 21:26 Table 22:26 Table 23:27 Conclusion27 CHAPTER FIVE28 Introduction28 Discussion of findings28

Conclusion30 Recommendations30 REFFERENCES32 APPENDIX I34 Questionnaire for juvenile offenders34 SECTION A34 SECTION B35 SECTION C36 SECTION D37 APPENDIX II39 Questionnaire for parents39 SECTION A39 SECTION B41 SECTION C42 SECTION D43 APPENDIX III44 Questionnaire for police officers44 SECTION A44 SECTION B46 SECTION C47 SECTION D48 CHAPTER ONE Background Juvenile delinquency means disobedience by the juveniles or any crimes committed by the juveniles or adolescents. (Chintamanikar, 1992). A juvenile is regarded as a young person or a child who is below the age as specified by the law for the time being.

Paul H. Mussen et. al (1979) also defined a juvenile delinquent as a person generally under the age of 18 who engages in behavior that is punishable by law. To sum it all the term juvenile delinquency is used to refer to when the actions of young people or children and their behaviors offend the entire population. The journal, the Social Background of Juvenile Delinquency in Uganda in (2002) reported that the rate at which delinquent acts in Uganda are occurring in Uganda has persistently increased given the fact that there are only three remand homes in Uganda i. e. ne in Kampala (Naguru), one in Fort-Portal and one in Mbale. However the measures being put to prevent juvenile delinquency are still insufficient as compared to the threat it is posing. The journal also reported that there are still prevailing cases of juvenile delinquency which still needs to be seriously addressed among many young people in Uganda. Some of the delinquent activities or crimes that adolescents indulge in include bullying, stealing / theft, drug abuse, sexual abuses like rape and sexual harassments, defiance to authority like parents and civil leaders among other things.

Stephen Moore (2002) supported the above statement that Most of the delinquent behavior is caused by four main situations which include poor socialization into social values, the formation of subgroups / sub cultures by the youth deviant from the normal ones, status frustration when their expectations are not met, and anomie where by youths simply fail to adopt to the generally accepted way of doing things in society. According to Stephen, the above things in society explain the cause of strikes in school, disobedience to parents and other authorities and many other undesirable behaviors.

It is even worse when there are no strategic measures put to prevent the spread of such behaviors in the society. The teachers’ resource book; Guidance and counseling for post primary institution (2007) acknowledged the gravity of the problem of juvenile delinquency in post primary institutions. It however suggests that appropriate guidance and counseling services as the basic tool to fight the problem of delinquency in schools, in order to groom youths who are known to be the pillars of tomorrow’s society.

The formation of remand homes in Uganda was initially aimed at preventing juvenile delinquency and rehabilitating the juvenile offenders who indulge in such dubious acts. However, the journal; Social Background of Juvenile Delinquency in Uganda (2003) reported that the effectiveness of this goal to be reached is questionable. In the first place the juvenile offenders are not adequately rehabilitated which has prevented behavioral change among them.

In this case there were a number of factors that prevented the change among the offenders where by they come from worse families worse than the remand homes where thy are remanded and once they are sent back to where they came from, the environment cannot permit change easily. So there is also need to deal with the family as an institution and society as a whole. In Kampala such delinquent cases are so rampant in areas especially where there is poor housing such as slums and generally all areas with low standards of living. Such areas therefore have acted as braiding grounds for juvenile delinquency.

The solution to juvenile delinquency may not be found in remanding or punishing the juvenile offenders in some sort but in a number of various things. Stephen Moore (2001) in his book Sociology Alive wrote that the idea of some people being made scapegoat or branded bad was taken up by a number of sociologists who render it so negative. Once a person has been labeled bad that may render them more deviant or perform more crimes recklessly. This is because blaming them in such away alienates them and denies them chance to re- enter the society live with others normally without condemnation.

The above therefore is a basis to suggest other methods to deal with juvenile offenders rather that remanding or punishing them. As already noted earlier, the remand homes are few ( only three) in Uganda and have registered plenty of loopholes in solving the problem of juvenile delinquency as reported by the journal; the Social Background of Juvenile Delinquency in Uganda (2002). It is therefore needful to conduct a study about the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda, the process which will suggest appropriate ways of preventing it and treating the offenders more effectively.

Statement of the problem The increased rate of juvenile delinquency in Uganda has affected the moral life of many youths in Uganda, yet there are few measures being put in place to prevent it. This is more alarming mainly in urban centers like Kampala whose population is high especially of the young people like any other urban centers as sited by Kenneth McLean and Norman Thomson (2004). This poses a high threat to the moral life of the future population. Purpose of the study The study will examine the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda – Kampala being the case study. Objectives of the study 1.

To find out the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda a case study of Kampala. 2. To identify behaviors or activities that juveniles / adolescents do that are unacceptable in society. 3. To find out their coping strategies for survival. 4. To find out the challenges faced by institutions and remand homes for juveniles in the fight against juvenile delinquency. Research questions 1. What are the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency? 2. What kind of behavior do juvenile offenders normally portray? 3. What can be done to reduce juvenile delinquency in Uganda? 4. What challenges are faced by nstitutions or remand homes in fighting juvenile delinquency? Significance of the study: The study will benefit parents and care givers of juveniles / adolescents in identifying ways to prevent delinquency and ways of helping delinquent children. Scope of the study: The study was carried out in Kampala city. It was found suitable to carry out the study from there due to the frequent reports about cases of juvenile delinquency among the young people. Also being populated with many young people from almost all over Uganda, various tribes and cultures of people are represented hence it can yield more valid and reliable findings.

Limitations of the study During the conduction of the research the researcher encountered the following limitations: 1. Sources of information were indeed challenging and beaurocratic when it came to visiting the remand home, seeking permission from the ministry of Gender Labor and Social Development in order to carry out the research among the juvenile offender. Also it was tiresome and time consuming to distribute and retrieve all the questionnaires from among the police and parents who responded to some questionnaires. 2. It was also not easy to collect necessary and relevant literature amidst the scarcity of books in libraries around.

CHAPTER TWO Introduction: This chapter is comprised of variety of secondary data about juvenile delinquency that the researcher got about the topic as found out by other various scholars. It brings out what has been known and discovered about the topic, what has been done, solutions to the problems as well as the comparisons of the findings of different scholars. It also consists of three parts in which the literature is presented i. e. the definition of juvenile delinquency, the discussion of causative factors and remedies to the problem and then the conclusion. Definition of juvenile delinquency Paul H.

Musen (1979) defined juvenile delinquency as the engagement of a young person / a minor in behavior punishable by law. Chintamanikar (1992) suggested a number of things which may mean juvenile delinquency; escape from a tight or tense situation which is un pleasant, obtain social recognition by the juveniles, to provide excitement and thrill in performing a certain behavior, take revenge against parents, a way of denying dependence upon others among others. Juvenile delinquency can also be defined in terms of various activities that young people do that are socially unacceptable. (Stephen Moore, 997).

He gave a list of examples such as stealing, disobeying the law, fighting in public (affray), disobeying parents, refusing to do domestic work, abusing people, rape, defilement, vandalism, permissiveness, refusal to attend school, possessing ammunitions, destruction of property, gambling among many other. Causative factors for juvenile delinquency The changes and challenges of adolescents most times instigate their sporadic behavior which when not fully controlled through effective parental guidance or merely meeting a good conducive atmosphere for growth and change can turn into delinquency. Robert P. Archer, 1987). He takes a more biological approach to explain the cause of delinquent behavior where by the endocrinal, biochemical and physiological process that occur in adolescents in that stage lead to increased production of hormones by the thyroid, adrenal and other glands. That eventually leads to sexual maturation, aggression and other drives that often times if not controlled lead to delinquent behavior especially among males. Adolescents are often not regarded as children and also not as adults; they are on the bridge between the two categories of people.

This exposes them to being over expected to do certain tasks by adults while they can also still do some childish tasks. This at times sparks a conflict between adolescents and adults leading to delinquency. (Robert. P. Archer 1987). The above conflict breads into a role confusion among juveniles on what exactly should be done in regard to other people’s expectations as well as regard to their own expectation. For instance issues about the extent to which they should remain obedient to elders are major concerns here, the degree of self given freedom, the kind of tasks to accomplish in society are all sensitive issues to consider.

Chintamanikar (1992) explains the cause of juvenile delinquency in psychological perspective different from Robert P. Archer’s biological approach. To him, delinquency is caused by catharsis which is a psychoanalytic theory term meaning the release of emotion in some way. He argues that delinquency emerges as a way of an ego defense for the tension caused by various frustrations through experiences juveniles face. To the above cause, the law may not apply much solution but rather psychological solution.

Allyn and Bacon (1985) in Lefton Psychology describe adolescence as an age of transition from childhood to adulthood and maturity which is often difficult. It occurs between the age of 12 – 18 years which is coupled with dramatic intellectual, social, emotional as well as physical changes. All those changes affect the way juveniles perceive the world, judge situations as well as behavior. When combined with socialization which affects or influences which affects or influences the person’s personality, the above changes alter or changes alter or change and affect moral development.

The journal; Social Background of Juvenile delinquency in Uganda published that a bad social environment like poor parenting skills, absence of parents (orphaned children), poor housing like slum areas, poor education levels, redundancy and un employment can easily bread or groom delinquent children. Adolescents growing from such environments are more likely to become delinquent that those who are growing up from healthier families and environments. It has also been found out that delinquent adolescents tend to observe and learn the behavior from their parents. Children with behavioral disorders, August 1997). A test was carried out examining the moral reasoning patterns of violent children with emotional and behavioral disorders and their aggressive parents. Thirty five children were examined and all had committed lethal violence before the age of 10 years and had already attended highly restricted day care treatment centers. Presented with six family and peer violence scenarios followed by a structured in interview, the group results suggested that each group used moral reasoning when discussing the scenarios but they focused on different moral transgressions.

It was more likely that the children adopted such violent behavior from their parent. This brings in the ideas of nature and nurture in explaining the cause of juvenile delinquency. The traits of the person which can be described by their nature and can tell how they were nurtured in life. The journal; Social Background of Juvenile Delinquency in Uganda also reported that the acts in including homicide, rape, violence, of any forms, armed robbery, assault, arson among others are categorized as delinquent and have raised concern about the youth violence and delinquency.

Stephen Moore (2001) explained the four points that must be considered when examining the statistics and occurrence of delinquent behavior. These include age, gender, class and place. Adolescent delinquents mainly commit crime when they are aged between 14 – 20 years, while there are marked difference between the crime rates of males and females, with the male rates being five times higher than those of females. Moore directly linked crime and delinquency in association with social class. Non working class youths have also registered high crime rates eight times higher that that of the middle class working youth.

He therefore recognized that delinquency is high in significant areas for instance in inner cities and less in suburbs or in the country areas. From the above, it can be realized that delinquency is rampant with males that females, some places are more vulnerable than others and that there is a significant link between crime and the class of people, in this case juveniles being more likely to commit crime. The youth is a period known as an age when there is stress on excitement and having fun, being energetic, curious and explorative and many other growth and development changes in an individual. Paul. B. Horton et. al 1998). The above characteristics are regarded to be the main cause of vulnerability of juvenile delinquency among youths (14 – 20). While exercising their freedom, adolescents tend to go beyond what is socially acceptable hence indulging in delinquent behavior. Horton et. al also observed that the search for a “good time” often lead to a clash with the law. It’s also true that youth is a period when social control is weak. The suggested that the weakness of social control and coupled with a lot of excitement and enthusiasm can lead to a drift into juvenile delinquency.

The various transitions that occur during adolescence prompt juveniles to think so highly of themselves as adults and self sufficient individuals and yet parents and other adults in the society still regard them contrary to what they think. Mainly they are known as children and that kind of dilemma for juveniles normally spark conflicts in which delinquency is manifested. (National Training Manual for Care givers). The same manual described the main social challenges that juveniles normally face which include communication problems, demand for aterial things, and demand for independence i. e. socially, economically and emotionally independent from others, peer pressure, conformity, sexual immorality, the tendency to compare themselves with others from a rather different social backgrounds, decision making problems among others. All the above problems and challenges if not addressed carefully and sensitively can blossom into juvenile delinquency. Suggested remedies for juvenile delinquency Mark Kurby et. al (1997) wrote that the call for children’s curfews is vital.

He explained that unfavorable curfews would instead lead to increased delinquent behavior rather than controlling it. Fro example asking the child to stay at home until he/she is granted permission to go out may not be a better solution. He asserts that in general terms, human beings don’t work well with strict and extreme limitation. They instead tend to act in a more wired and deviant manner if exposed to such limitation. It’s good fro that matter that parents set favorable curfews which will effectively build a healthy and conducive environment for growth as a juvenile delinquency is prevented.

The scholars above is stressed that exploration of the juveniles in their own world and environment is healthy for growth and development and it should not be denied them. Stephen Moore (2001) in his book Sociology Alive warned that a lot of care needs to be taken to avoid labeling people as criminals and unruly or with deviant behavior as this may indeed make them so and affect their entire life leaving them no chance to change. This today happens to many adolescents in schools and society at large where by the community already rejects them as bad, criminals, disobedient, un able to change son on and so forth.

These make them more rigid and remain with the maladjusted behavior they are being accused of and this demoralizes their self esteem to change. Although Moore suggested that people move away from deviant behavior as they grow older because of stability provided by employment and marriage, it’s not a guarantee that this will happen among juveniles especially if they remain redundant and un employed. Stephen Moore also suggested that about four factors which could be addressed since they are the cause of delinquent acts: Anomie – where a large number of people fail to follow the generally accepted social values.

Status frustration – where by high class youths or adolescents resort to delinquent acts due to their inability to meet certain targets like good performance in class which makes them feel they have lost their status and that every body else looks down on them. Subculture – this is another factor that ought to be addressed in order to prevent juvenile delinquency. It’s where a small portion of young people develop anti social attitudes which mean to be deviant from anti social attitudes which mean to be deviant from the main stream values of society.

The last factor is according to Moore was poor socialization – where by people who commit crimes are generally regarded to have had poor socialization. Paul B. Horton (1998) gave reasons for persistence of deviant behaviors among Juveniles but also gave a number of remedies for them. One of them was to give support to delinquents to enable them move from the deviant behaviors to more socially acceptable ones. Condemning the culprits rather makes them more deviant instead of inhibiting change in them.

He emphasized that the above however must not be excuse for one to be delinquent but be used as a way of rehabilitating the young offenders. Stephen Moore (1997) again suggested that if given conducive chances for change and rehabilitation, delinquency as a behavior can be overcome. He believes that as adolescents grow older, they steadily shift away from delinquent behavior but that can be strengthened by the conditions named above. Education and employment would be the main elements that can cause a chance in the occurrence of juvenile delinquency.

Most of the attention should focus on boys who have registered a significant number of cases concerning delinquency than girls. The reason for this is because girls’ nature is focused on docility, domesticity, conformity and looking towards marriage in the general social perspective. The above give little room foe delinquency among girls than boys who tend to be more holistic, curious and aggressive in character. The way of dealing with culprits of delinquent behavior is also significant if the behavior is to be overcome well (Practice guidelines for working with street children).

It was observed here that victims of delinquent behaviors in Uganda are mainly orphans, children from poor family background economically and those who have had poor socialization from their childhood. The main point here should be to seek understanding of the children and those who deal with them. For example, id the child is to be changed with a particular offense, before that, they should be given chance to settle the mistakes or crimes with the local authorities like L. Cs in a more amicable manner (Practice guidelines for working with street children).

The same manual above gave solutions for helping delinquent children which include the following; Reconciliation: this id where there is a peaceful settlement of the offense and the child is asked to seek pardon from the offended person. Compensation: here the offender’s side i. e. the child or his parents can give a suitable payment for the loss or damage caused or an alternative could be working or lending a hand in doing some work for a period of time. Restitution: the child or the delinquent can be asked to return something lost or stolen back to the owner.

Apology: the delinquent child can be asked to make a statement expressing that he or she is sorry for the offence made. Caution: the child here is warned not to repeat the wrong act that he or she has done with a serious promise of future punishment if the offence is repeated. If the above measures fail in preventing delinquency then the child can be remanded or taken to rehabilitative assistance centers. Conclusion In conclusion, there are several causes of juvenile delinquency which emerge from the social, psychological and biological background of the person.

The factors responsible for juvenile delinquency highly depend on the maladjustments of one or the combination of the above factors in the developmental background of the juveniles. It therefore follows that the remedies for them to be effective should tackle each background so that there can be effective adjustment (Social background of juvenile delinquency in Uganda, 2002). CHAPTER THREE Introduction This chapter gives the details and explanations of the methods the researcher used when collecting data for the study carried out.

The main features embraced in this chapter include research design, sampling design and the measuring instruments. Research Design The researcher used descriptive study design and the study carried out was conducted on a case study basis in Kampala city. It took up qualitative and evaluative methods and the results gathered were presented in tables and explained in word form. Measuring Instruments The researcher used questionnaires as a way of collecting information from respondents. Questionnaires were found appropriate and suitable to use because of the nature and category of the targeted respondents.

The respondents freely responded to the questionnaires at their convenience for purposes of validity and reliability of responses. Population and Sampling The population considered includes three categories of people who include the police, parents and care givers of both the delinquent and non delinquent children as well as the juvenile offenders themselves. The total population of respondents was forty (80) people, considering forty (40) juvenile offenders from Naguru remand home, twenty (20) parents from around Kampala, while other twenty (20) were policemen and women also from around Kampala.

Out of the forty (40) juvenile offenders, 25 were males and 15 were females. This was because the number of male juvenile offenders in the remand home out weighed that of females. Ten 10 out of twenty parents were male and female respectively while thirteen (13) of the twenty (20) police officers were males due to smaller ratios of police ladies in the police force. The kind of sampling in this case was purposive sampling because the respondents were chosen with a reason that they are most suitable to give information or ideas about juvenile delinquency.

Also the roles, positions and the background of the suggested respondents made them suitable for responding to the suggested questionnaires. Data Sources The questionnaires obtained primary information from among respondents while other secondary information was obtained from journals, articles, text books, and websites among other sources in order to get relevant literature and data about this research. CHAPTER FOUR Introduction This chapter contains the results obtained from the data collection instruments which were designed to find out the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda a case study of Kampala.

Descriptive methods have been used in presenting and analyzing data. The results have therefore been presented in tables which show frequent responses and percentages on the study’s objectives. This chapter considers all the category of respondents i. e. juvenile offenders, parents and the police respectively, the background information for each category of respondents has also been tabulated. The first tables show the demographic information of respondents and their understanding of juvenile delinquency while the last four tables answer the four main objectives of this research. Responses from juvenile offenders Table 1

The researcher measured the gender of respondents and their respective percentages were obtained as below. From the above table the number of male respondents (25) was higher than that of females (15), given the fact that there were more male juvenile offenders than female. 62. 5% were males while 37. 5% were females. Table 2: Age categories for all the respondents in this category were provided in accordance to the age bracket of those who are considered to be juvenile offenders. Most of the respondents were found to be aged between 14-16 and they were 23, followed by those in the category of17-19 and lastly those aged between 11-13.

The percentages for each were 57. 5% 35. 0% and 7. 5% respectively. Table 3: Majority of the respondents showed that they had reached secondary school level and they frequency shows 24 as opposed to that of those who had stopped in primary school which is 16. Their percentages were 60% and 40% respectively. Table 4: Out of the 40 respondents 15 understood juvenile delinquency as crimes committed by children, 13 understood it as bad behaviors possessed by children while 12 indicated that they have no knowledge about it. This makes their percentages 37. 5%, 32. 5%, and 30. % respectively. Table 5. From the above table most of the respondents indicated that the biggest factor that is responsiblefor delinquent behavior is poverty(16), this was followed by family problems (9), drug abuse (6), harrassement in schools or else where (5) and the least was any other factors. Their percentages are 40%, 22. 5%,15. 0%, 12. 5% and 10. 0% respectively. Table 6. The responses obtained in the table above show that fighting, a combination of several bad behaviors and disobeying parents are the most indulging behaviors that delinquents normally portray.

Their frequencies were 17,10,9,2, and 2, which gives their percentages as 42. 5%,25. 5%,22. 5%,5. 0% and 5. 0 % respectively. Table 7: The respondents (delinquent children) indicated that the biggest coping strategy they use is getting support from friends (18) giving 45. 0%. this was followed by escaping from those who always acuse them which had (7) giving 17. 5%, hidding delinquent behaviors scored (6), yielding 15. 0%. the above were followed by drug abuse and any other strategies that could be used by the delinquents which gave frequencies of (4) and (5) yielding 10. 0% and 5. 0%.

Table 8: The juvenile offenders mainly thought that responsible institutitions have the problem of sensitization about juvenile delinquency(13) =32. 5%, bad rehabilitative methods (11) =27. 5%, lack of a well trained staff (10) = 25. 0%. lack of time to help delinquents and any other challenges were not considered to be most pressing by the respondents hence they scored (5) =12. 5% and (10) = 2. 5%. Responses obtained from parents. Table 9: The researcher deliberately considered ten (10) respondents of each sex from among the parents making it a total of 20 respondents both male and female.

This was intended to obtain results that may not be subjected to any gender bias in finding out the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency. Table 10: Table 10 above shows the age ranges of the respondents (parents) which were classified in an interval of four. 23 – 28 and 29 – 33 had the same and biggest number of respondents i. e. the frequency of 6 each scoring 30. 0%. mean while the other respondents were in the age bracket of 39 -43 the frequency of 4 and yielding 20. 0%. the youngest and oldest parents scored the least frequencies as well as percentages,(1) =5. 0%. Table 11

Most of the parents were married and they showed the frequency of 10 =50. 0%, while single parents were with the frenquency of 7 =35. 0%. separated parents had a frequency of 2 = 10% and those who had devorced were the least with the frequency of 1 =5. 0%. Table 12. As indicated in the table above, most of the parents who responded to the questionnaires where self employed 13 = 65. 0%, those employed were next with the frequency of 6 = 30. 0%. non employed were the least with the frequency of 1 = 5. 0% Table 13. Most parents’ responses indicated that poverty was the main factor responsible for delinquent behavior (35. %), followed by drug abuse scoring 25. 0% mean while family problems and harassements faced by delinquent children scored the same (20. 0%). Table 14: The table above shows the responses obtained from parents about the indulging behaviors of delinquents. Most parents agreed that delinquents indulge in not only one behavior but a combination of bad behaviors (60. 0%), 25. 0% agreed that disobedience is their biggest problem, 10. 0% considered fighting while 5. 0% thought that delinquents indulge in sexual promiscuity. Table 15:

About the coping strategies for juvenile delinquents, the responses for parents indicated that most juvenile offenders cope by soliciting support from their friends (55. 0%), the 30. 0% indicate that its because of drug abuse, 10. 0% of them showed that they cope through escaping from the accusations set against them, while 5. 0% obtained from one person ticked that juvenile offenders cope by isolating themselves. Table 16: The respondents indicated that corruption is the biggest challenge faced by institutions in solving the problem of juvenile delinquency, (55. %), while all the rest of the challenges indicated the same score form the respondents’ i. e. unskilled staff, poor government policy, and less involvement of parents (15. 0%). Responses obtained from the police. Table 17: The researcher also took a sample of 20 respondents from the police who were sought to have reliable information about juvenile delinquency. Out of the 20 respondents, the researcher was able to get 13 males and 7 females given the fact that there were fewer female police officers available and willing to contribute to the research. Table 17:

The above table shows the age of the respondents (police officers) who responded to the questionnaires and this age was categorized in class intervals of five. Most of the respondents were aged 23 – 28 (five respondents), followed by those of 34 – 38 (four respondents). The age category of 18 -22, 39 – 43, and 44 and above had three people each, while those of 29 – 33 had only two respondents. Table 18: As regards the marital status of respondents most of the respondents were married (50. 0%), singles comprised of (30. 0%), and those who had separated were two carrying 10. 0%, while there was one widow and a widower both of them yielding 5. % each. Table 19: 65. 0% of the police respondents among the police understood juvenile delinquency as crimes committed by children, 35. 0% of them considered it to be bad behaviors possessed by children. There was no police officer who did not understand what juvenile delinquency means. Table 20: Most respondents in the table above responded to poverty and harassment to be the highest factors responsible for delinquent behavior of which they scored 25. 0% each, family problems and drug abuse scored 20. 0% while two people responded that any other factors could be responsible for juvenile delinquency which yielded 10. 0% of the responses.

Table 21: Like parents, the police officers who responded to the questionnaires also believed that delinquents indulge in more than one of the bad behaviors that were listed in the questionnaire and this scored 40. 0% of the responses, disobedience was another indulging behavior that was highly responded to with 35. 0%. The rest of the indulging behaviors as indicated above sexual promiscuity and any other behaviors scored 10% each while fighting was the least with5. 0%. Table 22: Also soliciting support from friends by the delinquents was considered to be the strongest coping strategy for the delinquents since it scored 40. %, it was followed by drug abuse with 30. 0% while escaping from accusations scored 20. 0% from the respondents. Isolation and hiding delinquent behavior had 5. 0% of the responses. Table 23: Majority of the respondents among the police officers regard lack of sensitization to be the biggest challenge faced by institutions in fighting juvenile delinquency, bad rehabilitative methods and lack of a well trained staff had similar responses to them yielding 25. 0% each and the least responses were for lack of time to help juvenile offenders which yielded 15. 0% only. Conclusion

In conclusion , considering the four objectives of this research, from the above three samples that were considered by the researcher, it was found out that most of the respondents agree that poverty is the main factor that is responsible for juvenile delinquency by all the samples. While delinquents considered fighting and disobedience to be the most indulging behavior, parents and the police officers thought that delinquents indulge in a combination of bad behaviors. Adolescents cope by getting support from their friends and escaping from those who accuse them and here they agreed with all the other respondents.

Where as the parents suggested corruption to be the biggest challenge faced by institutions in fighting delinquent behavior, for juvenile offenders and the police it was lack of sensitization that was the biggest institutional challenge in solving the problem of juvenile delinquency. CHAPTER FIVE Introduction This chapter provides the discussion of data analyzed in relation to the four objectives and research questions. It also contains the conclusion and the recommendations to the findings about the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda.

The data relates its findings to the literature discussed in chapter two where several writers discovered several facts about juvenile delinquency which the researcher has rediscovered through the findings of this research. Discussion of findings The first objective of this research was to find out the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda and this was well responded to in regard to table 5, 13 and 20 for all the sample categories i. e. juvenile offenders, parents and the police respectively. In all the samples, the issue of poverty was regarded to be the biggest factor that is responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda.

Out of 40 juveniles, 16 of them supported it, 7 of the 20 parents supported the same factor while 5 of the police officers had a similar response. Stephen Moore (2001) wrote that the solution to juvenile delinquency may not be found in remanding or punishing the juvenile offenders in some sort but in a number of various things. It there fore comes out that to eradicate juvenile delinquency other factors like poverty need to be dealt with. Other factors that were suggested by the samples included in respect of their high frequencies and percentages, family problems, harassments at school or else where, drug abuse and other or delinquents, while parents suggested the same in the same rankings as well as the police. The second objective of the research looked at identify behaviors or activities that juvenile delinquents do that are unacceptable in society. These were reflected in tables 6, 14 and 21 for all the samples. To this majority of the juvenile offenders suggested fighting to be the behavior they indulge in most followed by a combination of bad behaviors. The former yielded 42. 5% and the later 25. 0% while disobedience to parents also had 22. 5%.

Parents and the police suggested that offenders indulge most in a combination of bad behaviors followed by disobedience to parents and authority (60. 0% and 25. 0% then 40. 0% and 35. 0% respectively. These findings are related to what Stephen Moore, 1997 wrote about various activities that young people do that are socially un acceptable.. He gave a list of examples such as stealing, disobeying the law, fighting in public (affray), disobeying parents, refusing to do domestic work, abusing people, rape, defilement, vandalism, permissiveness, refusal to attend school, possessing ammunitions, destruction of property, gambling among many other.

Although not all of the above were brought out in the findings it can be worth to base on in finding a solution for juvenile delinquency. Efforts to reduce or stop the above indulging behaviors will automatically cause a change in the occurrence of juvenile delinquency. For instance if there is no fighting, disobedience to parents and other bad behaviors as shown above no one may ever complain of juvenile delinquency since the findings show that those are the indulging behaviors of delinquents.

The third objective aimed at finding out the coping strategies for survival of juvenile delinquents. The responses from the tables 7,15 and 22 which addressed this objective show that all the respondents agreed that delinquents cope through seeking support from their friends, parents and police followed that with drug abuse while the offenders put escaping from those who accuse them as their second coping strategy followed by hiding their delinquent behavior.

Other coping mechanisms like isolation and others did not get many responses as shown by the tables in chapter four. This means that delinquent behavior finds fertile grounds in areas and situations where the above practices are rampant and a better way of solving it is giving them no chance to occur. There is a special interest in knowing why getting support from friends has had many responses from among all the respondents, this means peer support can be very influential in the lives of juveniles especially when it comes to grooming such bad behaviors.

Paul. B. Horton et. al (1998) had observed that the search for a “good time” often lead to a clash with the law. He suggested that the weakness of social control and coupled with a lot of excitement and enthusiasm can lead to a drift into juvenile delinquency. The fourth and last objective of this research was to find out the challenges faced by institutions and remand homes for juvenile offenders in fighting against the behavior of juvenile delinquency.

Lack of sensitization was the highest response from among the juveniles; this was followed by bad rehabilitative methods used in such institutions like remand homes and then inadequate well trained staff to help offenders to quite the behavior of delinquency. Only five offenders suggested that their care givers in remand homes don’t give enough time to help them. This may call for the revision of the methods that are being used in remand homes to rehabilitate the young offenders.

Similar responses were obtained by the police and the parents The challenged institutions in context here may include the police, schools, communities, families, churches among others. Conclusion In conclusion, it was found out that juvenile delinquency is not in mere words but in actions where by there are many children in remand homes to the extent of congestion, the objectives of the study were arrived at where by the main factors responsible for juvenile delinquency were found out, poverty, family problems and harassments that children get in their day to day life which make them more violent and wild.

The findings also showed that delinquents mainly indulge in behaviors like fighting, disobedience to parents and authority, a combination of several behaviors that are socially regarded as bad, delinquent children were found to be mainly coping through the help of friends, drug abuse, escaping form those who accuse them and hiding their delinquent behaviors.

The main institutional challenges were also found to be poor sensitization of the public about the dangers and other negative things associated with juvenile delinquency, the presence of bad rehabilitative methods in the course of helping the juvenile offenders to change from their habits, lack of well trained staff and in ability to allocate enough time to help the juvenile offenders.

Recommendations It is recommended according to the findings of this research that efforts to fight juvenile delinquency should also focus on a variety of factors like poverty eradication, improving family life and systems to avoid family problems, the fighting of drug abuse and any other factors that can influence the life of juveniles.

From the second objective of the study and its relevant findings are its recommended that the stake holders in the fight against juvenile delinquency and the building of good morals focus on promotion of good social values and behaviors, sensitization of the public about the root causes of complex behavioral disorders like delinquency from the neglected or “simple” un acceptable behaviors. The stake holders in focus should include parents, police, remand home officials, the ministry of Ethics and Integrity, school authorities, church leaders and other responsible persons.

There should be strengthening of crime cracking units through the police force in areas like slums where acts like drug abuse are rampant, these drugs include alcohol, marijuana, myrrh, sniffing of petrol among others. Meanwhile efforts to limit the availability of such drugs should also be made by the government and other institutions in order to reduce chances of indulging into drug abuse, for example the presence of cheap alcohol so much so that the children can afford should be eliminated in order to save children from such dangers of alcohol.

School authorities and parents should put efforts to ensure enculturation of formation of good peers for good socialization which is a necessary tool to fighting the growth of juvenile delinquency through negative support of friends (negative peer influence). If such happens peers will be used as a tool to fight juvenile delinquency and any chances of its growth will be denied.

There can also be sensitization of parents, teachers and care givers about how to create a hospitable and friendly environment for children to grow which reduces the chances of becoming delinquent children. It can also be recommended to the parents and school authorities where children are mainly groomed from to create a child friendly environment which is free from stress, threats and harassments which play a big role in promotion of juvenile delinquency.

As regards the last objective of this study which talks about the challenges of responsible institutions, it would be recommended that changes and adjustments be made in the responsible institutions in their rehabilitative methods for example strengthening the sensitization of the public and schools where the children go to school about the dangers and other relevant information about juvenile delinquency, counseling services to the offenders could be made available to curb the various psycho social problems that they have faced that lead them to delinquent behavior. REFFERENCES Robert, P.

Archer (1987). Using the MMPI with Adolescents. Hilsdale. New Jersey. Allyn and Bacon (1985). Lefton Psychology. 3rd ed. The social Background of Juvenile delinquency in Uganda . Naguru Remand Home – Kampala. East African Mediacal Journals. Vol. 55. Issue 2. (www. ncjrs. gov. /App/publication) Terrie, E. Muffit, Auchom, Capsi, Guilford, (2003). Causes of conduct disorders and juveniledelinquency. New York. Mirk Karby. , Warren Kidd. , Franchine Koubel. , et. al (1997). Sociology in perspective. Heinemann educational publishers. Herly court. Jordan Hill. Oxford. London. Robert, C, Carson. James N. Burcher. , Susan Mineka (2000). Abnormal Psychology. New Delhi. India. Victims of Bullying. Vol. 13. (Graig Donellan, 2001). Independent Series. Cambridge. Britain. Guidance and Counseling for post primary institutions. Teachers Resource Book. Ministryof education and sports. Kampala – Uganda. Stephen Moore (2001). Sociology Alive. 3rd ed. Nelson Thorns Ltd. Paul H. Musen. , John, J. Conger & Jerome Kengan (1979). Child’s Development and Personality3rd ed. Behavioral Disorders. Vol. 22. No. 4 (Aug. 1997). Journal of the council for children with behavioral disorders. W. D. Wall (1979).

Constructive Education for Special Groups. Handicapped and Deviant children. UNESCO. Paris & George. G. Harp C. O Ltd. High Holborn. London. Stephen Moore (1997). Sociology Alive. Sternly Thorn. London. Paul, B. Horton & Chester L. Hunt (1998). Sociology. Library of Congress catalogue Publication. Data. U. S. A. A holistic approach to psychological support. A national training manual for care giversof orphans and other vulnerable children in Uganda. Ministry of Gender, Labor and SocialDevelopment. National Council for Children. Monitoring Child welfare. Chintamanikar (1992). Exceptional Children.

Their psychology and education. Sterling Publishers Private Ltd. New Delhi. India. Practice Guidelines for work with Street Children in Uganda. (September 1999). Department of child care and protection. Ministry of Gender, Labor and Social Development. Kenneth, M. and Norman, T. (2004). Core Higher Geography. Holder and Stoughton Edition. Scotland. London. APPENDIX I Questionnaire for juvenile offenders Dear respondent, You have been identified and considered as a resourceful person to contribute to the research that is being carried out about the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda.

Because of your role and experience, the researcher has drafted a set of questions asking for your cooperation in answering them genuinely. You are further informed that this research is strictly for academic purposes and that any information and contribution you make will be valuable and kept confidential. Thank you for you cooperation. SECTION A Please tick what is appropriate. Personal information 1. Sex: MaleFemale 2. Age: 8 -10 11 – 13 14 -16 17 – 19 3. Please tick the category corresponding to you status Primary school pupil Secondary school student Employed / working Non of the above 4.

You are also requested to tick in the box which corresponds to the level of your education which you have attained as indicated below: Primary school Secondary school 5. Please tick the category of people from whom you receive help Parents Guardian School authorities Any others (specify) 6. Explain briefly about what you understand by juvenile delinquency. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. Do you think you community is solving the problem of juvenile delinquency? Yes No Not sure SECTION B You are asked to respond to the following questions by ticking in accordance to your opinion 8.

Juvenile delinquency in Uganda is rampant because it has not been fully addressed by those responsible Agree Disagree Not sure 9. Most juvenile delinquents portray behavior that exposes them and those around them in danger Agree Disagree Not sure 10. Delinquent behavior is strengthened by the methods delinquents adopt in carrying out their activities and behaviors Agree Disagree Not sure 11. Remand homes, police and other institutions are not effective in addressing juvenile delinquency in Uganda. Agree Disagree Not sure SECTION C 12. In my view, I was led into delinquent behavior because of the following.

Poverty at home or in society Family problems Harassments Drug abuse Any others please specify………. 13. I was accused of being delinquent due to getting involved in one of the following behaviors. Disobedience to parents and authority Fighting Sexual promiscuity A combination of two or more of the above Any others please specify……………… 14. When I am / was a delinquent, the following factors helped me to sustain my behaviors. Seeking support from friends Getting involved in drug abuse Running away from those who accuse me Isolating my self from others Hiding my delinquent behavior

Any others please specify……….. ……. 15. Remand homes and other institutions cannot or could not help me to change my delinquent behaviors because of the following reasons. Poor / bad rehabilitative methods Poor sensitization of the public about juvenile delinquency Lack of enough well trained staff in handling delinquency cases Failure to give enough time to help juvenile offenders Any others please specify…………………………… SECTION D You are requested to write briefly your opinion in response to the following question 16. Briefly explain the kind of behaviors you would regard to be delinquent among young people. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17. Explain in your opinion what could be the major causes of juvenile delinquency. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18. Write briefly about what you think should be done or changed in the lives of delinquent children in order to help them change. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19. Eexplain briefly the reasons you think have stopped the progress of the efforts to prevent and stop juvenile delinquency. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… APPENDIX II Questionnaire for parents Dear parent, You have been identified and considered as a resourceful person to contribute to the research that is being carried out about the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda. Because of your role and experience, the researcher has drafted a set of questions asking for your cooperation in answering them genuinely. You are further informed that this research is strictly for academic purposes and that any information and contribution you make will be valuable and kept confidential.

Thank you for you cooperation. SECTION A Please tick what is appropriate. Personal information 1. Sex: MaleFemale 2. Age: 18 -22 23 – 28 29 -33 34 – 38 39 – 43 44 + 3. Parental status Single parent Married Divorced Separated Widow Widower 4. Occupation: Employed Self employed Non 5. Have you ever experienced / witnessed juvenile delinquency? Yes No 6. If your answer above is yes, explain briefly about what you understand by juvenile delinquency. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. Do you think you community is solving the problem of juvenile delinquency? Yes No Not sure SECTION B

You are asked to respond to the following questions by ticking in accordance to your opinion 8. Juvenile delinquency in Uganda is rampant because it has not been fully addressed by those responsible Agree Disagree Not sure 9. Most juvenile delinquents portray behavior that exposes them and those around them in danger Agree Disagree Not sure 10. Delinquent behavior is strengthened by the methods delinquents adopt in carrying out their activities and behaviors Agree Disagree Not sure 11. Remand homes, police and other institutions are not effective in addressing juvenile delinquency in Uganda.

Agree Disagree Not sure SECTION C 12. In my opinion I think juvenile delinquents are led into delinquent behavior because of the following. Poverty at home or in society Family problems Harassments Drug abuse Any others please specify………. 13. Juveniles are accused of being delinquent due to getting involved in one of the following behaviors. Disobedience to parents and authority Fighting Sexual promiscuity A combination of two or more of the above Any others please specify……………… 14. The following factors help juvenile delinquents to sustain their delinquent behaviors. Seeking support from friends

Getting involved in drug abuse Running away from those who accuse me Isolating my self from others Hiding my delinquent behavior Any others please specify……….. ……. 15. Remand homes and other institutions are challenged to help juvenile delinquents due to the following reasons. Poor / bad rehabilitative methods Poor sensitization of the public about juvenile delinquency Lack of enough well trained staff in handling delinquency cases Failure to give enough time to help juvenile offenders Any others please specify…………………………… SECTION D You are requested to write briefly your opinion in response to the following question 6. Briefly explain the kind of behaviors you would regard to be delinquent among young people. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 17. Explain in your opinion what could be the major causes of juvenile delinquency. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 18. Write briefly about what you think should be done or changed in the lives of delinquent children in order to help them change. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19.

Explain briefly the reasons you think have stopped the progress of the efforts to prevent and stop juvenile delinquency. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… APPENDIX III Questionnaire for police officers Dear respondent, You have been identified and considered as a resourceful person to contribute to the research that is being carried out about the factors responsible for juvenile delinquency in Uganda. Because of your role and experience, the researcher has drafted a set of questions asking for your cooperation in answering them genuinely.

You are further informed that this research is strictly for academic purposes and that any information and contribution you make will be valuable and kept confidential. Thank you for you cooperation. SECTION A Please tick what is appropriate. Personal information 1. Sex: MaleFemale 2. Age: 18 -22 23 – 28 29 -33 34 – 38 39 – 43 44 + 3. Marital status Single parent Married Divorced Separated Widow Widower 4. Please tick in the box corresponding to your category: Parent Guardian Non 5. Have you ever experienced / witnessed juvenile delinquency? Yes No 6.

If your answer above is yes, explain briefly about what you understand by juvenile delinquency. ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7. Do you think you community is solving the problem of juvenile delinquency? Yes No Not sure SECTION B You are asked to respond to the following questions by ticking in accordance to your opinion 8. Juvenile delinquency in Uganda is rampant because it has not been fully addressed by those responsible Agree Disagree Not sure 9. Most juvenile delinquents portray behavior that exposes them and those around them in danger Agree Disagree Not sure 10.

Delinquent behavior is strengthened by the methods delinquents adopt in carrying out their activities and behaviors Agree Disagree Not sure 11. Remand homes, police and other institutions are not effective in addressing juvenile delinquency in Uganda. Agree Disagree Not sure SECTION C 12. In my opinion I think juvenile delinquents are led into delinquent behavior because of the following. Poverty at home or in society Family problems Harassments Drug abuse Any others please specify………. 13. Juveniles are accused of being delinquent due to getting involved in one of the following behaviors.

Disobedience to parents and authority Fighting Sexual promiscuity A combination of two or more of the above Any others please specify……………… 14. The following factors help juvenile delinquents to sustain their delinquent behaviors. Seeking support from friends Getting involved in drug abuse Running away from those who accuse me Isolating my self from others Hiding my delinquent behavior Any others please specify……….. ……. 15. Remand homes and other institutions are challenged to help juvenile delinquents due to the following reasons. Poor / bad rehabilitative methods Poor sensitization of the public about juvenile delinquency

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